Chapter 7 Sociology Quiz
today’s organizations have a steeper pyramid shape.
today’s organizations have less flexibility.
today’s organizations use more competitive work teams.
today’s organizations grant less creative autonomy.
a reference group
a social network
Whatever their situation in absolute terms, people evaluate themselves and make comparisons to others in specific reference groups.
The greater the chances of getting ahead, the happier people are.
Happiness is a matter of personal values and standards.
The less chance for promotion, the higher soldiers’ morale.
There are more women than men graduating from college.
Women are stricter managers.
Women place greater emphasis on communication.
White women are overrepresented in senior management positions.
primary group; secondary group
secondary group; primary group
expressive group; instrumental group
a trial marriage.
a temporary social group.
a social group with three members.
any pyramid-shaped organization.
society becoming more filled with red tape and inefficiency.
the spread of McDonald’s restaurants around the world.
the less and less predictable nature of today’s society.
McDonald’s organizational principles moving to dominate all of society.
an instrumental leader
a democratic leader
a laissez-fair group leader
an expressive leader
strong emotional ties between members.
their small size.
weak emotional ties between members.
their long-term duration.
Organizations create conflict among workers.
Organizations create alienation.
Organizations create conformity.
Organizations create social inequality.
people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals.
the ability to withstand pain varies with cultural background.
that ordinary people are surprisingly independent in their judgments.
people become angry when others disagree with them.
an instrumental group.
an expressive group.
a primary group.
a secondary group.
reference group consciousness
Rosabeth Moss Kanter.
older and working class.
young and living in cities.
living in rural areas.
unfamiliar with formal organizations.
more collective in their orientation.
All of these are correct.
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