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Chapter 9 Airway Management EMT

What does the upper airway consist of?
Nose, Mouth, Jaw, Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Larynx
What is the main function of the upper airway?
to warm, filter, and humidify the air that enters the body
What does the Pharynx consist of?
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx
What does the Lower Airway consist of?
Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs
What is the main function of the lower airway?
to exchange Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
What is in the Mediastinum?
Heart and Great Vessels, Esophagus, Trachea, Major Bronchi, and Nerves
What is Ventilation?
Physical act of breathing
What is Oxygenation?
process of loading oxygen molecules onto hemoglobin molecules in the bloodstream
What is Respiration?
Actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli as well as the tissue of the body
What is Inhalation?
Muscular Part of breathing, diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
What is partial pressure?
amount of gas in the air or dissolved fluid
The Partial Pressure of oxygen in air residing the alveoli is
104 mmHg
What regulates breathing?
the pH level in the cerebrospinal fluid
Oxygenation is required for ______ to take place.
internal respiration
Cells take energy from nutrients via ___
metabolism
Where does pulmonary respiration take place?
capillaries
Chemoreceptors monitor the levels of _____.
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Ions, and pH of cerebrospinal fluid
What happens when ventilation is compromised but perfusion continues? What is the result?
not all alveoli are enriched with oxygen
Results in hypoxemia.
What happens when Perfusion across the aveolar membrane is disrupted? What is the result?
Disruption in the blood flow does not allow for optimal exchange in gases across the membrane
Results in hypoxemia
Intrinsic factors affecting pulmonary ventilation
Infections, allergic reactions, and unresponsiveness.
Results in hypoxia and hinder adequate tissue perfusion
Medication factors affecting pulmonary ventilaton
lower respiration rate and tidal volume
Results in Hypercarbia, increased Carbon Dioxide levels in the blood stream
Trauma to the head/spinal cord factors affecting pulmonary ventilation
interrupts nervous control of ventilation
Results in decreased respiratory function and even failure.
Extrinsic Factors affecting pulmonary ventilation
blunt or penetrating trauma and burns
disrupts airflow through the trachea and into the lungs
Adequate Breathing for adults
12-20 breaths/min
Adequate Breathing for children
15-30 breaths/min
Adequate Breathing for infants
25-50 breaths/min
What factors create inaccurate pulse oximeter readings?
hypervolemia, anemia, severe peripheral vasoconstriction, nail polish, or dirty fingers.
What is OPA?
Inserted through the mouth of an unresponsive patient to keep the tongue from blocking the upper airway and to facilitate suctioning the airway
What are OPA indications?
Unresponsive patient without gag reflex
Any apneic patient being ventilated with a bag-mask device
What are OPA contraindications?
conscious or semi-conscious, gag reflex, clenched teeth, or oral trauma
Complications of OPA?
vomiting, laryngospasm, injury to hard/soft palate, airway obstruction
What is NPA?
Inserted through the nostril of an patient who is unable to maintain airway patency independently
What are NPA indications?
conscious or semiconscious adults with or without gag reflex, Children older than 12 months of age, teeth are clenched and OPA cannot be inserted, Oral Trauma
What are NPA contraindications?
Infants less than 12 months, Severe head injury with blood draining from the nose, History or suspect of fractured nasal bone
What are NPA complications?
vomiting, laryngospasm, injury and pressure necrosis to nasal mucusa, laceration of adenoids or tissue lining to nasal cavity, severe nosebleed, airway obstruction if kinked or clogged
External Factors affecting respirations
decreased atmospheric pressure at high altitudes
Internal Factors affecting respirations
pneumonia, COPD, etc
What can compromise circulation?
trauma emegencies typically obstruct blood flow
Explain Adequate Breathing for adults
12-20 breaths per minute
regular inhalation/exhalation pattern
bilateral clear lungs
adequate breaths
chest rise and fall
Never suction the mouth or nose for more than __ seconds at one time for an adult
15
Never suction the mouth or nose for more than __ seconds at one time for a child
10
Never suction the mouth or nose for more than __ seconds at one time for an infant
5
Suctioning too long can result in
Hypoxia
What is the preferred way to give oxygen in the prehospital setting?
nonrebreathing mask; 10-15 L/min
What delivers oxygen through two small tubelike prongs?
nasal cannula
Nasal Cannula can provide ___ to ___% inspired oxygen when the flowmeter is set to 1-6 L/ min?
24% to 44%
The process by which carbon dioxide moves form a high concentration in the capillaries to a lower concentration in the alveoli is:
diffusion
The aspect of natural ventilation that involves the diaphragm contracting and the chest wall expanding is
inhalation
What does the upper airway consist of?
Pharynx, Mouth, Epiglottis, and Larynx
What does the lower airway consist of?
Trachea, Alveoli, Bronchioles, and Main Bronchi
The process by which carbon dioxide moves form a high concentration in the capillaries to a lower concentration in the alveoli is:
diffusion
A patient who is developing early stages of hypoxia may exhibit:
restlessness, irritability, apprehension, tachycardia, anxiety
A patient who takes an occasional gasping after his heart has stopped has ___ respirations
agonal
When inserting a nasopharyngeal airway, it is important to:
measure the size from the tip of the nose to the earlobe, ensure the bevel faces the septum when inserting into the right nare, and lubricating the airway with a water based lubrincant
If a D-sized oxygen cylinder contains 300 L of oxygen and is at 2,000 psi at the start of a call, the best estimate for the amount of time a patient can receive 15 L/min with a nonreabreathing mask is:
20 minutes
Properly performed suctioning of a patient may still cause
vomiting
When using a bag-valve mask device, what key finding should you observe to assure adequate ventilation?
good chest rise and fall
The most common complication of the flow restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device is:
gastric distention
The structure also known as the windpipe is:
the trachea
Fresh air breathed into the lungs contains about what percentage of oxygen?
21%
Cells needs a constant supply of oxygen to suvive. Some cells may become severely or permanetley damaged after what period of time without oxygen?
4-6 minutes
With an oxygen rate of 15 L’min and an adequate mask to mouth seal, a bag-mas device with an oxygen reservoir can deliver what percentage of oxygen?
100%
What is ventilation?
physical act of breathing
What is Oxygenation?
Process of loading oxygen molecules onto hemoglobin molecules in blood stream
What is Respiration
actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli as well as the tissue of the body
What is the partial pressure of oxygen in air residing in alveoli?
104 mmHg
A patient who is developing late stages of hypoxia may exhibit:
mental status changes, thready pulse, cyanosis
Fresh air breathed into the lungs contains about what percentage of nitrogen?
78%
Fresh air breathed into the lungs contains about what percentage of Carbon Dioxide?
0.3%
What is aerobic metabilism?
metabolism that can proceed only in th presence of oxygen
What is anaerobic metabolism?
the metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen
The is the product of anaerobic metabolism?
lactic acid
Describe chemoreceptors
monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, and pH of the cerebrospinal fluid and then provides feedback to the respiratory centers to modify the rate and depth of breathing base on the body’s needs at any given time
Describe central chemoreceptors
located in the medulla, respond quickly to slight elevations in carbon dioxide, or decrease in the pH of cerebrospinal fluid
Describe peripheral chemoreceptors
located in the carotid arteries and aortic arch, are sensitive to decreased levels of oxygen in arterial blood as well as to low pH levels
Describe dorsal respiratory group
responsible for initiating inspiration based on the information received from the chemoreceptors
What does the apneustic center stimulate?
Dorsal respiratory group, resulting in slower, longer respirations
What is the ventral respiratory group’s primary responsibility?
motor control of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles
What does the pneumotaxic center help shut off?
the dorsal respiratory group, resulting in shorter, faster respirations
What is adequate breathing for adults?
12-20 breaths/min
What is adequate breathing for children?
15-30 breaths/min
What is adequate breathing for infants?
25-50 breaths/min
What can cause inacurate reading on the pulse oximeter?
hypervolemia, anemia, sever peripheral vasoconstriction, and nail polish/dirty fingers
What is OP airway?
inserted through the mouth of unresponsive patient to keep the tongue from blocking upper airway and facilitate suctioning
What is the indication for OP airway?
unresponsive with no gag reflex.
Apneic patient being ventilated with a bag-mask device
What is the contraindiction for OP airway?
conscious patient with gag reflex
What is NP airway?
inserted through the nostril of patient who is unable to maintain airway potency independently
What is indication for NP airway?
Semiconscious or unconscious with an intact gag reflex and will not tolerate the OP airway
What is contraindiction for NP airway?
severe head injury with blood drainage from the nose or history of fractured nasal bone
What is considered using accessory muscles?
sternocleidomastoid
What part of the airway serves as the functional site for gas exchange?
alveoli
As you approach the patient, he begins to should “Hurry up and take care of me, will you!” Early sings of hypoxia includes:
irritability
What supplemental oxygen device should you have your partner apply to a hypoxic patient?
nonrebreathing mask
Your patient tells you that he has a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and high cholesterol. Patients with COPD are stimulated to breath by the
hypoxic drive
While en route to the emergency department, the patient’s level of coniousness diminshes, his respiratory rate decreased to 4 breaths/min his lips have a blue tint, and the pulse oximeter is not reading 65%. You should begin delivering artificial breaths with a bag-mask device at a rate of one breath every:
5-6 seconds
When ventilating a patient, the volume of air delivered to the patient is based on:
chest rise
Seizures and strokes are examples of what type of medical emergency?
neurologic
Your awareness and concern for potentially serious underlying and unseen injuries or illness is called the
index of suspicion
AEROBIC METABOLISM
METABOLISM THAT CAN PROCEED ONLY IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. (BI-PRODUCTS ARE WATER AND CARBON DIXOIDE)
AGONAL RESPIRATIONS
OCCASIONAL, GASPING BREATHS THAT OCCUR AFTER THE HEART HAS STOPPED.
AIRWAY
THE UPPER AIRWAY TRACT OR THE PASSAGE ABOVE THE LARYNX WHICH INCLUDES THE NOSE, MOUTH AND THROAT.
ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
THE VOLUME OF AIR THAT REACHES THE ALVEOLI. IT IS DETERMINED BY SUBTRACTING THE AMOUNT OF DEAD SPACE AIR FROM THE TIDAL VOLUME.
AMERICAN STANDARD SYSTEM
A SAFETY SYSTEM FOR LARGE OXYGEN CYLINDERS, DESIGNED TO PREVENT THE ACCIDENTAL ATTACHMENT OF A REGULATOR TO A CYLINDER CONTAINING THE WRONG TYPE OF GAS
ANAEROBIC METABOLISM
THE METABOLISM THAT TAKES PLACE IN THE ABSENCE OF OXYGEN. (BI-PRODUCT IS LACTIC ACID)
APNEA
ABSCENCE OF SPONTANEOUS BREATHING.
ASPIRATION
THE INTRODUCTION OF VOMITUS OR OTHER FOREIGN MATERIAL INTO THE LUNGS.
ATAXIC RESPIRATIONS
IRREGULAR, INEFFECTIVE RESPIRATIONS THAT MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE AN IDENTIFIABLE PATTERN.
AUTOMATIC TRANSPORT VENTILATOR (ATV)
A VENTILATION DEVICE ATTACHED TO A CONTROL BOX THAT ALLOWS THE VARIABLES OF VENTILATION TO BE SET. IT FRES THE EMT TO PERFORM OTHER TASKS WHILE THE PATIENT IS BEING VENTILATED.
BAG-MASK DEVICE
A DEVICE WITH A ONE-WAY VALVE AND A FACE MASK ATTACHED TO A VENTILATION BAG; WHEN ATTACHED TO A RESERVOIR AND CONNECTED TO OXYGEN, DELIVERS MORE THAN 90% SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN.
BARRIER DEVICE
A PROTECTIVE ITEM, SUCH AS A POCKET MASK WITH A VALVE, THAT LIMITES EXPOSURE TO A PATIENT’S BODY FLUIDS.
BILATERAL
A BODY PART OR CONDITION THAT APPEARS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE MIDLINE.
BRONCHIOLES
SUBDIVISION OF THE SMALLER BRONCHI IN THE LUNGS; MADE SMOOTH MUSCLE AND DILATE OR CONSTRICT IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS STIMULI.
CARINA
POINT AT WHICH THE TRACHEA BIFURCATES (DIVIDES) INTO THE LEFT AND RIGHT MAINSTEM BRONCHI.
CHEMORECEPTORS
MONITOR THE LEVELS OF 02, C02 AND THE pH OF THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND THEN PROVIDE FEEDBACK TO THE RESPIRATORY CENTERS TO MODIFY THE RATE AND DEPTH OF BREATHING BASED ON THE BODY’S NEEDS AT ANY GIVEN TIME.
COMPLIANCE
THE ABILITY OF THE ALVEOLI TO EXPAND WHEN AIR IS DRAWN IN DURING INHALATION.
CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (CPAP)
A METHOD OF VENTILATION USED PRIMARILY IN THE TREATMENT OF CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS; CAN PREVENT THE NEED FOR ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION.
CRICOID PRESSURE
PRESSURE ON THE CRICOID CARTILAGE; APPLIED TO OCCLUDE THE ESOPHAGUS TO INHIBIT GASTRIC DESTENTION AND REGURGITATION OF VOMITUS IN THE UNCONSCIOUS PATIENT.
DEAD SPACE
THE PORTION OF THE TIDAL VOLUME THAT DOES NOT REACH THE ALVEOLI AND THUS DOES NOT PARTICIPATE IN GAS EXCHANGE.
DIFFUSION
A PROCESS IN WHICH MOLECULES MOVE FROM AN AREA OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION.
DYSPNEA
SHORTNESS OF BREATH
EXHALATION
THE PASSIVE PART OF THE BREATHING PROCESS IN WHICH THE DIAPHRAGM AND THE INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES RELAX, FORCING AIR OUT OF THE LUNGS.
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
THE EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN THE LUNGS AND THE BLOOD CELLS IN THE PULMONARY CAPILLARIES; ALSO CALLED PULMONARY RESPIRATION.
GAG REFLEX
A NORMAL REFLEX MECHANISM THAT CAUSES RETCHING; ACTIVATED BY TOUCHING THE SOFT PALATE OR THE BACK OF THE THROAT.
GASTRIC DISTENTION
A CONDITION IN WHICH AIR FILLS THE STOMACH, OFTEN AS A RESULT OF HIGH VOLUME AND PRESSURE DURING ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION.
GLOTTIS
THE SPACE IN BETWEEN THE VOCAL CORDS THAT IS THE NARROWEST PORTION OF THE ADULT’S AIRWAY, ALSO CALLED THE GLOTTIC OPENING.
GOOD AIR EXCHANGE
A TERM USED TO DISTINGUISH THE DEGREE OF DISTRESS IN A PATIENT WITH A MILD AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. WITH GOD AIR EXCHANGE THE PATIENT IS STILL CONSCIOUS AND ABLE TO COUGH FORCEFULLY, ALTHOUGH WHEEZING MAY BE HEARD.
HEAD TILT-CHIN LIFT MANEUVER
A COMBINATION OF TWO MOVEMENTS TO OPEN THE AIRWA BY TILTING THE FOREHEAD BACK AND LIFTING THE CHIN; NOT USED FOR TRAUMA PATIENTS.
HYPERCARBIA
INCREASED CARBON DIOXIDE LEVEL IN THE BLOODSTREAM.
HYPOXIA
A DANGEROUS CONDITION IN WHICH THE BODY TISSUES AND CELLS DO NOT HAVE ENOUGH OXYGEN.
HYPOXIC DRIVE
A CONDITION IN WHICH CHRONICALLY LOW LEVELS OF OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD STIMULATE THE RESPIRATORY DRIVE, SEEN IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LUNG DISEASES.
INHALATION
THE ACTIVE, MUSCULAR PART OF BREATHING THAT DRAWS AIR INTO THE AIRWAY AND LUNGS.
INTERNAL RESPIRATION
THE EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN THE BLOOD CELLS AND THE TISSUES.
INTRAPULMONARY SHUNTING
BYPASSING OF OXYGEN POOR BLOOD PAST NONFUNCTIONAL ALVEOLI TO THE LEFT SIDE OF THE HEART.
JAW-THRUST
TECHNIQUE TO OPEN THE AIRWAY BY PLACING THE FINGERS BEHIND THE ANGLE OF THE JAW AND BRINING THE JAW FORWARD; USED FOR PATIENTS WHO MAY HAVE A CERVICAL SPINE INJURY.
LABORED BREATHING
BREATHING THAT REQUIRES GREATER THAN NORMAL EFFORT; MAY BE SLOWER OR FASTER THAN NORMAL AND USUALLY REQUIRES THE USE OF ACCESSORY MUSCLES.
LARYNX
A COMPLEX STRUCTURE FORMED BY MANY INDEPENDENT CARTILAGINOUS STRUCTURES THAT ALL WORK TOGETHER; WHERE THE UPPER AIRWAY ENDS AND THE LOWER AIRWAY BEGINS; ALSO CALLED THE VOICE BOX.
MANUALLY TRIGGERED VENTILATION DEVICE
A FIXED FLOW/RATE VENTILATION DEVICE THAT DELIVERS A BREATH EVERYTIME ITS BUTTON IS PUSHED; ALSO REFERRED TO AS A FLOW-RESTICTED, OXYGEN POWERED VENTILATION DEVICE.
MEDIASTINUM
SPACE WITHIN THE CHEST THAT CONTAINS THE HEART, MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS, VAGUS NERVE, TRACHEA, MAJOR BRONCHI AND ESOPHAGUS; LOCATED BETWEEN THE TWO LUNGS.
METABOLISM (CELLULAR RESPIRATION)
THE BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES THAT RESULT IN PRODUCTION OF ENERGY FROM NUTRIENTS WITHIN THE CELLS.
MILD AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
OCCURS WHENA FOREIGN BODY PARTIALLY OBSTRUCTS THE PATIENT’S AIRWAY. THE PATIENT IS ABLE TO MOVE ADEQUATE AMOUNTS OF AIR, BUT ALSO EXPERIENCES SOME DEGREE OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS.
MINUTE VENTILATION
THE VOLUME OF AIR MOVED THROUGH THE LUNGS IN 1 MINUTE MINUS THE DEAD SPACE; CALCULATED BY MULTIPLYING TIDAL VOLUME (MINUS DEAD SPACE) AND RESPIRATORY RATE; ALSO REFERRED TO AS MINUTE VOLUME.
NASAL CANNULA
AN OXYGEN DELIVERY DEVICE IN WHICH THE OXYGEN FLOWS THROUGH TWO SMALL, TUBELIKE PRNOGS THAT FIT INTO THE PATIENT’S NOSTRILS; DELIVERS 24%-44% SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN, DEPENDING ON THE FLOW RATE.
NASOPHARYNGEAL (NASAL) AIRWAY
AIRWAY ADJUNCT INSERTED INTO THE NOSTRIL OF AN UNRESPONSIVE PATIENT, OR A PATIENT WITH AN ALTERED LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS WHO IS UNABLE TO MAINTAIN AIRWAY PATENCY INDEPENDENTLY.
NASOPHARYNX
THE NASAL CAVITY; FORMED BY THE UNION OF FACIAL BONES AND PROTECTS THE RESPIRATORY TRACT FROM CONTAMINANTS.
NONREBREATHING MASK
A COMBINATION MASK AND RESERVOIR BAG SYSTEM THAT IS THE PREFERRED WAY TO GIVE OXYGEN IN THE PREHOSPITAL SETTING; DELIVERS UP TO 90% INSPIRED OXYGEN AND PREVENTS INHALING THE EXHALED GASES (CARBON DIXOIDE)
OROPHARYNGEAL (ORAL) AIRWAY
AIRWAY ADJUNCT INSERTED INTO THE MOUTH OF AN UNRESPONSIVE PATIENT TO KEEP THE TOUNGE FROM BLOCKING THE UPPER AIRWAY AND TO FACILITATE SUCTIONING THE AIRWAY IF NECESSARY.
OROPHARYNX
FORMS THE POSTERIOR PORTION OF THE ORGAL CAVITY, WHICH IS BORDERED SUPERIORLY BY THE HARD AND OFT PALATES, LATERALLY BY THE CHEEKS, AND INFERIORLY BY THE TOUNGE.
OXYGENATION
THE PROCESS OF DELIVERING OXYGEN TO THE BLOOD BY DIFFUSION FROM THE ALVEOLI FOLLOWING INHALATION INTO THE LUNGS.
PARIETAL PLEURA
THIN MEMBRANE THAT LINES THE CHEST CAVITY.
PARTIAL PRESSURE
THE TERM USED TO DESCRIBE THE AMOUNT OF GAS IN AIR OR DISSOLVED IN FLUID, SUCH AS BLOOD.
PATENT
OPEN CLEAR OF OBSTRUCTION
PHRENIC NERVE
NERVE THAT INNERVATES THE DIAPHRAGM; NECESSARY FOR ADEQUATE BREATHING TO OCCUR.
PIN-INDEXING SYSTEM
A SYSTEM ESTABLISHED FOR PORTABLE CYLINDERS TO ENSURE THAT A REGULATOR IS NOT CONNECTED TO A CYLINDER CONTAINING THE WRONG TYPE OF GAS.
PNEUMOTHORAX
A PARTIAL OR COMPLETE ACCUMULATION OF AIR IN THE PLEURAL SPACE.
POOR AIR EXCHANGE
A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE THE DEGREE OF DISTRESS IN A PATIENT WITH A MILD AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. WITH POOR AIR EXCHANGE, THE PATIENT OFTEN HAS A WEAK, INEFFECTIVE COUGH, INCREASED DIFFICULTY BREATHING, OR POSSIBLE CYANOSIS AND MAY PRODCE A HIGH-PITCHED NOISE DURING INHALATION (STRIDOR)
POSITIVE END-EXPIRATORY PRESSURE (PEEP)
MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE O PRESURE IN THE AIRWAY AT THE END OF EXPIRATION TO INCREASE THE VOLUME OF GAS REMAINING IN THE LUNGS.
PULSE OXIMETRY
AN ASSESSMENT TOOL THAT MEASURES OXYGEN SATURATION OF HEMOGLOBIN IN THE CAPILLARY BEDS.
RECOVERY POSITION
A SIDE-LYING POSITION USED TO MAINTAIN A CLEAR AIRWAY IN UNCONSCIOUS PATIENTS WITHOUT INJURIES WHO AE BREATHING ADEQUATELY.
RESIDUAL VOLUME
THE AIR THAT REMAINS IN THE LUNGS AFTER MAXIMAL EXPIRATION.
RESPIRATION
THE PROCESS OF EXCHANGING OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE.
RETRACTIONS
MOVEMENTS IN WHICH THE SKIN PULLS IN AROUND THE RIBS DURING INSPIRATION.
SELLICK MANEUVER
A TECHNIQUE THAT IS USED TO PREVENT GASTRIC DISTENTION IN WHICH PRESSURE IS APPLIED TO THE CRICOID CARTILAGE; ALSO REFERRED TO AS CRICOID PRESSURE.
SEVER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
OCCURS WHEN A FOREIGN BODY COMPLETELY OBSTRUCTS THE PATIENT’S AIRWAY. PATIENT’S CANNOT BREATHE, TALK OR COUGH.
STOMA
AN OPENING THROUGH THE SKIN AND INTO AN ORGAN OR OTHER STRUCTURE; A STOMA IN THE NECK CONNECTS THE TRACHEA DIRECTLY TO THE SKIN.
STRIDOR
A HIGH-PITCHED NOISE HEARD PRIMARILY ON INSPIRATION.
SUCTION CATHETER
A HOLLOW, CYLINDRICAL DEVICE USED TO REMOVE FLUID FROM THE PATIENT’S AIRWAY.
SURFACTANT
A LIQUID PROTEIN SUBSTANCE THAT COATS THE ALVEOLI IN THE LUNGS, DECREASES ALVEOLAR SURFACE TENSION, AND KEEPS THE ALVEOLI EXPANDED; A LOW LEVEL IN A PREMATURE INFANT CONTRIBUTES TO RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME.
TENSION PNEUMOTHORAX
A LIFE-THREANING COLLECTION OF AIR WITHIN THE PLEURAL SPACE; THE VOLUME AND PRESSURE HAVE BOTH COLLAPSED THE INVOLVED LUNG AND CAUSED A SHIFT OF THE MEDIASTINAL STRUCTURES TO THE OPPOSITE SIDE.
TIDAL VOLUME
THE AMOUNT OF AIR (IN mL) THAT IS MOVED IN OR OUT OF THE LUNGS DURING ONE BREATH.
TONSIL TIPS
LARGE, SEMIRIGID SUCTION TIPS RECOMMENDED FOR SUCTIONING THE PHARYNX; ALSO CALLED YANKAUER TIPS.
TRACHEOSTOMY
SURGICAL OPENING INTO THE TRACHEA.
VENTILATION
EXCHANGE OF AIR BETWEEN THE LUNGS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, SPONTANEOUSLY BY THE PATIENT OR WITH ASSISTANCE FROM ANOTHER PERSON, SUCH AS AN EMT.
VISCERAL PLEURA
THIN MEMBRANE THAT COVERS THE LUNGS
VITAL CAPACITY
THE AMOUNT OF AIR THAT CAN BE FORCIBLY EXPELLED FROM THE LUNGS AFTER BREATHING IN AS DEEPLY AS POSSIBLE.
VOCAL CORDS
THIN WHITE BANDS OF TOUGH MUSCULAR TISSUE THAT ARE LATERAL BORDERS OF THE GLOTTIS AND SERVE AS THE PRIMARY CENTER FOR SPEECH PRODUCTION.
WHEEZING
THE PRODUCTION OF WHISTLING SOUNDS DURING EXPIRATION SUCH AS OCCURS IN ASTHMA AND BRONCHIOLITIS.
Appropriate suctioning setting for adult
between 80-120 mmHg
Appropriate suctioning setting for children
between 50-100 mmHg
How to measure catheter insertion for OP?
corner of mouth to edge of earlobe
What will occur with excessive negative pressure from OP suctioning?
hypoxia
When should oxygen be removed?
when suctioning is ready
Maximum suctioning time for Peds
5-10 seconds
Maximum suctioning time for adults
10-15 seconds
Rigid Catheter oxygen sourse ventilation rate for Adults
10-20/minute
Rigid Catheter oxygen source ventilation rate for Peds
12-20/minute

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