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Chapter 6 Theory of Wellness

Cellulite
Bulging fat cells in a specific region of the body.
Setpoint
Fat percentage based on heredity and the environment.
Spot-Reducing
Not possible for body fat
BMR
The minimum required to sustain life
EER
Will maintain energy balance for a healthy and moderately active adult.
30
Obesity is defined as a body mass index equal to or above:
112,000
The number of deaths in the U.S. estimated each year due to excess body weight and the lack of physical activity is:
15
In the last decade alone, the average weight of American adults increased by ____ pounds.
44% of women, 29% of men
The percent of women and men on a diet at any one time in the United States is:
$117 billion
The total cost attributable to obesity-related diseases is estimated to be ____ per year
25
Overweight has been defined as a BMI of ____ and higher.
34
In the United States, ____% of adults ages 20 and over are obese
68
In the United States, ____% of adults ages 20 and over are overweight.
obesity
Which is presently the most prevalent form of preventable death in the United States?
1
In 2007, how many states reported obesity rates lower than 20%?
14-20
An estimated ____% of cancer deaths have been attributed to obesity in U.S. adults.
is acceptable to the individual.
Tolerable weight is what:
5%
What percent of all dieters lose weight and also keep the weight off for a significant amount of time?
low-carbohydrate
Body weight is lost fastest when using a(n) ____ weight loss plan
reduce BMR.
Very low-calorie diets usually:
3,500
One pound of fat represents ____ calories
negative caloric balance
Theoretically, weight is lost when there is a:
1,500; 1,200
The suggested lower limits of daily caloric consumption are ____ for men and ____ for women (respectively).
burns a lower amount of fat each session.
Compared to low-intensity exercise, high-intensity exercise:
30
If weight management is not a consideration, ____ minutes of daily activity provides health benefits.
is not ideal but one you can live with.
Tolerable weight is a body weight that:
9; 4
Each gram of fat contains ____ calories, while a gram of protein or carbohydrate contains ____ calories.
60-90
A study showed that after weight loss due to exercise, most people need to continue exercising ____ minutes each day to maintain the weight loss.
35
An added pound of muscle raises BMR as much as ____ calories each day.
30; 60
To prevent weight gain, _____ minutes of daily activity is recommended; to maintain substantial weight loss, _____ minutes may be required.
aerobic; strength-training
A combination of _____ and _____ exercises works best in weight loss programs.
setpoint.
The mechanism that seems to regulate how much a person weighs is known as the:
all of these choices
Recent studies have found that sleep deprivation:
Lean body mass
_____ is the nonfat component of the human body.
True
Research indicates that individuals who are 30 or more pounds overweight during middle age lose about seven years of life.
True
According to the energy-balancing equation, if caloric intake exceeds output, the person gains weight.
False
Under strict caloric reduction, the body makes compensatory metabolic adjustments in an effort to reduce its fat storage.
False
Setpoint is the lowest level of caloric intake necessary to sustain life.
False
The energy-balancing equation is the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health.
True
Researchers theorize that the biological mechanism to maintain fat stores in women is stronger than in men.
True
Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by an excessively high amount of body fat (about 20% above recommended weight or a BMI at 30 or above).
True
On a crash diet, close to half of the weight loss is in lean tissue
False
The human body doesn’t care how much, or how little, fat is stored.
True
About 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per day provides substantial health benefits.
1) With dietary restriction, there will be faster weight loss
2) fat and lean tissue losses are equal for both types
3) when exercising almost all weight loss is fat
Contrast the weight loss effects of dietary restriction to the weight loss effects of exercise.
1) coronary heart disease
2) heart failure
3) asthma
Describe three consequences of obesity.
1) high in fat
2) hard to maintain
3) protein structures are compromised
What are three hazards of low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets?

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