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Chapter 3 – Hardware, Software and Network

consists of electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output , and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software. (pg56)
Input Hardware
devices are the keyboard, mouse, touch pad/screen, document, scanners, and bar-code (Universal Product Code) scanners like those used in groceries stores, microphones. (pg56)
Categories of Computer Hardware
Categories of Computer Hardware
Storage: Magnetic disk, Optical disk, Flash/thumb drive, magnetic tape.

Input: Keyboard, Mouse, Touch pad/screen, Scanner, UPC Reader, Microphone, wired/wireless in.

Process: CPU, Main Memory, Special Function Cards.

Output: Video Display, Speakers, Projector, Printer, Plotter, Wired/Wireless out.

Output Hardware
devices that are externally connected to the computer.
Binary Digits (called Bits)
Binary Digits (called Bits)
is either a zero or a one. Used for computer data because they are easy to represent electronically. (pg57)
Consists of only two digits:0 and 1. Allows digital devices to represent virtually any number simply by using 0s and 1s.
the numbers keep repeating themselves.
bits are grouped into 8-bit chunks called bytes. For a person’s name, one character will fit into one byte.
Number of bits to represent one character
Operating System
A program that controls a computers resources (pg59)
Provide some service, process email, others process websites; others process large data bases, shared data bases, multi-user games,iPad or other device applications. (pg60)
Server Farm
A massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use. Server farms provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts, as well as many large-scale Internet services. (pg60)
Client (OS)
Operating system: Programs that control the client computer’s resources.
Application Programs: Applications that are processed on client computers. (pg61)
Operating System: Programs that control the server computer’s resources.

Application Systems: Applications that are processed on server computer. (pg61)

Cloud Computing
A system in which all computer programs and data are stored on a central server owned by a company and accessed virtually. – owned by Google for example.

In a sense, cloud computing is a form of CPU-cycle inventory consolidation.

Application Software
performs a service or a function.
Horizontal-market application
Software provides capabilities common across all organizations and industries.
Vertical-market application
software serves the needs of a specific industry.
Client-Server Applications
Applications that process code on both the client and the server. (64)
Thick-Client application
is an application that must be preinstalled on the client.
They can be larger, they do not have to be downloaded while the user waits and they can have ore features and functions.
Thin-Client Application
is one that runs within a browser and need not be preinstalled. (pg64)
This preferred to thick-clients because they require only a browser; no special client software needs to be preinstalled.
Horizontal Applications
Off the shelf
Vertical Applications
Off the shelf and then customized
One-of-a-kind applications
Custom Developed
Custom-Developed Software
Source Code
is computer code as written by humans and that is understandable by humans.
Machine Code
Source code is compiled into machine code that is processed by a computer. This code is not generally understood by humans and cannot be be modified.
Closed Source
the source code is highly protected and only available to trusted employees and carefully vetted contracters
Open Source
anyone can obtain this code from the source project’s website. Programmers alter or add to this code depending in their interests and goals.
Devices connected together to allow communication and exchange of data
Local Area Network {LAN}
Computer network in a small area such as an office building.
Wide area networks {WAN}
connects computers at different geographical sites. Most WAN’s are internets.
The Internet
the collection of networks that you use when you send e-mail or access websites.
is a set of rules that two communicating devices follow. The way that they ‘talk’ to each other.
Internet Service Provider. You are connecting to computers not physically located at your site.
TCP/IP Architecture
{TCP} Transmission Control Protocol
{IP} Internet Protocol

Five protocol types arranged in layers:
TOP LAYER: concern protocols for applications {like browsers & web servers
NEXT TWO LAYERS: concern protocols about data communications across any internet, including The Internet.
BOTTOM TWO LAYERS: involve protocols that concern data transmission within a network.

Hyper Text Markup Language
A language which means that special codes are used to define elements.
World Wide Web; a system of interlinked hypertext documents contained on the internet
encryption technique that secures data traveling across the public Internet as if it were traveling across the corporate LAN.
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (not secure): is the protocol used between browsers and web servers
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure: you have a secure transmission and you can safely send sensitive data like credit card numbers.
Uniformed Resource Locater
Information System (Human)
* Contains Information Technology
* Orderly Process
* More Software
* End user driven & used
* Transfers information among systems
* Vertical (software serves the needs of a specific industry.)
* Logistics (the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers or corporations.)
* the “Cargo”
Information Technology (Tools/Real estate)
* More Hardware Related
* Supports Information System
* Horizontal (Software provides capabilities common across all organizations and industries.)
* Infrastructure (the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization.)
* the “Highway”
How do you adapt to change? (Technological…newly implemented automated systems and/or processes
* Training – look foe ways to increase your knowledge which will increase your value.
* Adaptability
* Lifelong learner
BIS Project (ex.: Migrating SAVE MAS to SMA100ERP & migrating MS SQL Data Base
1st Phase: Determine business requirements
Why do BIS Projects fail?
1. No buy/in from the Top
* CEO approves project. (Does this equal Buy-in? No.) CEO needs to be onboard. CEO needs to believe in the project. He needs to make sure it succeeds (by making sure you have all the resources you need). and an attitude of “Failure is Not an Option”

2. Incorrect Business Requirements
* Make sure the business requirements support the process you are trying to achieve.
* Make sure you are putting the proper people/training/practices in place to support the business process effectively.

3. Having a BIS that does not support correct business requirements.
* ex. Using the wrong software or hardware
* GIGO – Garbage in – Garbage out

4. Having people not able to support the system.
* Properly trained employees.
* Make sure you have people that are capable in supporting the system.
* no input from the people who will be maintaining the system.
* no input from the people using the system – the end users.

5. Having no buy/in from the Bottom
* Workers need to believe in the project.

What about Feedback from the Workers?
* Continuous improvement – looking for the things/areas that are not so efficient. – Assessing your weaknesses to determine where improvements can be made.
Feedback Loops
Get info feedback —> Take action —>
A global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information.
The worldwide electronic network including Web pages, chat rooms, and online forums.
An extension of an intranet that is only available to authorized outsiders, such as customers, partners, and suppliers
a network designed for the exclusive use of computer users within an organization that cannot be accessed by users outside the organization
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IP Address
A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Uniform Resource Locator
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