Chapter 9: Management Principles
– involves basic functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
– primary force that coordinates the activities of subsystems within organizations
– part of the transformation process
Middle managers – primary responsibility to coordinated activites that implement policies of the organization at a technical level. Direct activity of other managers. Responsible for communication btwn upper and lower levels of org.
Top managers – small group of executives that contorl the organization. Develop vision, est. operating policies, and guide organizational interaction with the environment
leader role – manager in charge of organization or unit is also reponsible for the work of the staff. Functions of role includes hiring and training employees to creating environment that will motivate staff
liason role – dealing with people inside and outside the organization
disseminator role – manager transmits info to subordinates who otherwise would probably have no access to info; make decisions concerning the info needs of staff members
spokesperson role – manager transmits info to people inside and outside of the organization or unit
distubance handler role – manager responds to situations that are beyond their control.
resources allocator role – manager decides how and to whom the resources of the organization will be distributes; must be mindful of the needs of the unit while considering the priorities of the overall operation
negotiator role – manager participates in a process of give-and-take until a satisfactory compromise is reached
Such skill requires specialized knowledge, analytical ability, and expertise in the use of tools and procedures
Human Skill. Human or interpersonal, skill concerns working with people and understanding their behavior.
Human skill, which requires effective communication, is vital to all the manager’s activities and must be consistently demonstrated in actions.
Conceptual Skill. Conceptual skill is the ability to view the organization as a whole, recognizing how various parts depend on one another and how changes in one part affect other parts.
Conceptual skill also involves the ability to understand the organization within the environmental context; a good example is the relationship of the organization to other similar organizations and to suppliers within the community.
Goals represent the desired future conditions that individuals, groups, or organizations strive to achieve.
Objectives are merely goals, or end points, and set the direction for all managerial planning.
Once objectives are determined, specific plans such as policies, procedures, and methods can be established for achieving them in a more systematic manner.
Policies are the guidelines for action in an organization, and procedures and methods define steps for implementation.
Short-range, or operational, planning typically covers a period of 1 year or less; for example, the operating budget for a year.
Long-range planning in most organizations encompasses a 5-year cycle; however, a longer time span may be essential for some aspects of planning, such as a major building program.
Generally, top managers, who function at the policy-making level of the organization are responsible for broad, comprehensive planning involving goals and objectives
Middle managers, at the organizational or coordinative level, are responsible for developing policies
First-line (a.k.a. front-line) managers at the technical or operational level are responsible for developing procedures and methods.
Long-range planning involves decision making that commits resources over an extended period of time. There is a need for flexibility.
Rapidly changing technology, competitive and market situations, and political pressures make forecasting extremely difficult.
Rigid planning at early stages involves the risk of inability to cope with changes.
Competent people at all levels are required to ensure that appropriate goals are pursued and that activities proceed in such a way that these goals are achieved.
Later, training is designed to improve job skills, and development programs are used to prepare employees for increased responsibilities.
Directing and channeling human effort for the accomplishment of objectives
Primarily concerned with creating an environment in which employees are motivated to contribute to achieving goals
Viewed as being concerned with interpersonal and intergroup relationships to create cooperation and enlist commitment to organizational goals.
All managing involves interaction with people and thus demands an understanding of how we affect and are affected by others.
When managers direct others, they use that understanding to accomplish tasks through the work of other members of the organization.
It involves comparing what should be done with what was done and then taking corrective action, if necessary.
Controlling must be a continuous process that affects and is affected by each of the other managerial functions.
An ideal organization results in the most efficient use of resources.
Organization chart and job descriptions or position guides—pattern of formal relationships and duties.
Differentiation or departmentalization—assignment of various activities or tasks to different units or people of the organization.
Integration—coordination of separate activities or tasks.
Delegation of authority—power, status, and hierarchical relationships within the organization.
Administrative systems—guidance of activities and relationships of people in the organization through planned and formalized policies, procedures, and controls.
Empowered Decision Making: Employees, not just managers, are involved in decision-making.
Sociability: A sense of belonging to the organization is created for all members.
New bases of management power: A shift has occurred from use of only downward authority to inclusion of upward and lateral lines of authority and input.
Personal consideration: Greater recognition is given to the importance of individual employees, not just the job they perform.
Team-based with group recognition: Formation of teams of employees and/or managers working together to accomplish goals with more emphasis on team rather than individual recognition.
Self-fulfillment: Employee job satisfaction and sense of accomplishment is more valued.
Flat hierarchy: The number of managerial levels has been reduced.
Emphasis on vision and values: Companies are finding it more important to formulate clear visions and values to which employees can commit themselves.
Managers as change agents: Change is viewed as a critical component in organization success, and managers are expected to stimulate and facilitate change.
Technologically savvy: Effective use of all forms of technology and a presence on the Internet are necessary components of organizations.
Bottom-up style of management: Involving employees as part of the team
Having fun: Finding ways both at work and outside of work for fun
Community involvement: Participating in community service programs
Emphasis on physical health and fitness: Practicing a belief that a sound mind goes along with a sound body.
In addition to establishing authority at various levels of the organization, vertical division of labor facilitates communication flow.
A horizontal structure encourages employees to share ideas across all levels and departments.
The teams design and do the organization’s work; there is no managerial hierarchy involved.
In this structure, experts from a variety of departments are pulled together to work with a project manager on a specified project; when the project is completed, employees return to their areas.
Authority is delegated down the hierarchy of the organization as designated by upper management.
Responsibility is a concept closely related to authority and refers to an obligation for performing an assigned activity.
Several factors are involved in determining the proper number:
Organizational policies. Clearly defined policies can reduce the time managers spend making decisions; the more comprehensive the policies, the greater the span of management.
Availability of staff experts. Managers can have increased span if staff experts are available to provide advice and services.
Competence of staff. Well-trained workers can perform their jobs without close supervision, thus freeing competent managers to expand their span of management.
Objective standards. In organizations with objective standards and standardized procedures, workers have a basis by which to gauge their own progress, thus allowing managers to concentrate on exceptions. — As a result, larger spans are possible.
Nature of the work. Less complicated work tends to require less supervision than more complicated work.– Generally, the simpler and more uniform the work, the greater the possible span.
Distribution of workforce. The number of areas where supervised workers are on duty may inhibit severely a manager’s ability to visit all work sites. –The greater the dispersion of workers, the shorter is the span.
Formal authority is also referred to as positional authority, meaning that authority is derived from the position or office.
Although they may have formal authority, this authority is effective only if subordinates accept it.
A command may be accepted, not because of organizational title, but because the employee believes the person giving the command is knowledgeable.
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