logo image

chapter 7 and 8 cis 100

The Traditional File Approach
Largely sequential or indexed file structures

Many constraints:
Program-data dependency
High degree of data redundancy
Low data integrity
Accuracy Consistency Timeliness

What is a Database?
Definitions offered by Dictionary.com:
A comprehensive collection of related data that is organized for convenient access
Arranged for ease of use and speed of searches as well as retrieval of desired information
May include a file cabinet, telephone book, etc.
A computerized database has been likened to an electronic file cabinet of information arranged for easy access or for a specific purpose
Hierarchy of Data
Refers to the systematic organization of data within a database, often hierarchical
Bit (combination of binary digits – 0 and 1)
Character (or Byte) – smallest component
Field (or Data Element) – a column
Record – group of related fields
Table (or File) – group of related records
Database – group of related tables
The Database Approach
Database fields can hold information, images, sounds, video clips, etc.
Field name allows easy access to the data
Database management system (DBMS): a specialized program used to:
Create databases
Populate a database with data
Organize, secure, and manage the data
Manipulate data stored within a database
Entity:
an object about which an organization chooses to collect data, such as:
People
Events
Products
Keys
are used to form links amongst entities
The Database Approach
Provides powerful mechanism for managing and manipulating data
Data organized as entities
Entity: an object about which an organization chooses to collect data, such as:
People
Events
Products
Keys are used to form links amongst entities
Database management system (DBMS): a
specialized program used to:
Create databases
Populate a database with data
Organize, secure, and manage the data
Manipulate data stored within a database
Database Software
Abbreviated as “DB” in technology circles
Database Management System (DBMS)
Used to Organize, Store and Retrieve Data
Many software products available
Freeware / Shareware / Open Source
Spreadsheets: Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Excel
Smaller applications use MS Access, MySQL, etc.
Industrial strength or mission critical applications typically use SQLServer or Oracle DBMS software
DB Software – Microsoft Access
Widely available on Windows-based PCs
Packaged with premium copies of MS Office
Familiar look and feel (Windows-based)
Relatively inexpensive vs. other DBMS
Easy to construct a simple database
Can build more complex structures
It is a true relational DBMS
What is a Relational DB?
A collection of tables from which data can be accessed in a variety of ways without the need to further reorganize structure
Once relationships are established, we can link the tables together to determine:
Which students are enrolled in a class
What products are sold in a retail store
What stocks are in an investment portfolio
Database Structure Field
A single item of data common to all records
Occurs as a specific column within a table
Record
Collection of data about an individual item
Occurs as a specific row within a table
Table
A set of related records
Also called a file (or perhaps even a worksheet)
Accessing Data in a DB Query
a message to the database requesting data from specific records and/or fields
Produces a subset of data matching the criteria
Structured Query Language (SQL)
The Database Approach
Databases must be properly secured
Not everyone should have access to all data
Users will have different views of the database, based on the data they are allowed to access
Business unit managers establish security policies and Database Administrators implement the rules
Ownership (business unit) vs. custodianship (IT)
A poorly secured database leads to many problems
Much information subject to legal and regulatory constraints – FERPA, HIPPA, SOX, etc
Data Dictionary
Special type of file within a DBMS
Centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships, format:
List of all tables in the database
Number of records in each file
Names and attributes of each field
Most critical component of a DBMS, since it contains metadata for access and management
Database Design
Should be done by qualified people such as Database Administrators or DB Analysts
Questions that need to be asked include:
What do we have? (Input)
What do we want? (Output)
What do we need to get there? (Process)
What needs to be kept? (Store)
How are we going to build it? (Program)
Who uses the data and how? (Security
Who Collects Data and Why?
Businesses
To be competitive
Data becomes a strategic asset
Marketing firms and banks want to know more about:
customers
competitors, and
themselves
Research/Scientific institutions
Government
Biometrics: fingerprint and retina scan
Protect against terrorism
Identify tax fraud
Where does data come from?Retail transactions
Supermarkets – inventory updated
Credit card transaction recorded
Loyalty/discount card used
Purchases at gas stations

Supermarkets – inventory updated
Credit card transaction recorded
Loyalty/discount card used
Purchases at gas stations

What is Data Mining?
Finding and extracting interesting data to make decisions and predict outcomes
Databases
Transactional / Operational / Production
Scientific and engineering
Object-oriented
Data warehouses
World Wide Web (WWW)
Data Mining Applications
Target marketing, market basket analysis, and consumer profiling
Finding “model” customers who have similar characteristics – interests, income, spending
Determine which customers buy what products
Forecasting and customer retention
Identifying customers who are likely to switch the phone service
Then giving them the right incentives to stay
More Data Mining Applications
Risk analysis and management
Assessing the financial viability of companies
Fraud detection and management
Auto insurance, money laundering, telephone fraud, credit card fraud
Identify people who stage accidents to collect on insurance
Detect illegitimate credit cards transactions
Loan granting decisions
Financial institutions – assess creditworthiness of customers for home mortgages and other loans
Three-Tier Architecture
Client
Presentation layer (usually a GUI), simple logic for control purposes, input validation, etc.
May be a “thin” (browser only) or “fat” PC
Application (or Web)
Processing logic for business rules and data access
A “farm” consists of more than one server
Database
Organize, store and retrieve business data
A “farm
consists of more than one server
Summary
Organizations collect vast amounts of data
Database approach has several advantages over traditional file approach
Hierarchy of data
Metadata and data dictionary
Database management system (DBMS): tool to construct databases
Three-tier architecture
Web Technologies: A Review
Several standards and technologies enable the Web to deliver rich information, including:
HTTP, HTTPS, HTML, HTML5, XML
File Transfer
RSS
Blogs
Wikis
Podcasting
IM
Cookies
podcast
A podcast is recorded audio stored on a Web site that can be downloaded
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP
transfer and download Web informatio
HTTPS:
HTTP secure for confidential data exchange
HTTP secure for confidential data exchange
unique address given to each Web site
IP address: a special numeric address
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML):
: helps developer create Web pages
: helps developer create Web pages

Need essay sample on "chapter 7 and 8 cis 100"? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $ 13.90/page

Can’t wait to take that assignment burden offyour shoulders?

Let us know what it is and we will show you how it can be done!
×
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, please register

Already on Businessays? Login here

No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample register now and get a free access to all papers, carefully proofread and edited by our experts.
Sign in / Sign up
No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Not quite the topic you need?
We would be happy to write it
Join and witness the magic
Service Open At All Times
|
Complete Buyer Protection
|
Plagiarism-Free Writing

Emily from Businessays

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy