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Chapter 17 Industrial Supremacy

in the late 19th century, industry in the U.S
saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth
Prior to the Civil War, the steel industry in the U.S
barely developed at all
The process of making steel developed by Henry Bessemer
All these are correct
The open-hearth process of making steel
made the production of large-dimension pieces possible
In the U.S, the steel industry first emerged in
Pennsylvania and Ohio
The Pennsylvania Steel Company was created by
the Pennsylvania Railroad
In the late nineteenth, century, the needs of the American steel industry directly contributed to the further development of all the following EXCEPT
the automobile industry
The first significant oil production in the U.S occurred in
Pennsylvania
In the 1870’s, the “internal combustion engine” was developed in
Europe
In 1917, automobile production in the U.S
saw nearly five million cars on American roads
Orville and Wilbur Wright’s first successful airplane flight in 1903
took place near Kitty Hawk, NC
in the 1900, the emergence of research laboratories in American corporations
led to more diversification in corporate research
In the early 20th century, a principle goal of “Taylorism” was to
reorganized industrial production by subduing it into many simple tasks
One key to Henry Ford’s success in the mass production of automobiles was
the moving assembly line
in 1929, the base price of a Ford Model T was
$290
Which of the following statements about the American railroad industry in the late nineteenth century is FALSE
it saw Congress outlaw railroad combinations
During the late 19th century, the growth of large corporations was helped by
all these are correct
Who among the following was NOT significantly associated with the steel industry
James J. Hill
The business structure of Carnegie Steel was a good example of
vertical integration
Who among the following began to develop oil empire by taking control of competing oil companies in Ohio
John D. Rockefeller
The business structure of Standard Oil is a good example of
vertical and horizontal integration
The John D. Rockefeller, the great “curse” of business in the late 19th century was
cutthroat competition
In the American business community at the end of the 19th century,
one percent of corporations controlled one-third of all manufacturing
In the late ninetieth century, most American business millionaires
began their careers from positions of wealth and privilege
The theory of Social Darwinism
was used to justify the social consequences of industrial capitalism
In the late 19th century, Social Darwinists argued that people who failed economically in the U.S did so because
they were not fit enough to survive in the market
In the late 19th century, the first and most important promoter of Social Darwinism was
Herbert Spencer
According to the ideas expressed by Andrew Carnegie in his “The Gospel of Wealth,”
the rich had great responsibilities to society
In his books, Horatio Alger
inspired readers with stories of Americans rising from “rags-to-riches”
The late 19th century sociologist Lester Frank Ward
believed that human intelligence, not natural selection, shaped society
In the late 19th century, Daniel De Leon
led the Socialist Labor Party in the U.S
in the late 19th century, the writer Henry George argued in favor of
a single land tax to replace all other taxes
Edward Bellamy’s 1888 book, Looking Backward
imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust
In the late 19th century, due to the growth of industrial capitalism, American workers
all these are correct
During the 1870s and 1880s most of the immigrants to the U.S came from
England, Ireland, and northern Europe
Until its repeal in 1885, the Labor Contract law
put many new immigrants in debt to American businessmen
By 1900, the average yearly income of American workers
none of these answers are correct
In 1900, regarding work conditions in American factories
laborers could expect to work at least ten hours a day, six days a week
During the late 19th century, child labor in the U.S
increased significantly
The Molly Maguires were a militant
labor union in the coal industry
The great railroad strike of 1877
was launched in response to a wage cut
The Kights of Labor
began as a secret fraternal organization
At its height in 1886, the Knights of Labor were led by
Terence V. Powderly
Samuel Gompers was the leader of the
American Federation of Labor
The Haymarket Square riot of 1886
resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists

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