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Chapter 7 Sociology Quiz

today’s organizations use more competitive work teams.
U.S. business organizations differ from those a century ago because
today’s organizations have a steeper pyramid shape.

today’s organizations have less flexibility.

today’s organizations use more competitive work teams.

today’s organizations grant less creative autonomy.

instrumental leadership
What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
expressive leadership

authoritarian leadership

instrumental leadership

democratic leadership

an in-group
Which type of social group commands a member’s esteem and loyalty?
a reference group

a social network

an in-group

an out-grou

Whatever their situation in absolute terms, people evaluate themselves and make comparisons to others in specific reference groups.
Samuel Stouffer’s study of soldier morale during World War II led to what conclusion?
Whatever their situation in absolute terms, people evaluate themselves and make comparisons to others in specific reference groups.

The greater the chances of getting ahead, the happier people are.

Happiness is a matter of personal values and standards.

The less chance for promotion, the higher soldiers’ morale.

Women place greater emphasis on communication.
According to Deborah Tannen, what traits make up a “female advantage”?
There are more women than men graduating from college.

Women are stricter managers.

Women place greater emphasis on communication.

White women are overrepresented in senior management positions.

secondary group; primary group
In general, we see a(n) _______ as a means to an end; we see a(n) _____ as an end in itself.
primary group; secondary group

crowd; category

secondary group; primary group

expressive group; instrumental group

a social group with three members.
A “triad” is
a trial marriage.

a temporary social group.

a social group with three members.

any pyramid-shaped organization.

McDonald’s organizational principles moving to dominate all of society.
The concept “McDonaldization” of society refers to
society becoming more filled with red tape and inefficiency.

the spread of McDonald’s restaurants around the world.

the less and less predictable nature of today’s society.

McDonald’s organizational principles moving to dominate all of society.

an instrumental leader
You are part of a task force with a group leader who has a distant relationship with the group members and who is concerned with getting the job done. Which type of leader does your task force have?
an instrumental leader

a democratic leader

a laissez-fair group leader

an expressive leader

weak emotional ties between members.
One characteristic of secondary groups is
strong emotional ties between members.

their small size.

weak emotional ties between members.

their long-term duration.

Organizations create alienation.
Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient, but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. As he saw it, what is the danger?
Organizations create conflict among workers.

Organizations create alienation.

Organizations create conformity.

Organizations create social inequality.

people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals.
Stanley Milgram’s research, in which subjects used a “shock generator,” showed
people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals.

the ability to withstand pain varies with cultural background.

that ordinary people are surprisingly independent in their judgments.

people become angry when others disagree with them.

a primary group.
Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as
an instrumental group.

an expressive group.

a primary group.

a secondary group.

groupthink
What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?
reference group consciousness

in-group thinking

groupthink

tunnel vision

Frederick Taylor.
The scientific management approach was developed by
Robert Michels.

Frederick Taylor.

Rosabeth Moss Kanter.

Robert Merton.

a category
What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as “college students”?
a group

a category

a crowd

a network

dyad.
A social group with only two members is called a
bond.

primary group.

triad.

dyad.

authoritarian leadership
Which type of leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told?
democratic leadership

expressive leadership

authoritarian leadership

laissez-faire leadership

unfamiliar with formal organizations.
In general, the largest social networks include people who are
older and working class.

young and living in cities.

living in rural areas.

unfamiliar with formal organizations.

democratic leader
Which type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens?
authoritarian leader

democratic leader

expressive leader

laissez-faire leader

crowd.
A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is a
group.

crowd.

population.

category.

network
Which sociological concept refers to a number of weak social ties among people who have little common identity and little interaction?
triad

dyad

network

primary group

ritualism.
The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waiting while filling out lots of paperwork is a classic example of bureaucratic
ritualism.

innovation.

inertia.

alienation.

more collective in their orientation.
During the last fifty years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being
less profitable.

less efficient.

more hierarchical.

more collective in their orientation.

normative organizations
Which type of formal organization is sometimes called a “voluntary association”?
normative organizations

utilitarian organizations

coercive organizations

All of these are correct.

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