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Chapter 7 Environmental Science

Relative to agriculture, insects are usually ________.
essential pollinators and predators for sustainable systems
What is true about GM crops?
The United States leads the world in land area dedicated to GM crops.
The O horizon is ________.
primarily composed of organic materials
Shelterbelts are to ________ as terraces are to ________.
wind erosion; water erosion
We lose 5 to 7 million ha of productive cropland per year to ________.
erosion, overirrigation, and other factors
Which of the following requires the most feed to produce 1kg of protein?
beef
Monoculture ________.
is an agricultural practice of growing large stands of a single species
Industrial agriculture ________.
increased our ability to obtain more food from the same area
Of the following, ________ best describes integrated pest management (IPM).
biocontrol measures, crop rotation, and habitat diversification
It is more energetically efficient for us to eat more ________.
plant-based foods
Agriculture
practice of raising crops and livestock for human use and consumption
Crop-land
land used to raise plants for human use
Range- land or pasture
land used for grazing livestock
Traditional Agriculture
agriculture using human and animal muscle power, hand tools, and simple machines
Industrialized Agriculture
using large scale mechanization and fossil fuels to boost yields
A Horizon
Top Soil
O Horizon
Organic (litter layer)
Land Degradation
general deterioration of land decreasing its productivity and biodiversity
Erosion
removal of material from one place to the other by wind or water
deposistion
arrival of eroded material at a new location
Desertification
loss of more than 10% of productivity
Conservation Districts
operate with federal direction authorization and funding
Irrigation
artificially providing water to support agriculture
Water Logging
over irrigated soils
Salinization
the build up of salts in surface soil layers
Fertilizers
substances containing essential nutrients
In-Organic Fertilizers
mined or synthetically manufactured mineral supplements
Organic Fertilizers
the remains or wastes of orginisms
Overgrazing
too many animals eat too much of the plant cover
Crop rotation
growing different crops from one year to the next
Contour farming
plowing perpendicular across a hill
Terracing
level platforms cut into steep hillsides
Intercropping
planting different crops in alternating bands
Shelterbelts (windbreaks)
rows of trees planted along edges of fields (slows the wind)
Conservation tillage
reduces the amount of tilling
No-till farming
disturbs the soil even less
Wetlands
swamps, marshes, bogs, river floodplains
Wetlands Reserve Program
landowners are paid to protect, restore, and enhance wetlands
Conservation Reserve Program
farmers are paid to put highly erodible land in conservation reserves
Undernourishment
people receive too few calories per day
Malnutrition
receiving too few nutrients in food
Overnutrition
receiving too many calories each day
Food Security
the guarantee of adequate and reliable food to all people at all times
Monoculture
the uniform planting of a single crop
pest
any organism that damages valuable
weed
any plant that competes with crops
pesticides
poisons that target pest organisms
insecticides
target insects
herbicides
target plants
fungicides
target fungi
evolutionary arms race
chemists increase chemical toxicity to compete with resistant pest
Biological Control(Biocontrol)
uses a pests natural predators to control the control
Bacillus Thuringiensis
soil bacteria that kills many pest
Pollination
male plant sex cells (pollen) fertilize female sex cells

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