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Chapter 2–History of Management

Management is…
Getting work done through others; efficiency and effectiveness
strategic plan
plans that clarify how a company will position itself over the next two to five years
just-in-time inventory
system in which parts are needed to make something arrive from suppliers just as they ar eneeded at each stage of production
How old is management as a field of study?
125 years old
What did the Greeks discover over 2500 years ago?
That putting boring repititious tasks to music or a beat led people to be more productive.
They developed a system of writing that enabled them to record and keep track of goods.
recognized the need for planning,organizaing, and controlling
King Nebuchadnezzar
pioneered techniques for producing goods and using wages to motivate workers
Cottage Industry
Homes were placed in a semicircle and each part of the task was completed by a different house and sent to the next house e.g. textile industry;
Management wasn’t needed until after…
Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
1. Mass production was born
2. Hundreds of people worked under one roof
Joseph Wharton
Gave money in 1881 to the University of Pennsylvania to establish a departement to educate students for management
Henry Towne
president of the Yale and TOwne Manufacturing Company, said that managing people and work processes was just as important as engineering work. It was its own separtae field of study.
Seat of the pants management (before scientific management)
1. No standardization of procedures
2. No follow up on improvements
scientific management
studied and tested different work methods to identify the best, most efficient ways to complete a job
Frederick Taylor, 1856-1915
1. “father of scientific management”
2. He worked his way from worker, to patternmaker, then supervisor, then chief engineer
Deliberately restricting ouput, a method employed by workers in the steel plant that Frederick Taylor knew about
rate buster
someone who worked faster than everyone else
How many principles did Taylor have?
Taylor’s Four Management Principles
1. Develop a science for each element of a man’s work which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman
3. Cooperate with the men to insure all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science
4. There is almost equal division of the work and the responsbility between management and workmen
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Used motion studies to simplify work hated unnecessary motions; employment of handicapped workers, and industrial psychology
using the least amount of resources (time, money, materials, etc.) and using them in the best possible way
hitting all the targets
Time Study
timing how long it took a first class man to do the job and then using this a time was set and depending on whether you went over or under determined your pay
motion study
took actions and broke them down into single steps and eliminated those thought to be unnecessary
paradigm shift
A change in thinking that is so radical that you never go back to the original way; shift from seat of the pants management to scientific management
An instrument (clock) that measured 1/2000 of a sec; used in motion studies
Henry Gantt
1.protege and associate of Frederick Taylor, came up with Gantt schedule; dates on the x-axis and tasks on the y-axis; created deadlines and accountability
2. He believed in not punishing workers for not reaching the set number; he gave bonuses to those who exceeded, but he believed in the learning curve
Problems with Scientific Management
1. One best was to do something did not embrace change; technology improvement or natural chaos
2. worker played a passive role; a cog in a machine
3. there were no feedback systems
4. people were not self-managed
Contributions of scientific management
1. Managers can control and predict and analyze the behavior of their company
2. managers needed to acquire new management skills
3. motivation systems
Lillian gilbert
She was the first woman to get her Phd in management; she fought for workplace safety, ergonomics, child labor laws
Bureaucratic Management
Max Weber; bureaucracyy–ruling on the basis of experience, leadership, or knowledge
Administrative Management
Henri Fayol; what and how managers should manage
Human Relations Management
focuses on the psychological and social aspects of work; efficiency alone is not enought to produce organizational success and success depends on treating workers well
Mary Parker Follett
A lot of the ideas of human relations management can be traced back to her; she was a social worker who began speaking about management practices in her 50s
Follet’s take on conflict
She developed ideas regarding constructive conflict and coordination; conflict could be beneficial
Ways of Dealing with conflict
1. domination–victory of one side over the other; not successful in the long run
2. compromise–settle our controversies; but this requires giving up something from both sides
3. integrative conflict resoluion–have both parties indicate their preferences and then work together to find an alternatie that meets the needs of both
Follet’s Four Fundamental Principles of organizations
1. coordination as reciprobal relationg all the factors ine a situation
2. coordination by direct contact of the responsbile people concerned
3. coordination in the early stages
4. coordination as a continuing process
Elton Mayo, 1880-1948
australian man most noted for his Hawthorne studies
Hawthorne Studies
Two groups of six experienced ladies were separated from the rest by a 10 foot partition, and consistently despite light changing levels, increased or decreased rests, or pay they consistently came out more productive:
Conclusion to Hawthorne Studies
those conducting the research concluded that it was because these women were receiving higher amounts of attention and the fact that they were consulted about changes and were allowed to negate if so inclined; but it’s also because of the team aspect

So increased attention from managment and cohesive team bonding

Hawthorne studies also showed for the first time that…
human factors related to wok were found to be more important than the physical conditions or desgin of the work–worker’s attitudes and feelings affected their work
Chester Barnard
cooperation and acceptance of authority
a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons
People will be indifferent to managerial directives if they…
are understood
are consistent with the purpose of the organization
are compatible with the people’s personal interests
can actually be carried out by those people
Willing Cooperation ws gained through three things
1. securing essential services form individuals through incentives
2. unifying the poeple in the roganization
3. providing a system of communication

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