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Chapter 3 quiz cards

1. Which project management process group(s) includes activities from every single knowledge area?
Planning
2. In which process group should you spend the most time and money?
Executing
3. Name one of the unique outputs of planning used in Scrum.
Product backlog, sprint backlog, release backlog, work for each day in the daily Scrum, and a list of stumbling blocks
• agile methods
An approach to managing projects that includes an iterative workflow and incremental delivery of software in short iterations
• artifact
A useful object created by people
• burndown chart
A chart that shows the cumulative work remaining in a sprint on a day-by-day basis
• closing processes
Formalizing acceptance of the project or project phase and ending it efficiently
• daily Scrum
A short meeting in which the team shares progress and challenges
• executing processes
Coordinating people and other resources to carry out the project plans and create the products, services, or results of the project or project phase
• initiating processes
Defining and authorizing a project or project phase
• kick-off meeting
A meeting held at the beginning of a project so that stakeholders can meet each other, review the goals of the project, and discuss future plans
• methodology
A description of how things should be done
• monitoring and controlling processes
Regularly measuring and monitoring progress to ensure that the project team meets the project objectives
• planning processes
Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project addresses the organization’s needs
• process
A series of actions directed toward a particular result
• product backlog
A single list of features prioritized by business value
• product owner
The person responsible for the business value of the project and for deciding what work to do and in what order when using a Scrum method
• project management process groups
The progression of project activities from initiation to planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing
• PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2)
A project management methodology developed in the United Kingdom that defines 45 separate subprocesses and organizes these into eight process groups
• Rational Unified Process (RUP) framework
An iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members
• ScrumMaster
A person who ensures that the team is productive, facilitates the daily Scrum, enables close cooperation across all roles and functions, and removes barriers that prevent the team from being effective
• Scrum team or development team
A cross-functional team of five to nine people who organize themselves and the work to produce the desired results for each sprint
• Six Sigma methodologies
DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) is used to improve an existing business process, and DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify) is used to create new product or process designs
• sprint
A set period of time, normally two to four weeks, during which specific work must be completed and made ready for review when using Scrum methods
• sprint backlog
The highest-priority items from the product backlog to be completed in a sprint
• stakeholder register
A document that includes details related to the identified project stakeholders
• standard
Best practices for what should be done
• user stories
Short descriptions written by customers of what they need a system to do for them
Briefly describe what happens in each of the five project management process groups (initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing). What types of activities occur before initiating a project?
Descriptions of what happens in each of the five process groups
• Initiating includes actions to commit to begin or end projects and project phases. Some deliverables include defining the business need for the project, getting a project sponsor, and selecting a project manager.
• Planning includes creating workable plans for the entire project. Every knowledge area requires development of some plans.
• Executing involves coordinating everyone and everything to carry out the project plans. Deliverables include the products of the project or phase.
• Monitoring and controlling ensures the project objectives are met. Deliverables include monitoring and measuring progress and taking corrective action.
• Closing involves bringing the project to an orderly end. Deliverables include organizational process assets updates and closed procurements.
Before initiating a project, organizations often determine high-level scope, time, and cost constraints for a project, identify the project sponsor, select the project manager, and develop a business case for the project, to name a few.
2. Approximately how much time do good project managers spend on each process group and why.
Andy Crowe’s research found that alpha project managers spend about 2% of their time initiating, 21% planning, 69% executing, 5% monitoring and controlling, and 3% closing projects. The most time should be spent on executing, followed by planning.
3. Why do organizations need to tailor project management concepts, such as those found in the PMBOK® Guide, to create their own methodologies?
Organizations have different ways of doing things, so they often develop their own methodologies.
4. What are some of the key outputs of each process group?
charter, a project management plan, deliverables, performance reports, and closed procurements.
What are some of the typical challenges project teams face during each of the five process groups?
(for example, the What Went Right? or What Went Wrong? feature). You can also frame your discussion on one of PMI’s Project of the Year Award winners, or on a well-known project failure like the Denver International Airport baggage handling system.
— Also include setting priorities during initiating, getting stakeholder inputs during planning, meeting schedule deadlines during execution, collecting timely data during monitoring and controlling, and defining good procedures during project closing.
. What are the main differences between the two versions of the JWD Consulting case study? When should you use a more prescriptive or agile approach? Do you think users of the JWD Consulting Intranet site would prefer one release of the software or several incremental ones? What are some pros and cons of each approach?
The main difference is that three iterations of software are delivered instead of one. An agile approach normally works best when requirements are unclear or change frequently. Answers will vary on user preferences. There could be training issues with multiple releases, but there could be business value in getting some releases earlier.
_____ processes include defining and authorizing a project or project phase.
Initiating
_____ processes include devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project addresses the organization’s needs.
Planning
Examples of _____ processes include acquiring and developing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, managing stakeholder expectations, and conducting procurements.
executing
A common _____ process is reporting performance, where project stakeholders can identify any necessary changes that may be required to keep the project on track.
monitoring and controlling
Administrative activities, such as archiving project files, closing out contracts, documenting lessons learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project, are often involved in _____ processes.
closing
During _____ processes for a new project, the organization recognizes that a new project exists, and completes a project charter as part of this recognition.
initiating
The project integration management knowledge area maps to the _____ process group through the activities of developing project charters.
initiating
The project scope management knowledge area maps to the _____ process group through the activities of scope validation and scope control.
monitoring and controlling
The project time management knowledge area maps to the _____ process group through the activity of schedule control.
monitoring and controlling
Developing a _____ is a planning process that occurs in the Project Integration Management knowledge area.
project management plan
_____ is a planning process that is within the Project Scope Management knowledge area.
Creation of a WBS
The project cost management knowledge area maps to the _____ process group through the activities of estimating costs and budget determination.
planning
The project stakeholder management knowledge area maps to the _____ process group by identifying stakeholders.
initiating
_____ is an iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members.
Rational Unified Process
Which of the following is a pre-initiation task?
Developing a business case for a project
One of the main outputs of the initiation process is _____.
developing the project charter
The project management plan is the output of the planning process of project
integration management
Which of the following is a planning process associated with project scope management?
Collecting requirements
The _____ provides a basis for creating the project schedule and performing earned value management for measuring and forecasting project performance.
work breakdown structure
_____ are an output of the executing process of project integration management.
Deliverables
Enterprise environmental factors are an output of the executing process of _____.
project human resource management
The _____ process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end.
closing– The closing process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services and then bringing the project or project phase to an orderly end. It includes verifying that all of the deliverables are complete, and it often includes a final project report and presentation.
Organizational process assets update is the output of the closing process of
project integration management
Which of the following is true about the agile method?
It uses several iterations or deliveries of software instead of waiting until the end of the project to provide a product.
Which of the following project parameters would be compatible with the use of the agile approach?
Projects that have more flexible scheduling
Which of the following activities is a part of the planning process of the Scrum?
Creating product backlogs, sprint backlogs and release backlogs are all part of the planning process of the scrum.
The improvement of the product and process in the Scrum method is discussed at the _____.
sprint reflection meeting
A _____ is usually not necessary to the Scrum method.
team contract
A _____ is an important Scrum artifact used to graphically display progress on each sprint during the monitoring and controlling process.
burndown chart
A(n)_____ is a series of actions directed toward a particular result.
process
_____ progress from initiation activities to planning activities, executing activities, monitoring and controlling activities, and closing activities.
Project management process groups
The ideal outcome of the _____ process group is to complete a project successfully by delivering the agreed-upon project scope within time, cost, and quality constraints.
monitoring and controlling
A(n) _____ describes how things should be done.
methodology
_____ is a project management methodology that defines 45 separate subprocesses and organizes these into eight process groups.
IN Controlled Environments
_____ are people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents to the project.
Stakeholders
A(n) _____ is a document that includes stakeholders’ roles, names, organizations, and contact information.
stakeholder register
A(n) _____ is a meeting held at the beginning of a project so that stakeholders can meet each other, review the goals of the project, and discuss future plans.
kick-off meeting
A risk register is the output of _____.
risk identification planning
The _____ is a very important tool in project management because it provides the basis for deciding how to do the work.
work breakdown structure (WBS)
_____ the project includes work required to introduce any new hardware, software, and procedures into normal operations.
Executing
A(n) _____ is the person responsible for the business value of the project and for deciding what work to do and in what order when using a Scrum method.
product owner
A(n) _____ is a set period of time, normally two to four weeks, during which specific work must be completed and made ready for review when using Scrum methods.
sprint
A(n) _____ is the person who ensures that the team is productive, facilitates the daily Scrum, enables close cooperation across all roles and functions, and removes barriers that prevent the team from being effective.
ScrumMaster
A(n) _____ is a cross-functional team of five to nine people who organize themselves and the work to produce the desired results for each sprint.
Scrum team
In Scrum, a(n) _____ is a useful object created by people.
artifact
A(n) _____ is a Scrum artifact and consists of the highest-priority items from the product backlog to be completed in a sprint.
sprint backlog
_____ are short descriptions written by customers of what they need a Scrum system to do for
them.
User stories
List and describe the five process management groups.
Initiating processes include defining and authorizing a project or project phase. Initiating processes take place during each phase of a project. Therefore, you cannot equate process groups with project phases. Recall that there can be different project phases, but all projects will include all five process groups. For example, project managers and teams should reexamine the business need for the project during every phase of the project life cycle to determine if the project is worth continuing. Initiating processes are also required to end a project. Someone must initiate activities to ensure that the project team completes all the work, documents lessons learned, assigns project resources, and that the customer accepts the work.

Planning processes include devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project addresses the organization’s needs. There are several plans for projects, such as the scope management plan, schedule management plan, cost management plan, procurement management plan, and so on, defining each knowledge area as it relates to the project at that point in time. For example, a project team must develop a plan to define the work that needs to be done for the project, to schedule activities related to that work, to estimate costs for performing the work, to decide what resources to procure to accomplish the work, and so on. To account for changing conditions on the project and in the organization, project teams often revise plans during each phase of the project life cycle.

Executing processes include coordinating people and other resources to carry out the various plans and produce the products, services, or results of the project or phase. Examples of executing processes include acquiring and developing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, managing stakeholder expectations, and conducting procurements.

Monitoring and controlling processes include regularly measuring and monitoring progress to ensure that the project team meets the project objectives. The project manager and staff monitor and measure progress against the plans and take corrective action when necessary. A common monitoring and controlling process is reporting performance, where project stakeholders can identify any necessary changes that may be required to keep the project on track.

Closing processes include formalizing acceptance of the project or project phase and ending it efficiently. Administrative activities are often involved in this process group, such as archiving project files, closing out contracts, documenting lessons learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project.

What is a methodology and what are some methodologies other than the PMBOK Guide do organizations use as a basis for project management methodology?
A methodology describes how things should be done, and different organizations often have different ways of doing things.

In addition to using the PMBOK® Guide as a basis for project management methodology,
many organizations use others, such as the following:

• PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2): Originally developed for information technology projects, PRINCE2 was released in 1996 as a generic project management methodology by the U.K. Office of Government Commerce (OCG). It is the de facto standard in the United Kingdom and is used in over 50 countries. PRINCE2 defines 45 separate subprocesses and organizes these into eight process groups as follows:
1. Starting up a project
2. Planning
3. Initiating a project
4. Directing a project
5. Controlling a stage
6. Managing product delivery
7. Managing stage boundaries
8. Closing a project

• Agile methodologies: Agile software development is a form of adaptive software development. All agile methodologies include an iterative workflow and incremental delivery of software in short iterations. Several popular agile methodologies include extreme programming, scrum, feature driven development, lean software development, Agile Unified Process (AUP), Crystal, and Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM).

• Rational Unified Process (RUP) framework: RUP is an iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members. According to RUP expert Bill Cottrell, “RUP embodies industry-standard management and technical methods and techniques to provide a software engineering process particularly suited to creating and maintaining component-based software system solutions.” Cottrell explains that you can tailor RUP to include the PMBOK process groups, since several customers asked for that capability. There are several other project management methodologies specifically for software development projects such as Joint Application Development (JAD) and Rapid Application Development (RAD).

• Six Sigma methodologies: Many organizations have projects underway that use Six Sigma methodologies. The work of many project quality experts contributed to the development of today’s Six Sigma principles. Two main methodologies are used on Six Sigma projects: DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) is used to improve an existing business process, and DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify) is used to create new product or process designs to achieve predictable, defect-free performance.

Describe the process of initiating a project and the issues involved.
In project management, initiating includes recognizing and starting a new project. An organization should put considerable thought into project selection to ensure that it initiates the right kinds of projects for the right reasons. It is better to have a moderate or even small amount of success on an important project than huge success on one that is unimportant. The selection of projects for initiation, therefore, is crucial, as is the selection of project managers. Ideally, the project manager would be involved in initiating a project, but often the project manager is selected after many initiation decisions have already been made. Organizations must also understand and plan for the ongoing support that is often required after implementing a new system or other product or service resulting from a project.

It is important to remember that strategic planning should serve as the foundation for deciding which projects to pursue. The organization’s strategic plan expresses the vision, mission, goals, objectives, and strategies of the organization. It also provides the basis for information technology project planning. Information technology is usually a support function in an organization, so it is critical that the people initiating information technology projects understand how those projects relate to current and future needs of the organization. Information systems must support the firm’s business goals, such as providing consulting services more effectively and efficiently.

An organization may initiate information technology projects for several reasons, but the most important reason is to support business objectives. Providing a good return on investment at a reasonable level of risk is also important, especially in tough economic times.

What is a work breakdown structure?
The WBS is a very important tool in project management because it provides the basis for deciding how to do the work. The WBS also provides a basis for creating the project schedule and performing earned value management for measuring and forecasting project performance.
In the Scrum method, what role is played by the ScrumMaster?
The ScrumMaster facilitates four ceremonies or meetings when using Scrum methods:

• Sprint planning session: A meeting with the team to select a set of work from the product backlog to deliver during a sprint. This meeting takes about four hours to a full day.

• Daily Scrum: A short meeting for the development team to share progress and challenges and plan work for the day. Ideally the team members are in the same place, the meeting usually lasts no more than 15 minutes, and it is held at the same time and place each day. If that is not possible, teams can use videoconferencing to have short virtual meetings. The ScrumMaster asks what work has been done since yesterday, what work is planned for today, and what impediments or stumbling blocks might hamper the team’s efforts. The ScrumMaster documents these stumbling blocks and works with key stakeholders to resolve them after the daily Scrum. Many teams use the term issues for items that do not have to be solved in the next 24 hours and blockers for items that need to be addressed immediately. This allows a ScrumMaster to maintain focus on highest-priority items (blockers) first and then manage the resolution of other issues over the next day or so.

• Sprint reviews: A meeting in which the team demonstrates to the product owner what it has completed during the sprint.

• Sprint retrospectives: A meeting in which the team looks for ways to improve the product and the process based on a review of the actual performance of the development team.

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