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Chapter 6: Body Compostion

Many people don’t succeed in their efforts to obtain a fit and healthy lifestyle because?
They set unrealistic goals and emphasize short term weight loss rather than permanent lifestyle.
Successful management of body composition requires the?
long term consistent coordination of many aspects of a wellness program.
Even in the the absence of changes in body comp, an active life style improves?
wellness and decreases the risk of disease and premature death.
Muscle %
Men-45%
Women-36%
Essential fat %
Men-3%
Women-12%
Nonessential other body fat %
Men-12%
Women-15%
Bone %
Men-15%
Women-12%
Other %
Men-25%
Women-25%
Essential fat makes up about?
3-5% of total body weight in men and about 8-12% in women.
The percentage of fat is higher in women due to?
deposits in the breast, uterus, and other sex-specific sites.
Most of the fat in the body is stored in?
Adipose cells
The amount of stored fat depends on several factors such as?
age, sex, metabolism, diet, and activity level
The primary source of excess body fat is?
Excess calories consumed in the diet.
When looking at body composition, the most important consideration is the proportion of the body’s total weight that is?
Percent body fat
The more body fat a person has
the greater is the loss abdominal fat with exercise.
Studies show that even without calorie reduction
walking 150 mins per week at 4 mph or jogging 75 mins at 6 mph decreases in total fat and abdominal fat that is associate with improved metabolic health
Essential fat is
fat incorporated in various tissues of the body; critical for normal body functioning
The prevalence from obesity has increased from about ____% in 1960 to about ____% today, and about _____% are overweight.
13%
34%
67%
About ___% of adult men and ___% adult women are obese.
33%
35%
The CDCsays that nearly 40% of adult Americans are?
Physically inactive and get no exercise at all.
About 34% of americans has?
Metabolic syndrome
Mild to moderate overweight is associated with a substantial increase in?
the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Obese people are three times as likely as a non obese person to develop?
Type 2 diabetes
Essentail fat is necessary for the functioning of the body, and health experts generally view too little body fat?
Less that 8-12% for women
less than 3-5% for men as a threat to health
Overweight
Body weight above the recommended range for good health; sometimes defined as a BMI between 25 and 29.9
Obesity
severely overweight characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat; may also be defined in terms of some measure of tidal body weight or a BMI of 30 or more
Metabolic syndrome
A cluster if symptoms present in many overweight and obese people that greatly increases their risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses; symptoms include insulin resistance, abnormal blood fats, abdominal fat deposition, type 2 diabetes, HBP, and chronic inflammation.
8.3 percent of americans have
Some for of diabetes
About 5-10% of people with diabetes has type?
Type 1
Type one usually strikes before what age?
Age 30
the remaining 90-95 % has?
Type 2 diabetes
A third type of diabetes can occur of women during pregnancy. What is this called and what percent?
Gestational diabetes
2-10 percent of pregnant women
The major factors involved in the development of diabetes are?
Age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history, and lifestyle.
About ___% of Americans age 60 or older have diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed.
27%
Nearly ___% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight when diagnosed including ___% obese.
90%
55%
The triad consist of interrelated disorders?
Abnormal eating patterns
lack of menstrual periods
Decrease in bone density
If female athlete triad left untreated the triad can lead to
decreased physical performance, increase in bone fractures, disturbances in heart rhythm and metabolism, and death.
BMI
A measure of relative body weight correlating highly with more direct measures of body fat, calculated by dividing total body weight by the square of body height.
BMI formula
(Weight/(Height x Height)) x 70.3
A BMI between 18.5 -24.9 is considered?
healthy
A BMI 25 or above is classified as?
Overweight
BMI above 30 is?
Obese
A BMI of 17.5 or less is considered?
Annorexia
At a given level of overweight, people with a large waist and or additional disease risk factors are at a?
Greater risk for health problems
Muscle has a ______ density and fat a _____ density in water.
Higher
Lower
The Bod Pod determines the
Percentage of fat calculating body density from how much air is displace by the person sitting inside the chamber. The error rate is +- 2-4%
Skinfold measurements can be used to?
assess body composition because equations can link the thickness of skin folds at various sites to percent body fat calculations from more precise lab techniques
The sum of skin folds only represent
relative measure of body fatness
To reduce error on BIA manufacturers
instructions carefully and avoid over hydration and under hydration.
DEXA
Works by measuring the tissue absorption of high and low energy x beams
TOBEC
estimates lean body mass by passing through a magnetic field
Waist circumference has been found to be a better
indicator of abdominal fat than waist to hop ratio
Waist inches
40 inches for?
45 inches for?
Men
Women (look this up)
Waist to hip ratio
.94
.82
Men
Women

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