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Chapter 2 Leadership and Management

Leadership
interpersonal behavior; one of management’s many functions; requires more complex skills than management; increases productivity by maximizing workforce effectiveness
Management
emphasizes control-control of hours, costs, salaries, overtime, use of sick leave, inventory, and supplies
The essentials to the long-term viability of today’s healthcare organizations?
sound management and strong leadership skills
Management
the act or manner of guiding or taking change, or handling, direction, or control; process of leading and directing all or part of an organization through the deployment and manipulation of resources
Aspects of a Manager
assigned position within the formal organization; have legitimate source of power; expected to carry out specific functions, duties, and responsibilities; emphasize control, decision making, decision analysis, and result; manipulate people, the environment, money, time, and other resources to achieve organizational goals; have a greater formal responsibility and accountability for rationality and control than leaders; direct willing and unwilling subordinates
Leaders
those individuals who are out front, taking risks, attempting to achieve shared goals, and inspiring others to action; only a person’s behavior determines if he or she holds a leadership role
Difference between a manager and a leader
a manager is one who accomplishes, has the responsibility, and conducts; a leader is the person who influences and guides direction, opinion, and course of action
Characteristics of a leader
often do not have delegated authority but obtain their power through other means (influence); have wider variety of roles than do managers; may or may not be part of the formal organization; focus on group process, information gathering, feedback, and empowering others; emphasize interpersonal relationships; direct willing followers; have goals that may or may not reflect those of the organization
10 Fatal Leadership Flaws
lack of energy and enthusiasm; acceptance of their own mediocre performance, lack of clear vision and direction; having poor judgment; not collaborating; not walking the talk; resisting new ideas; not learning from mistakes; a lack of interpersonal skills; failing to develop others
4 overriding principles of scientific management
using time, motion, and expertise of experienced workers could be designed to promote the greatest efficiency of time and energy; scientific personnel system must be established so workers can be hired, trained, and promoted based on their technical competence and abilities; workers should be able to view how they “fit” in the organization and how they contribute by the use of financial incentives for work accomplished; managers and workers should be cooperative and interdependent, and work should be shared equally
Luther Gulick’s seven activities of management
planning, organization, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting (POSCORB)
The Management Process
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Controlling
Planning
encompasses philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and rules; carrying out long and short range projections; determining a fiscal course of action and managing planned change
Organizing
includes establishing the structure to carry out plans, determining the most appropriate type of patient care delivery, and grouping activities to meet unit goals. Other functions involve working within the structure of the organization and understanding and using power and authority appropriately
Staffing
functions consist of recruiting, interviewing, hiring, and orienting staff. Scheduling, staff development, employee socialization, and team building are also often included as staffing functions.
Directing
includes several staffing functions; usually entails human resource management responsibilities, such as motivating, managing, conflict, delegating, communicating, and facilitating collaboration
Controlling
include performance appraisals, fiscal accountability, quality control, legal and ethical control, and professional and collegial control
Human relations era
during the industrial revolution when great numbers of relatively unskilled laborers working in large factories on specialized task; developed the concepts of participatory and humanistic management, emphasizing people rather than machines
The basic principles of the human relations management
participative decision making or participative management
Hawthrone effect
indicated that people respond to the fact that they are being studied, attempting to increase whatever behavior they feel will continue to warrant attention
Theory X and Theory Y, regarding managerial attitudes about employee
Theory X managers believed that their employees are basically lazy, need constant supervision and direction and are indifferent to organizational needs; Theory Y managers believed that their workers enjoy their work, are self-motivated, and are willing to work hard to meet personal and organizational goals
Great Man theory
from Aristotelian philosophy, asserts than some people are born to lead, whereas others are born to be led
Trait Theory
assume that some people have certain characteristic or personality traits that make them better leaders
Behavioral Theory
leaders style of leadership; leadership styles included authoritarian and democratic leaders
Authoritarian Leader
strong control is maintained over the work group; others are motivated be coercion; other are directed with commands; communication flows downward; decision making does not involve others; emphasis is on difference in status; criticism is punitive
Democratic Leader
less control is maintained; economic and ego awards are used to motivate; others are directed through suggestions and guidance; communication flows up and down; decisions making involves others; emphasis is on “we” rather than “I” and “you;” criticism is constructive
Authoritarian Leadership
results in well-defined group actions that are usually predictable reducing frustration in the work group and giving members a feeling of security; productivity high, but creativity, self-motivation, and autonomy reduced; found in armed forces
Democratic Leadership
appropriate for groups who work together for extended periods of time, promotes autonomy and growth in individual workers; particularly effective when cooperation and coordination between groups are necessary
Laissez-faire leader
is permissive, with little or no control; motivates by support when requested by the group or individuals; provides little or no direction; uses upward and downward communication between members of the group; disperses decision making throughout group; places emphasis on the group; does not criticize
Laissez-faire leadership
appropriate when problem are poorly defined and brainstorming is needed to generate alternative solutions
Situational and Contingency Leadership theory
believe that leaders moved dynamically along the continuum in response to each new situation; leadership style should vary according to the situation or individuals involved
Law of situation
the situation should determine the directives given after allowing everyone to know the problem
Contingency approach
suggesting that no one leadership style is ideal for every situation; the interrelationships between the group’s leader and its members were most influenced by the manager’s ability to be a good leader; key variables included the task to be accomplished and the power of the leader’s position
Interactional theory
is that leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leader’s personality and the specific situation
Systems Theory
people are complex, highly variable, multiple motives for doing things; people’s motives do not stay constant but change over time; goals can differ in various situations; person’s performance and productivity are affected by the nature of the task and by his or her ability, experience, and motivation; no single leadership strategy is effective in every situation
The three basic elements of leadership exchange
the leader, including his or her personality, perceptions, and abilities; the followers, with their personalities, perceptions, and abilities; the situation within which the leader and the followers function, including formal and informal group norms, size, and density
Leadership effectiveness
requires the ability to use problem-solving process; maintain group effectiveness; communicate well; demonstrate leader fairness; competence, dependability, and creativity; and develop group identification
Characteristics of Theory Z
include consensus decision making, fitting employees to their jobs, job security, slower promotions, examining the long-term consequences of management decision making, quality circles, guarantee of lifetime employment, establishment of strong bonds of responsibility between superiors and subordinates, and a holistic concern for the workers
Three major work empowerment structures within the organization
opportunity, power, and proportion
The 4 developmental levels that influence productivity and worker satisfaction
reactive, responsive, proactive, and high-performance teams
Reactive leader
focuses on the past, is crisis driven, and is frequently abusive to subordinates
Responsive leader
the leader is able to mold subordinates to work together as a team, although the leader maintains most decision-making responsibility
Proactive leader
the leader and followers become more future oriented and hold common driving values; management and decision making are more participative
High-performance teams
maximum productivity and worker satisfaction are apparent
Collaborative practice matrix
highlights the framework for the development and ongoing support of relationships between and among professionals working together
Transformational leadership
both leaders and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality; that there are two primary types of leaders in management, the transactional and the transformational leader
Transactional leader
the traditional manager, concerned with day to day operations; identifies common values; is a caretaker; inspires others with vision; has long-term vision; looks at effects; empowers others
Transformational leader
manager who is committed, has a vision, and is able to empower others with this vision; focuses on management tasks; uses trade offs to meet goals; does not identify shared values; examines causes; uses contingency reward
The five practices for exemplary leadership
modeling the way; inspiring a shared vision; challenging the process; enabling other to act; encourage the heart
Beauty and Beastly effect
their attempt to test the interaction effects of leader gender, leader attractiveness, and leadership styles on follower’s trust and loyalty found that attractive females using transformational leadership skills struggled more than less attractive female s to gain follower support and trust; did not occur with males or with the transactional leadership skills
Full range leadership theory
suggests that there are 9 factors impacting leadership style and its impact on followers; 5 transformational, 3 transactional, and 1 is a non-leadership or laissez-faire leadership factor
Inspirational motivation (transformational)
characterized by the leader’s articulation and representation of vision
Idealized influence (attributed)
relies on the charisma of the leader to create emotional ties with followers that build trust and confidence
Idealized influence (behavior)
results in the leader creating a collective sense of mission and values and prompting followers to act upon these values
Intellectual stimulation
leaders challenge the assumptions of follower’s beliefs as well as analyze subordinates problems and possible solutions
Individualized consideration
occurs when the leader is able to individualize his or her followers, recognizing and appreciating their unique needs, strengths, and challenges
Contingent reward
the first transactional factor; the leader is task oriented in providing followers with meaningful rewards based on successful task completion
Active management by exception
the second transitional factor; suggests that the leader watches and searches actively for deviations from rules and standards and takes corrective actions when necessary
Management by exception passive
the third transactional factor; describes a leader who intervenes only after errors have been detected or standards have been violated
Absence of Leadership
the ninth factor; the laissez-faire; contrast to the first 8 factors
Leadership competencies
leadership skills and behavior, organizational climate and culture; communicating vision; and managing change; skills, knowledge, and abilities
Integrated leader-managers possess 6 distinguishing traits
They think long term; they look outward, toward the larger organization; they influence others beyond their own group; they emphasize vision, values, and motivation; they are politically astute; They think in terms of change and renewal

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