Describe the Gilded Age.
An era marked by personal greed and a corrupt partnership between business and politics
What factors boosted nineteenth-century railroad construction in America significantly?
Monetary aid and land grants from federal and state governments
What was the purpose of vertical integration, which was pioneered by Andrew Carnegie in the late nineteenth century?
It placed all aspects of the business, from mining raw materials to marketing and transporting the finished products, under the control of the chief executive officer
What was the main purpose of crude oil in the United States before the advent of the automobile?
Lubrication and lighting in the form of kerosene
Why did Rockefeller ultimately reorganize Standard Oil as a holding company in the late nineteenth century?
To control the key elements of production and corner the market for oil
Describe Standard Oil in the 1890s.
the company had employed horizontal and vertical integration to control more than 90% of the oil business
In her History of the Standard Oil Company published in McClure’s Magazine, how did Ida M. Tarbell characterize John D. Rockefeller?
As the man whose business methods made him a symbol of heartless monopoly capitalism
8. Where had electricity been put to use in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century?
mostly in urban areas
What did prominent business leaders of the late nineteenth century, such as J. P. Morgan, believe?
That consolidation and central control were preferable to competition
How did J. P. Morgan achieve his stunning reorganization and consolidation of businesses in the late nineteenth century?
he sometimes created a community of interest, comprised of a few directors he chose
What is an oligopoly?
A competitive business system in which several large companies control production in an industry
What idea was promoted by the theory of social Darwinism in the late nineteenth century?
progress is the result of competition, and social reforms and other modes of human interference impede progress
What message did Andrew Carnegie promote in his gospel of wealth?
Millionaires should be trustees and agents for the poor
Why did the economic theory of laissez-faire gained political clout in the late nineteenth century?
the Supreme Court increasingly was reinterpreting the Constitution to protect business
What factor explains the high voter turnout in national elections during the last three decades of the nineteenth century?
voting was an important way to get a government job
16. To what did the term solid South refer in the decades after Reconstruction?
The states of the old confederacy, which voted Democratic in every election for the next 70 years
What was the outcome of the notion that black men were a threat to white women in the South in the late nineteenth century?
an increasing number of lynching’s across the South
According to Ida B. Wells, what were the root reasons for lynching?
Economics and the shifting social structure of the South
How did American women respond to the denial of their right to vote in the late nineteenth century?
women participated in the political process through the antilynching, suffrage and temperance movements
What overshadowed the presidents who served in the last part of the nineteenth century—Rutherford B. Hayes through William McKinley?
Business development and party politics at state and local levels
How did President James A. Garfield unwittingly helped the cause of civil service reform?
He was shot by Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker
Describe the Pendleton Act of 1883. It established the Civil Service Commission and made it impossible to remove people in civil service jobs for political reasons
It established the Civil Service Commission and made it impossible to remove people in civil service jobs for political reasons
What was an important consequence of the civil service reform of the 1880s?
business became even more influential in politics than before
Having stated that “the paramount issue this year is moral rather than political,” supporters of Grover Cleveland in 1884 chagrined to learn that Cleveland had __________?
Father a child out of wedlock
Who were the most enthusiastic supporters of the tariff in the nineteenth century?
industrialists and westerners who traded in wool, hides and lumber
. What was the result of the Supreme Court’s decision in Wabash v. Illinois (1886), which reversed its ruling in Munn v. Illinois (1877)?
It led to the passage of the first federal law regulating the railroad industry
How effective was the Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation’s first federal regulatory agency?
It was so weak in its early years that it served as little more than a historical precedent
What did the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act have in common?
They testified to the nation’s growing willingness to use federal measures to intervene in big business on behalf of the public interest
The Greenback Labor Party believed that the government should issue paper currency based on __________________.
The country’s total wealth
How did President Grover Cleveland hope to increase the nation’s flagging gold reserves during the economic depression in the winter of 1894-95?
Through making a deal with a private group of bankers, headed by J.P. Morgan, to purchase gold abroad and supply it to the government
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