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Chapter 6 : Weight Management

Over weight
excess body weight when compared to a given standard such as height or recommended percent body fat
Obesity
chronic disease characterized by an excessively high amount of body fat; classified as a BMI ? 30
According to the World Health Organization…
35% of adults in industrialized nations are obese
Obesity rates have increased dramatically over
the past 2 decades
Obesity is a risk factor for
o Hypertension
o Congestive heart failure
o High cholesterol
o Stroke
o Type 2 diabetes
o Sleep apnea
o Arthritis
o Cancer
Individuals at recommended body weight are able to
participate in activities without functional limitations. They have the freedom to enjoy recreational activities
Tolerable weight
a realistic body weight that is close to the health fitness percent body fat standard
Tolerable weight is not
always someone’s ” BMI” weight
If your BMI is ? greater than a certain number
you should try to reach and stay in the health fitness category of 18-25
Only about of people who begin a weight loss program without exercise are able to lose desired weight
10%
Few diets incorporate lifetime changes in
food selection and increases in physical activity as keys to successful weight loss and maintenance
Fad diets- may work for a while but
success is short-lived
Most fad diets are low in calories and weight loss is in the form of
water and protein, not fat
Low carbohydrate/high protein diets
o Weight loss occurs because low carbohydrate intake forces liver to produce glucose from protein
o Protein is high in water so weight is lost rapidly
o When the diet is terminated, the body rebuilds the protein tissue (complete with water) so weight is regained
o They also don’t allow individuals to consume fruits, vegetables and whole grains that provide vital nutrients
Best method for weight reduction involves
exercise and healthy nutrition plan
The causes of obesity are
complex and combine genetic, behavior and lifestyle factors
Energy-Balancing Equation
Calories In > Calories Out ? gain weight
Calories In = Calories Out ? maintain weight
Calories In < Calories Out ? lose weight
1 pound of fat =
35 hundred calories
body always tries to keep a certain amount of fat =
women= 10-12%
men=2-4%
Basal metabolic rate
lowest level of caloric intake necessary to sustain life
Basal metabolic rate may drop as a result of
extremely negative caloric balance
Body is highly resistant to weight changes unless
lifestyle changes are incorporated
People that only use dieting as a means of weight loss tend to
regain lost weight
Difference between basal and RR
basal is what you need to eat; RR is basal plus a level of activity
Under no circumstances should a person be on a diet that requires
less than 12 hundred calories for women or 15 hundred calories for men
When trying to lose weight by dieting alone
lean muscle mass decreases
Repeated low calorie dieting results in
an increased body fat percentage even at the same body weight because lean mass is lost each time a low calorie diet is followed
Most of your weight-loss efforts should be spent
• Retraining eating habits
• Increasing intake of complex carbs and high fats foods
• Decreasing consumption of processed foods/ carbs (sugars) and fats
A “diet” should be viewed as
a permanent change in eating behaviors to ensure weight management and better health
Sleep deprivation promotes
weight gain
Individuals who get less than six hours of sleep per night have
higher average BMI compared with those who average eight hours of sleep per night
Lack of sleep may disrupt hormonal balance of ghrelin and leptin
• Ghrelin- stimulates appetite
• Leptin- sends signals of fullness to the brain
A good night’s rest is an important component of
a weight-management program
Exercise enhances the rate of
of weight loss and is vital in maintaining weight loss
Most people need of physical activity per day to prevent weight gain
60-90 minutes
Only individuals who remain physically active for over are able to keep weight off
60 minutes per day
Individuals who have lost at least and kept it off for at least typically accumulate of physical activity per day
30 pounds ; 6 years ; 90 minutes
A combination of and programs work best in weight loss programs
aerobic ; strength training
Body weight may increase upon beginning an exercise program but
body weight and you get smaller and body fat decrease
Myth of Spot-Reducing
o Cellulite is enlarged fat cells from accumulated body fat
o When you lose fat, you lose it over your entire body, not just one area
Exercise Safety
A medical exam or stress test ECG may be necessary before doing vigorous exercise
Light-Intensity Versus Vigorous-Intensity Exercise for Weight Loss
o A greater proportion of calories burned during 60 minutes -intensity exercise comes from fat than the proportion during 30-40 minutes -intensity exercise but this is misleading
o Bottom line when you are trying to lose weight is burn more calories
o You burn twice as many calories during vigorous -intensity exercise
o This doesn’t mean that light-intensity activity is not effective; it provides substantial health benefits
Estimated Energy Requirement
average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult; based on age, gender, weight, height and level of physical activity
_________of food intake is important as well
Timing
____ of total daily calories for breakfast, ___for lunch and _____or less at dinner
25% ; 50% ; 25%
__________is the most critical meal
breakfast
Using commercially prepared low-fat frozen entrees is
a good way to be more accurate with caloric intake and simplify meal preparation
Look for entrees with about _____calories and no more than ____grams of fat
300 ; 6

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