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Chapter 5 Flexibility and low-back health

The ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion (ROM)
Types of flexibility
Static and Dynamic
Static flexibility
refers to the ability to assume and maintain and extended position at one end or point in a joints ROM. *most research and easier to measure “
Dynamic Flexibility
involves movement, it is the ability to move a joint through its ROM with little resistance. (ADls sports)
Joint structure
Joints vary in direction and range of movement
Joint capsule
semi-elastic structures that provide strength and stability but limit movement.
White fibers that provide structure and support
yellow fiber that are elastic and flexible
muscle filament that have elastic properties
Connective tissue
tendons and ligaments
Benefits of flexibilty
Prevent lower back health, temporary reduction in post exercise soreness also called DOM delayed onset muscle soreness, relief ache and muscle cramps, improved body position and strength, maintain posture, relaxation, lifetime wellness benefits,
Applying the FITT principle
Frequency- how many days a wee, Intensity- how far to stretch, Time- How long to stretch, Type- which stretches to do for each exercise.
ACSM recommends 2-3 days a week.
Until you feel a slight mild discomfort
hold each stretch for 10-30 second, 4 repetitions, rest for 30-60 seconds
Static Stretching
stretching the muscle slowing and holding the position
Ballistic Stretching
suddenly stretching the muscle by bouncing and swinging
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitaion
obtaining a greater training effect by using neuromuscular reflexes such as contracting a muscle before its stretched.
Passive stretching
muscles are stretched by a force that is applied by an outside source
Active stretching
muscles are stretched by a contraction of the opposing muscle.
Safest technique for stretching
The most effective stretching
Function of spine
Anterior(front), posterior(back)
Helps protect and surround the spinal cord, supports body weight, provides structural support,
Serves as attachment site for ligaments tendons muscles, allows movement of the neck and back in all directions.
Structure of the spine
7 cervical vertebrae in the neck, 12 thoracic vertebrae in the upper back, 5 lumbar vertebrae in the lower back, 9 vertebrae at the base of the spine fused into the sacrum and the coccyx (tailbone)
Vertebrae consist of
an arch and several bony processes
Intervertebral disks
elastic disk located between adjoining vertebrae:consist of a gel- and water-filled nucleus as surrounded by fibrous rings, serves as shock absorbers.
Nerve roots
base of pairs of spinal nerves that branch off the spinal cord.
Causes of back pain
Any movement that cause excessive stress, acute, chronic. Forces on the inter-vertebral disk, Compression, Tensile, Shear, Combination
Risk factors
age greater than 34 years old, degenerative diseases, family or personal history trauma, overweight, stress or depression, smoking,
Underlying causes of back pain
lifestyle, poor posture Kyphosis, lordosis, poor body mechanics, poor muscle endurance or strength.
Preventing low back pain
Lose weight, stop smoking, reduce emotional stress, avoid sitting standing or working in the same place for too long, warm up before exercise,
Managing acute back pain
sudden back pain usually involves tissue injury,
symptoms acute back pain
pain, muscle spasms, stiffness, inflammation,
Treatment for acute back pain
ice, then heat, OTC medication ( ibuprofen) Moderate stretching exercise.
Mckenzie extension exercises
first aid- restore lordosis perform for one week
exercise 1
Lying face down. acute back pain first aid exercise relax. 4-5minutes 6-8 minutes a day every 2 hours.
exercise 2
lying face down in extension, second phase relax,pain reduction and centralization of the discc, 5 minutes
exercise 3
extension in lying, third phase, hold for 1 – 2 seconds
exercise 4
extension in standing, drop exercises 1-2 add 3 -4
exercise 5
add after pain has subsided pain free 2-3 weeks. Flexion in lying
exercise 6
flexion in sitting
Active Modalities
depends on diagnosis, signs, and symptoms
Managing chronic back pain symptoms
stabbing or shooting pain, steady ache and stiffness, pain radiates to other parts of the body,
Chronic back pain treatments
medication, exercise, physical therapy, massage acupuncture, education and surgery
exercises for the prevention and management of low back pain
do low back exercises 3 times a week, emphasize muscular endurance (static,dynamic) do no do full range of motion spine, engage in regular endurance(aerobic)exercise

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