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Chapter 27

Factors behind the country’s post war economic boom
-soldiers coming home
-GI Bill
-demand increased due to people saving up in the past
-cold war (concern over S.U. expansion kept american defense spending high and people employed
How did President Truman advance the cause of civil rights?
Created President’s Commission on Civil Rights and for Armed Forces
How did midterm elections of 1946 have an unfavorable impact on organized labor?
Truman threatened to draft strike workers to army
Why did Truman refer to the 80th Congress as “do-nothing”?
Congress ignored Truman’s domestic proposals. Blaming congress for everything.
In what ways did truman’s fair deal meet with mixed results?
Somd are passed and some arent. Health insurance is not passed, aid to farmers isnt passed. Minimum wage goes up, fixing cities (better housing), urban renewal, social security coverage to 10 million people.
Business expansion: conglomerates and franchises
-conglomerates created: International Telephone and Telegraph, General Electric, xerox
-franchises: fast food restaurants
-improved economy
-business expansion
Suburban expansion: flight from the cities
-85% of new homes built were in the suburbs
-embobied American dream of house, good schools, safe environment for kids, neighbors
-large cities were surrounded by suburbs
The baby boom
-soldiers returning, settling into family life
-birthrate went up
-largest generation in history
-confidence in continuation of booming economy
-desire to start large family
Dramatic increase in leisure time
-people working a lot, increased their vacation time for the year
-demand to spend $
-sports (fishing, bowling, golf)
-watched sports, went to movies
Increases in use of automobile
-made commuting possible
-car sales rose
-more people to buy more cars
-inexpensive gasoline
Rise of consumerism
-new products offered to buy
-consumer demand
-ex: washing machines, freezers, blenders, tape recorders, televisions, BBQ, pools
-bought on credit, did not pay for product right away
Planned obsolescence
Manufacturers encourages consumers to keep products up-to-date. Carmakers offered new models every year so consumers would purchase more. Americans expected new and better products.
Dr. Jonas Salk
He developed a vaccine for the crippling disease polio. It was extremely effective, the government sponsored a free vaccination program for kids. By 1974, only 7 new polio cases were reported in the country.
Some of the popular shows produced?
-I Love Lucy
-Howdy Doody Show
Kinds of subjects tv presented
Idealized white America
Kinds of subjects tv avoided
-no blacks
-poverty
-racial diversity
-anything controversial
How radio changed to compete with television?
Turned to local programming of news, weather, music and community issues
What role did radio play in popularizing african american culture?
-on different stations
-blacks had fewer tvs than whites so they appreciated radio
-radio’s attempt to counter the mass popularity of TV by targeting specific audiences
How did movies change to compete with tv?
-larger (size) screens
-color
-surround (stereophonic) sound
-smell-o-vision/Aroma-Rama
-drive-ins
-3D
-CinemaScope: wide-angle image on screen
Who were the most famous beat writers?
-Jack Kerouac
-Allen Ginsberg
What were the movement’s chief characteristics?
-freeform
-noncomformity (traditional)
-no rhyming
Who helped to popularize rock ‘n’ roll?
-Alan Freed (DJ)
-elvis
-little richard
-chuck berry
-billy haley and his comets
What were the rock’s chief characteristics?
-help bridge gap between white and black teens
-lyrics teens can relate to (love, teens, cars, problems of being young)
Causes of decaying cities:
-poverty
-whites were leaving the cities
-african americans were poor and were moving to the cities
Solutions offered:
-Urban renewal
-were supposed to build 810,000 but failed
-needed whites to come to cities and spend $
-parking lots, parks, factories, malls, and highways were built
Effects of solution:
Referred to as “urban removal”
Why was it called “Other America”?
25% of Americans were living below the poverty line
National Housing Act:
Teared down old neighborhoods and built low income houses
Housing and urban development
Aided in improving conditions in inner cities
Causes of discrimination against mexican americans
Stayed in U.S. Illegally after their work ended
Solutions offered:
-registered mexican american voters and promoted candidates who would represent their interests
-greater political activity amonst mexican americans
Causes of economic hardship for native americans
Reservation life
Solutions offered:
-termination policy
-bureau of Indian Affairs
Effects of solutions:
Relocated them to cities
Termination policy
-no more economic support
-discontinued reservation system
-distributed tribal lands among individual native americans
Bureau of Indian Affairs
-Helped native americans resettle in cities
-relocated 35,000 native americans to cities
Braceros
Mexicans who were hired to work in the U.S. for a period of time and then return to mexico. But, many didnt and stayed illegally to escape poor economy in mexico.
Rock ‘n’ roll
-Music for both whites and blacks
-parents didnt like this, teens did
Beat movement
Expressed the social and literary noncomformity of artists, poets, and writers
Federal communications commission
-The govt agency that regulates and licenses televisions, telephone, telegraph, radio, and other communications industries
-allowed 500 new stations to broadcast
Mass media
Means of communication that reach large audiences
Franchise
Company that offers similar products or services in many locations
Conglomerates
A major corporation that includes a number of smaller companies in unrelated industries
Dixiecrats
Southern Democrats, to protest Truman’s civil rights policy, walked out if the 1948 Democratic National Convention and formed the states’ rights democratic party
GI Bill of Rights
Provided financial and educational benefits for WWII veterans
Fair Deal
Truman’s economic program-an extension of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal-which included measures to increase the min wage, to extend social security coverage, and to provide housing for low income families

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