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chapter 6 Issues and Crisis Management

Effective Issues management may enable managers to engage in more effective _____ _____
Crisis Management
Effective Issues management is a vital component of post – _____ _____
Crisis Management
What are the two approaches to Issues Management?
Conventional (narrow focus)
Strategic Management (Broadly Inclusive)
Conventional Approach in Issues Management
…Issues in domain of policy or public affairs mngt.
…An issue is any trend, event, controversary, or public development that might affect Corp.
…Issues originate in social/political/regulatory/judicial environments
…Can be used as a Stand Alone decision making process.
Strategic Management Approach in Issues Management
…Issues management is typically the responsibility of senior line or strategic mngt staff
…Issues identification is more important than in conventional approach
…Seen as an approach to management of external/internal challenges to company strategies, plans, and assumptions.
What is the Portfolio Approach?
taking things on an issue by issue basis
prioritizing and providing focus for company resources.
What is the definition of Issues?
A matter that is in dispute between parties. The dispute evokes debate, controversy, or differences of opinion.
Characteristics of Emerging Issues
Terms of debate are not clearly defined
Issue deals with matters of conflicting values/interest
No automatic resolution
Issue is in value-laden terms
Trade-offs are inherent
Assumptions made when we choose to use Issues Management?
1. Issues can be identified earlier, more completely, reliably.
2. Early anticipation widens range of options
3. Early anticipation permits study and understanding of the issue
4. Early anticipation permits a positive orientation towards issues.
5. Early anticipation alllows for better identification of stakeholders
6. Early identification provides the opportunity for the Org to supply information about the issue earlier
What is the Model of Issues Management Process
1. Identification of Issues
2. Analysis of Issues
3. Prioritization of Issues
4. Formulation of Issue Responses
5. Implementation of Issue Responses
6. Evaluation, Monitoring, and Control of Results.
What two things should you do in the Identification of issues step in the issues management process
1. Scan the environment
2. Identify emerging issues and trends (having relevance)
Molitor (futurist) proposed FIVE Leading Forces as Predictors of Social Change
1. Leading Events (e.g. Salmonela outbreak)
2. Leading Authorities/Advocates (Ralph Nader)
3. Leading Literature (i.e. “Unsafe @ any Speed”)
4. Leading Organizations (PETA)
5. Leading Political Jurisdictions (State of Deleware)
In Step Two of the Issues Management Process (Analysis of Issues) what are questions that should be asked?
1. Which stakeholders are affected by issue?
2. Who has interest in issue?
3. Who is in a position to exert influence
4. Who ought to care about the issue?
5. Who started the ball rolling?
6. Who is now involved?
7. Who will get involved?
….Answering these questions puts management in a better place to prioritize…….leading to step 3
What are the two most critical dimensions of issues (Ranking off Issues Step Three)?
1. Likelihood of occurrence
2. Impact to the Organization
…….After determining this, Rank the issue by priority with the highest at the top.
What are some of the others ways that you can Rank Issues (step three)?
Expert Panels
Content Analysis
Delphi Technique
Trend Extrapolation
Scenario building
What goes on in step four of Issues Management Process “Formulation of Issues Responses”?
Formulation is the “Response” during the design process. You formulate plans on dealing with issues
What goes on in step five of Issues Management Process “Implementation of Issues Responses”?
Implementation is the “Action” design process. Addressing;
…Plan Clarity
…Resources Needed
…Top Management Support
…Org. Structure
…Technical competence
What happens in last step of Issues Management Process?
Evaluation, Monitoring and Control
…Constant evaluation of results or responses to the issues to keep strategy on track
What is a stakeholder audit?
it is careful monitoring of stakeholders opinion.
What is the Issues Development Process?
The growth process or life cycle of an issue.
What are the stages in the Issues Development Life Cycle Process?
Stage One: Felt Need
Stage Two: Media Coverage/Interest group development
Stage Three: Leading Political Jurisdictions, Federal Gov. attention, Legislation and Regulation
Stage Four: Regulation and Litigation
Example of going through the Issues Development Life Cycle process
Someone reads a book about auto safety and feels the need that more stringent laws need to be put in place. This book creates a social expectation and hits the news media. It then becomes a political issue, a new seatbelt law is passed, and now all cars are required to have a seatbelt.
What are the benefits of the Issues Management Processes?
Companies can…..
1. Develop better overall reputations
2. Develop better issue-specific responses
3. Perform better financially
Issues Management provides the bridge to _____ ______?
Crisis Management
What is one of the most effective ways to keep a crisis plan living?
Issues Management
To manage a crisis one first must understand these three things
1. Crisis occur abruptly
2. Crisis cannot always be anticipated or forecast
3. Crisis may not occur within an issue category
What is a major, unpredictable event that has potentially negative results and can cause lots of damage to Org.
What is a low-probability, high-impact event that threatens the viability of the Org that has an ambiguous cause, effect and resolution
What are the SEVEN families that Crisis are grouped into (types of crisis)?
1. Economic (Recession, stockmarket crash)
2. Physical (product failure, industrial accident)
3. Personnel (strikes, work violence)
4. Criminal (kidnapping, terrorism, tampering)
5. Information (propriety theft, cyber attack)
6. Reputational (Logo tampering, rumors, slander)
7. Natural Disasters (tornado, earthquake, flood)
What are the Four Stages of Crisis Management
1. Prodromal (warning/symptom stage)
2. Acute crisis Stage; crisis has occurred; no turning back
3. Chronic Crisis Stage (Lingering Period) investigations, audits, etc .
4. Crisis Resolution Stage; “Patient is well and whole agagin”
What are the Outcomes of Major Crises
Escalated Intensity
Media and Gov. scrutiny
Interference with normal operations.
Damaged companies’ bottom line
Resulted in major power shifts
What are Fink’s Three Stage Model in managing a crises
1. Identify the crisis
2. Isolate the crisis
3. Manage the crisis
What is Business Week’s Five Steps in Managing Crises?
1. Identify areas of vulnerability (i.e. risk analysis)
2. Develop a plan for dealing with threats (training)
3. Form Crises teams
4. Simulate crisis drills
5. Learn from experience
What are Augustine’s Six Stages of Crisis Management?
1. Avoiding the crisis
2. Preparing to manage the crisis
3. Recognizing the crisis
4. Containing the crisis
5. Resolving the crisis
6. Profiting from the crisis

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