Chapter 5: Sustaining Biodiversity- Species and Ecosystem Approaches
+ Candidate Notice of Review:
– Announced TODAY- 145 species listed as candidates
– Natural lifespan of a given species 600K-2MY.
– Food, medicine, trophy…”collateral damage”.
+ Introduced predators
+ Non-predatory exotics
+ Habitat modification
– Restricted distribution or narrow habitat needs.
* Indiana bat
– Species of economic importance:
* Especially those crossing international boundaries.
* Whales, sea turtles, salmon.
– Large bodied species intolerant of humans.
* Wolves, Grizzly bears, Big Cats in general.
– K-selected reproductive strategy species.
* Mountain gorilla, California condor.
– Highly specialized species (physical, behavior).
* First NWR, wading bird protection.
– National Bison Range, 1940
* Property protection for plains bison.
– Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 1918
* Protects all migratory birds from hunting/shooting.
+ Authorized acquisition/protection of habitat.
+ Sponsored research on species.
+ Formalized NWR system as means of protection.
– Variety of changes
– Expanded to include invertebrates.
– Prohibited import of ES & products.
– Foreign species added and CITES created.
* Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (Wild Flora and Fauna).
* Excluded insect pests from consideration.
– Recognition of ES as components.
– Defined “endangered” & “threatened”.
– Required federal agencies to consult FWS in issues impacting any ES.
– Controls which species/projects are listed vs. exempted.
* 1-no acceptable alternatives to proposed action.
* 2-action in public interest, no violation of international agreement.
* 3-benefits of action exceed alternatives.
* 4-action of regional significance and mitigation actions taken
+ Established time tables for consideration.
+ Procedures for consultation during initial stages.
+ Provided for “incidental takings” exemptions for private entities.
+ Encouraged establishing experimental populations for recovery of species
– Monitoring required; emergency listing possible.
– Prohibition of “take” or “malicious destruction” on Federal land that violates state law.
– Exempted DoD from critical habitat designations provided an integrated management plan in place.
– Likely to perish/go extinct even if treated.
– Likely to survive/persist even without care.
– Likely to survive/persist IF given intensive care.
– Land area required/habitat specificity.
+ Genetic variability
– Population size and proximity to others.
+ Economic relationship/value to humans.
+ Biological uniqueness
– Madagascar/endemic species.
(Identification and recovery planning)
– Habitat preservation/acquisition
* Manipulation to suit.
– Control programs
– Supplemental feeding
– Captive breeding
– Census requirements
– USFWS- NWR system, migratory birds.
– USGS- primary research arm.
– NPS- National Parks, Monuments, Scenic Rivers.
– BLM- 55% of all federal land (primarily in west).
– BIA- works with tribes for grazing, resource rights.
– BofR- primarily water development in west.
+ Dept of Agriculture
– US Forest Service
* National forest/timber management.
> Spotted owls
> Pacific Salmon
* Wildlife damage, import/export of goods, pest control.
* Provides technical assistance on soil & water issues.
* National Marine Fisheries Service
* Army Corps of Engineers
> Navigable waters management, dredging
– Nomenclature issues
– NY DEC
– CT DEP
– RI DEM
– MA F&G
– MN DNR
+ Cooperation & Funding with States
– Section 6
– Some amendments (1988)
– P-R funds
– License sales
– Special stamp sales
– Registration of vehicles
– Tax check-off
* State funds
+ Endangered Species Specifically
– Section 6- Cooperative Endangered Species Conservation Fund.
* “traditional” grants:
> Surveys, propagation & reintroduction, education, plan development.
* “non-traditional” grants:
> Habitat Conservation Plan Land Acquisition.
> Habitat Conservation Planning Assistance.
> Recovery Land Acquisition.
2. PROTECT the Kirtland’s warbler on its wintering grounds and along its migration route.
3. REDUCE key factors adversely affecting reproduction and survival of the Kirtland’s warbler.
4. MONITOR breeding population of the Kirtland’s warbler to evaluate responses to management practices and environmental changes.
5. Develop and implement emergency measures to prevent extinction.
2. This secondary objective has not been fully met. The Commonwealth of The Bahamas has established regulations that protect the Kirtland’s warbler from direct impacts and
enable the protection of wintering habitat.
3. This secondary objective has been met. Human activities which may be detrimental to the Kirtland’s warbler population have been controlled.
– Kirtland’s warbler habitat is protected during the breeding season by closure of the habitat to unauthorized use.
– Other factors that adversely affect the Kirtland’s warbler, such as nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds, have been controlled.
4. This secondary objective has been met. A census of singing males is conducted annually throughout all known and potential nesting habitat in Michigan.
+ More recently, annual surveys have been initiated in both Wisconsin and Ontario, Canada. The census results are used to determine overall population trends.
~ 160,00 cowbirds over 40 years
+ Kirtland’s warbler reproductive success has improved dramatically since cowbird trapping began.
– Nest parasitism rate has declined from the 1966-71 average of 69% to less than 5%.
– Average clutch size has increased from 2.3 eggs per nest to more than four.
– Average number of young warblers fledged per nest increased from less than one to almost three birds during the same period.
– 2002 annual census counted over 1000 singing males for the second year in a row.
+ In 1985 US dollars
* 40,000 each year to trap cowbirds.
* 4,000 cowbirds/year or $10/cowbird.
* 195,000/ year for habitat in MI.
* 330,000/ year for wintering habitat work (Bahamas)
+ Converted to 2012 dollars
– 4,830,000 just for those 3-years!
– Cattle egrets to NA= natural.
– Starlings to NYC= exotic.
+ How/why do exotics arrive?
* Sport, aesthetics, bio-control.
* Shipwrecks, cargo, escapes.
-Interest in new species.
– Create more opportunity.
– Replace extirpated species.
– Aust/NZ acclimation society
– Pleasant looking/attractive
– Mongoose to control rats.
– Foxes in Oz for rabbits
– Cats off W. Oz, swam 2+ miles to islands.
– Asian long-horned beetle
– Emerald ash-borer Arrived in wooden crates used as packing material
– Horses in W. US & Oz
– Camels in Oz
– Over exploit native prey.
* Fox, cats in Oz
– Introduce new diseases
– Compete with natives
* Horses, camels in outback
– Alter habitat
> Feral horses in W. US
– Prevent original release
– Importance of native systems
– Biological need to manage
* Adoption of feral horses
* Adoption of feral cats from colonies
+ Key/focal products
– Species (Botkin 1990)
– Community (Picket & White 1985)
– Ecosystem (Odum et. al 1987)
– Resourcism: everything a resource for human use
+ Sustainability requires
– Plans for human demands are long term
– Understanding Earth’s resources ARE exhaustible
– Technology cannot continue to extend limits
– Focus on game birds & mammals
+ Focus shifted over time
– Includes all wild animals
* Insects & other invertebrates
– Result of changing culture and increased understanding
* Also consumer vs. non-consumer user driven
– generally animal/population manipulation
– Planned & intentional habitat changes
– Improvements resulting from another, primary land use process**
** not a substitute for carefully planned projects
+ Reduces associated costs.
– Large scale down to small.
* Requires long-term & effective planning.
– Protection: retention of natural state (at least control)
– Intervention: hands-on or hands-off means of causing changes
* Increase cutting
* Decrease fire suppression practices
+ Less is more
– Understand impacts on all species
Need essay sample on "Chapter 5: Sustaining Biodiversity- Species and Ecosystem Approaches"? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $ 13.90/page