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Chapter 3 – Managing Systems Projects

action words
Words that signal a sequence of events
activity
Basic units of work that a project manager plans, schedules, and monitors
calendar view
Shows tasks as an overlay on the actual calendar
code review
A type of structured walk-through that takes place during the SDLC
concurrent task
One of several tasks that can start at the same time
critical path
A series of tasks whose delay would affect a project’s completion date
Critical Path Method
Developed by private industry to manage complex projects
dependent tasks
Tasks that must be completed one after another
duration
The amount of time it will take to complete a task
event
Examples may include the start of user training or completion of interviews
Gantt chart
Horizontal bar chart that represents a set of tasks
Microsoft Project
Program having a dominant share of the project management software industry
milestone
Recognizable reference point that can be used to monitor progress
network diagram
Microsoft’s name for a PERT chart
open source
Type of program that is supported by a community of users and developers
predecessor task
Must be completed before another task can start
program evaluation review technique
Developed by the U.S. Navy to manage very complex projects
project coordinator
Handles administrative responsibilities for a project team
project creep
Process in which projects expand gradually without specific authorization
project leader
Used interchangeably with the term project manager
project management
Includes planning, scheduling, and reporting on information system development
project manager
A project team member who is usually a senior systems analyst
project monitoring
Requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating a project team’s workload
project planning
Includes identifying all project tasks and estimating their completion time
project reporting
Includes regular progress reports to management, users, and the project team
project scheduling
Involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts
project status meetings
Opportunity for project manager to seek input and hold brainstorming sessions
project triangle
Includes three legs, which often represent cost, scope, and time
qualitative risk analysis
Estimates the probability that a risk will occur and its degree of impact
quantitative risk analysis
Can involve a modeling process called what-if analysis
risk
An event that could affect a project negatively
risk identification
Lists each risk and assesses the likelihood that it could affect a project
risk management
Process whose purpose is to minimize the impact of risks on a project
risk management plan
Includes a review of internal or external factors that might affect a project
risk response plan
Proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe a plan to deal with it
slack time
Amount of time a task can be late without delaying a project’s completion date
successor task
A concurrent task dependent upon a single prior task
task
Has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources
task box
A rectangular box in a PERT/CPM chart
task group
Combination of several activities that contain subsidiary tasks
task id
A number or code that provides unique identification
task name
Should be brief and descriptive, but does not have to be unique in a project
task pattern
Can involve dependent, multiple successor, and multiple predecessor tasks
weight
An importance value that managers assign to each time estimate
work breakdown structure
Involves breaking a project down into a series of smaller tasks
a. U.S. Navy
The Program Evaluation Review Technique was developed by the ________ to manage very complex projects.
a. U.S. Navy
b. IT industry
c. U.S. Army
d. private sector
b. False
A project manager’s best course of action is to attempt to handle all situations single-handedly and avoid alerting management until a problem is serious.
a. True
b. False
d. project leader
In a systems project, the program manager, or ________ , usually is a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large.
a. project analyst
b. project coordinator
c. project programmer
d. project leader
c. PERT chart
A project manager can use a ________ to convert task start and finish times to actual dates by laying out an entire project on a calendar.
a. quantitative risk analysis
b. structured walk-through
c. PERT chart
d. Gantt chart
b. False
A task ID does not need to be unique in a project and should be brief and descriptive.
a. True
b. False
c. scheduling
Project ________ involves selecting and staffing a project team and assigning specific tasks to team members.
a. reporting
b. planning
c. scheduling
d. monitoring
a. dependent
The pattern of tasks for a large project can be broken down into ________ tasks, multiple successor tasks, and multiple predecessor tasks.
a. dependent
b. milestone
c. activity
d. critical
b. critical path
The completion of a project will be delayed if any task on the ________ falls behind schedule.
a. risk management plan
b. critical path
c. work breakdown structure
d. testing review
c. structured walk-throughs
Many project managers institute ________ , which are reviews of a project team member’s work by other members of the team.
a. predecessor tasks
b. project triangles
c. structured walk-throughs
d. probable-case estimates
b. Gantt charts
When the project manager provides status reports to management and users, ________ are often included as a means for showing the project’s status graphically.
a. critical paths
b. Gantt charts
c. task patterns
d. design reviews
a. successor
If a predecessor task has more than one successor task, the predecessor task’s finish time is used to determine the start time for all ________ tasks.
a. successor
b. concurrent
c. predecessor
d. dependent
c. Apptivo
________ offers several levels of business applications, including project management, and has a plan that is available free of charge with unlimited duration.
a. Microsoft Project
b. RiskyProject Professional
c. Apptivo
d. GanttProject
d. risk response plan
The ________ is effective if the overall impact of a risk can be reduced by triggering timely and appropriate action.
a. quantitative analysis
b. qualitative analysis
c. risk management plan
d. risk response plan
d. business requirements
When an information system does not meet ________ , causes might include inadequately defined scope, imprecise targets, and lack of change control procedures.
a. budget requirements
b. probable-case estimates
c. schedule requirements
d. business requirements
d. Project management
________ for IT professionals includes planning, scheduling, monitoring and controlling, and reporting on information system development.
a. Quantitative risk analysis
b. Risk management
c. Qualitative risk analysis
d. Project management
c. constraints
In order for a project to be successful, there must be a balance of cost, scope, and time against a set of ________ .
a. milestones
b. activities
c. constraints
d. tasks
c. Microsoft
________ states that in most projects, at least one side of the project triangle is fixed, and you are not likely to change it.
a. Apptivo
b. GanttProject
c. Microsoft
d. MIS CourseMate
b. project leader
In a systems project, the program manager, or ________ , usually is a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large.
a. project programmer
b. project leader
c. project analyst
d. project coordinator
d. project coordinator
Most large projects have a project manager and a ________ who handles administrative responsibilities for the team.
a. project programmer
b. project leader
c. project analyst
d. project coordinator
a. monitoring
Project ________ requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload.
a. monitoring
b. planning
c. scheduling
d. reporting
d. reporting
Effective project ________ requires strong communication skills and a sense of what others want and need to know about the project.
a. monitoring
b. planning
c. scheduling
d. reporting
c. PERT/CPM
The two primary chart types that should be understood before creating work breakdown structures are Gantt charts and ________ charts.
a. Microsoft Project
b. WBS
c. PERT/CPM
d. risk management
d. Gantt chart
The ________ was developed by a mechanical engineer and management consultant over 100 years ago.
a. Critical Path Method
b. PERT
c. WBS
d. Gantt chart
c. U.S. Navy
The Program Evaluation Review Technique was developed by the ________ to manage very complex projects.
a. U.S. Army
b. private sector
c. U.S. Navy
d. IT industry
d. bottom-up
PERT is a ________ technique because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks.
a. top-down
b. quantitative
c. qualitative
d. bottom-up
d. network diagram
The term ________ is the Microsoft equivalent to the PERT chart.
a. probable-case estimate
b. worst-case estimate
c. project triangle
d. network diagram
c. activity
Any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources, such as people, time, or money, is referred to as a task or a(n) ________ .
a. milestone
b. event
c. activity
d. estimate
a. milestone
A(n) ________ , or event, is a recognizable reference point that you can use to monitor a project’s progress.
a. milestone
b. gateway
c. activity
d. task
c. duration
Task ________ can be measured in person-days, which are units that represent the work that one person can complete in one day.
a. groups
b. patterns
c. duration
d. management
b. probable-case
Prior to assigning a weight to each estimate, a project manager will make a best-case estimate, a(n) ________ estimate, and worst-case estimate for each task.
a. risk-response
b. probable-case
c. person-day
d. task-pattern
a. 4
A common approach to calculating expected task duration is to use a ratio of B = 1, P = ________ , and W =1.
a. 4
b. 1
c. 2
d. 5
d. human resources
Assembling and guiding a development team is part of the ________ factor that is considered when developing duration estimates.
a. project size
b. constraints
c. experience with similar projects
d. human resources
b. large
Developing time and cost estimates using the experience method may not be reliable for projects involving ________ systems.
a. medium-size
b. large
c. small
d. Web-based
d. groups
Task ________ can be used when managing a complex project with many tasks.
a. boxes
b. patterns
c. names
d. groups
b. boxes
In a PERT/CPM chart, project tasks are shown as task ________ , arranged in the sequence in which they must be performed.
a. names
b. boxes
c. patterns
d. groups
a. Dependent
________ tasks must be completed one after another.
a. Dependent
b. Concurrent
c. Open source
d. Structured
d. concurrent
When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ________ task.
a. dependent
b. multiple predecessor
c. predecessor
d. concurrent
a. predecessor
Often, two or more concurrent tasks, depend on a single prior task, which is called a ________ task.
a. predecessor
b. structured
c. successor
d. dependent
c. statement
Task patterns can be identified by looking carefully at the wording of the task ________ .
a. name
b. ID
c. statement
d. summary
c. patterns
Task ________ determine the order in which tasks are performed.
a. groups
b. names
c. patterns
d. IDs
b. critical path
If the series of tasks, known as the ________ , is delayed, the completion date of the overall project will be affected.
a. risk response plan
b. critical path
c. design review
d. testing review
b. slack
The amount of time that a task can be late without delaying the completion date of an entire project is called ________ time.
a. risk
b. slack
c. worst-case
d. creep
d. structured walk-through
Many project managers have project members review the work of other team members, which is referred to as a ________ .
a. qualitative risk analysis
b. bottom-up technique
c. risk management plan
d. structured walk-through
b. testing
Depending on the phase of the SDLC, a structured walk-through may be referred to as a design review, code review, or ________ review.
a. risk
b. testing
c. duration
d. gateway
c. status
A project ________ meeting provides team members with an opportunity to share information, discuss common problems, and explain new techniques.
a. monitoring
b. scheduling
c. status
d. reporting
a. management
Members of a project team regularly report their progress to the project manager, who in turn reports to ________ and users.
a. management
b. software developers
c. network administrators
d. project leaders
d. dependencies
When constructing a PERT/CPM chart from a task list, the first step is to identify the tasks, determine task ________ , and enter the task name, ID, and duration.
a. groups
b. risks
c. patterns
d. dependencies
d. latest
If a successor task has more than one predecessor task, the ________ finish time of the predecessor tasks should be used to determine the start time for the successor task.
a. earliest
b. quickest
c. previous
d. latest
c. Microsoft
________ invites prospective customers to view an extensive demo that showcases the features of their Project program, which holds the dominant share of the project management software market.
a. Apptivo
b. GanttProject
c. Microsoft
d. Intaver Institute
d. calendar view
Microsoft Project’s ________ shows tasks, similar to a PERT chart, as an overlay on the actual calendar.
a. task group
b. gateway
c. structured walk-through
d. calendar view
b. open source
GanttProject is a free ________ program that is supported by a community of users and developers.
a. design review
b. open source
c. code review
d. testing review
d. integrated
A significant advantage of ________ project management software is that it allows the project manager to adjust schedules, estimates, and resource assignments rapidly.
a. quantitative
b. gateway
c. structured
d. integrated
b. Risk management
________ is the process of identifying, analyzing, anticipating, and monitoring risks to minimize their impact on a project.
a. Best-case estimation
b. Risk management
c. Probable-case estimation
d. Weighting
d. management
A risk ________ plan includes a review of a project’s scope, stakeholders, budget, schedule, and any other internal or external factors that might affect a project.
a. identification
b. response
c. analysis
d. management
b. Qualitative
________ risk analysis evaluates each risk by estimating the probability that it will occur and the degree of impact.
a. Dependent
b. Qualitative
c. Quantitative
d. Independent
c. Quantitative
________ risk analysis is performed to better understand the actual impact in terms of dollars, time, project scope, or quality.
a. Dependent
b. Qualitative
c. Quantitative
d. Independent
b. response
A risk ________ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate risk and describe an action plan to deal with it.
a. identification
b. response
c. management
d. analysis
b. Intaver Institute
________ offers an add-on risk management package for Microsoft Project, which includes a color-coded matrix that reflects risk probability and impact.
a. GanttProject
b. Intaver Institute
c. Apptivo
d. Final Four Industries
a. business
To be successful, an information system must satisfy ________ requirements, stay within budget, be completed on time, and be managed effectively.
a. business
b. user
c. project team
d. security
d. project creep
A process referred to as ________ can increase risk when a project does not have clear scope definitions.
a. slack time
b. Brooks’ Law
c. risk identification
d. project creep
a. Cost overruns
________ may result from unrealistic estimates that are too optimistic or based on incomplete information.
a. Cost overruns
b. Slack time
c. Weighting
d. Project creep
c. Brooks’ Law
In some situations, adding more people to a project might increase the time necessary to complete the project because of a principle called ________ .
a. slack time
b. project creep
c. Brooks’ Law
d. open source
d. IBM
Frederick Brooks Jr., a(n) ________ engineer, observed that adding manpower to a late software project only made it later because new team members first had to be educated and instructed by existing employees whose own productivity was reduced accordingly.
a. U.S. Navy
b. Microsoft
c. Intaver Institute
d. IBM
d. gateway
In business process modeling notation, a(n) ________ is like a fork in the road, allowing the flow to go one way or another.
a. finish day/date
b. start day/date
c. activity
d. gateway
a. True
Identifying all project tasks and estimating the completion time and cost of each is referred to as project planning.
a. True
b. False
b. False
The Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed by the U.S. Navy to manage very complex projects.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Project managers often use a weighted formula for estimating the duration of each task.
a. True
b. False
b. False
A task ID does not need to be unique in a project and should be brief and descriptive.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Slack time is the amount of time a task can be late without pushing back the completion date of an entire project.
a. True
b. False
b. False
A project manager’s best course of action is to attempt to handle all situations single-handedly and avoid alerting management until a problem is serious.
a. True
b. False
b. False
A project triangle displays the same information as the Gantt chart, but uses task boxes to include much more detail.
a. True
b. False
a. True
A risk management plan should define project roles and responsibilities, risk management methods and procedures, categories of risk, and contingency plans.
a. True
b. False
b. False
A mitigation plan identifies a condition that would initiate a contingency plan.
a. True
b. False
a. True
A principle called Brook’s Law demonstrates that adding more people to a project might increase the time necessary to complete the project.
a. True
b. False
time
Successful projects must balance cost, scope, and _______ against a set of constraints.
tasks (activities)
Conducting interviews, designing a report, selecting software, waiting for the delivery of equipment, and training users are examples of _______.
person-day
A(n) _______ represents the work that one person can complete in one day.
work breakdown structure
Tasks in a(n) _______ must be arranged in a logical sequence called a task pattern.
critical path
Microsoft Project and other project management software can highlight the series of tasks that form the _______.
brainstorming
Project status meetings provide a project manager with an opportunity to seek input and conduct _______ sessions.
PERT/CPM
To transform a task list into a(n) _______ chart, you first enter the task name, ID, duration, and predecessors for each task.
GanttProject
_______ is a free open source program that has a similar look and feel as Microsoft Project.
risk matrix
A Microsoft Excel XY chart can be used to display a(n) _______ that shows risk probability and potential impact.
cost overrun
When the progress of a project is poorly monitored and responses to early warning signs of problems are slow, the result can be a(n) _______ .

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