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Chapter 9 Practice

In addition to correcting substandard work, employees have an ethical obligation to __________ whatever led to the quality problem as well.

A. prevent

B. offset

C. report

D. standardize

E. redesign


When an organization comes to the realization that there are quality problems in products that are already in service, ethical approaches include:

(I) divulging the information to the public at large.
(II) recalling, if possible, affected products.
(III) handling complaints on an individual rather than a systemic basis.

A. I and III

B. I and II

C. II and III

D. I, II, and III

E. Neither I, II, nor III


The quality certification that deals primarily with conformance to customer requirements is ISO __________; ISO __________ is concerned primarily with the organization’s effect on the environment.

A. 9000; 14000

B. 24700; 9000

C. 14000; 9000

D. 9000; 24700

E. 14000; 24700


ISO certification is similar to the Baldrige Award in its emphasis on:

A. statistical tools.

B. self-appraisal.

C. teamwork.

D. outsourcing.

E. services.


ISO certification differs substantially from the Baldrige Award in that it:

A. focuses primarily on quality teams.

B. emphasizes self-appraisal.

C. is an ongoing process.

D. is customer-driven.

E. is national rather than international.


Six sigma programs involve both __________ and __________ components.

A. probabilistic; deterministic

B. logistical; managerial

C. statistical; probabilistic

D. managerial; technical

E. local; global


The “Control” phase of DMAIC is intended to ensure that:

A. the proper subset of process inputs are monitored.

B. variability reduction is pursued.

C. data analysis is overseen.

D. inputs are closely monitored.

E. improvements are sustained.


Among the guiding principles of six sigma are:

(I) Reduction of variation is an important goal.
(II) Valid measurement is critical.
(III) Outputs determine inputs.
(IV) We should focus on those critical few influences on our quality.

A. I, II, and IV only

B. II and IV only

C. I and III only

D. I, II, III, and IV

E. III only


A tool that is not used for quality management is a:

A. flowchart.

B. histogram.

C. Pareto analysis.

D. redesign.

E. check sheet.


The four dimensions of quality that are sometimes used to determine fitness for use of a product are:

A. performance, special features, durability, and service after sale.

B. performance, special features, conformance, and reliability.

C. special features, conformance, reliability, and durability.

D. performance, conformance, reliability, and durability.

E. special features, conformance, durability, and service after sale.


A tool that depicts process variation graphically is a(n):

A. affinity diagram.

B. checklist.

C. control chart.

D. flowchart.

E. relationship diagram.


Which is not a cost of quality?

A. prevention cost

B. external failure

C. extended service contracts

D. internal failure

E. appraisal costs


The Deming Prize was established by the:

A. American Statistical Association.

B. Japanese.

C. North American Free Trade Association.

D. American Quality Society.

E. World Trade Organization.


Lost production time, scrap, and rework are examples of:

A. internal failure costs.

B. external failure costs.

C. appraisal costs.

D. prevention costs.

E. replacement costs.


Warranty service, processing of complaints, and costs of litigation are examples of:

A. internal failure costs.

B. external failure costs.

C. appraisal costs.

D. prevention costs.

E. replacement costs.


Costs of inspectors, testing, test equipment, and labs are examples of:

A. internal failure costs.

B. external failure costs.

C. appraisal costs.

D. prevention costs.

E. replacement costs.


Loss of business, liability, productivity, and costs are consequences of:

A. labor unions.

B. globalization.

C. poor quality.

D. robotics.

E. micro-factories.


Quality planning and administration, quality training, and quality control procedures are examples of:

A. internal failure costs.

B. external failure costs.

C. appraisal costs.

D. prevention costs.

E. replacement costs.


The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award aims to:

(I) publicize successful quality programs.
(II) recognize quality achievements of U.S. companies.
(III) stimulate efforts to improve quality.
(IV) distribute the grant money available for improved quality.

A. I and IV only

B. I and II only

C. II and III only

D. I, II, III, and IV

E. I, II, and III only


Fixing a problem will often cost money; to minimize these costs it is best to find and fix the problem:

A. just before shipping our product to the customer.

B. immediately after we complete the last operation.

C. during the design phase.

D. just before we begin the first production operation.

E. Regardless of when you fix the problem, costs are about the same.


Deciding how much to invest in the prevention of defects can be analyzed using:


B. net present value.

C. weighted factor analysis.

D. return on quality.

E. break-even analysis.


The Baldrige Award is based on seven categories. Which is not one of those?

A. relative profitability

B. strategic planning

C. human resource focus

D. information and analysis

E. leadership


ISO 9000 standards do not have a requirement for:

A. resource.

B. remedial.

C. systems.

D. training.

E. management.


A quality circle is:

A. responsible for quality.

B. total quality control.

C. an inspection stamp found on meat.

D. a voluntary group of employees.

E. a team of customers and their contacts within the company.


ISO 9000 currently requires _____ of a certified organization.

A. quarterly reporting

B. product diversity

C. annual audits

D. a minimum of four supervisory levels

E. continuous improvement


The quality control improvement tool which distinguishes between the “important few” and the “trivial many” is:

A. brainstorming.

B. check sheets.

C. Pareto analysis.

D. cause-and-effect diagrams.

E. fail-safe methods.


The quality control improvement tool that resembles a “fishbone” is:

A. brainstorming.

B. check sheets.

C. Pareto analysis.

D. cause-and-effect diagrams.

E. fail-safe methods.


TQM stands for:

A. Taguchi Quality Methods.

B. Tactical Quality Measurements.

C. The Quality Matrix.

D. Total Quality Management.

E. Total Quantity Measurement.


Which of the following is not an element of TQM?

A. continuous improvement

B. competitive benchmarking

C. employee empowerment

D. team approach

E. quality management as a specialized function within the firm


Management behaviors supporting an organizational culture that encourages continuous improvement include which of the following?

(I) Develop a vision statement for the organization.
(II) Develop a reward system that promotes the philosophy.
(III) Institute continuous training programs.
(IV) Make decisions that adhere to the philosophy.

A. I, II, and IV

B. I, II, III, and IV

C. I and III

D. II, III, and IV

E. II and IV


The tool that is useful in documenting the current process is a:

A. control chart.

B. Pareto chart.

C. check sheet.

D. flowchart.

E. simo chart.


The tool that is useful in the collection and organization of data is a:

A. control chart.

B. Pareto chart.

C. check sheet.

D. flowchart.

E. runs chart.


A quality improvement technique that involves the sharing of thoughts and ideas in a way that encourages unrestrained collective thinking is:

A. Pareto analysis.

B. benchmarking.

C. brainstorming.

D. a control chart.

E. a check sheet.


In order for TQM to be successful, it is essential that most of the organization be:

A. members of quality circles.

B. under contract.

C. ISO certified.

D. trained in error detection techniques.

E. in agreement with the philosophy and its goals.


Which of the following raises quality risks?

A. currency fluctuations

B. outsourcing to less-developed countries

C. empowering employees

D. benchmarking

E. streamlining the supplier base


Focusing attention on the most important problem areas is referred to as:

A. quality circles.

B. quality assurance.

C. brainstorming.

D. Pareto analysis.

E. cause-and-effect analysis.


A chart showing the number of occurrences by category would be used in:

A. Pareto analysis.

B. interviewing.

C. cause-and-effect diagrams.

D. benchmarking.

E. quality function deployment.


Cause-and-effect diagrams are sometimes called:

A. Pareto diagrams.

B. fishbone (Ishikawa) diagrams.

C. run charts.

D. control charts.

E. responsibility charts.


The process of identifying other organizations that are best at some facet of your operations, and then modeling your organization after them is known as:

A. continuous improvement.

B. employee empowerment.

C. benchmarking.

D. copycatting.

E. industrial espionage.


Giving workers responsibility for quality improvements and authority to make changes is known as:

A. continuous improvement.

B. passing the buck.

C. benchmarking.

D. employee empowerment.

E. employee involvement.


The typical difference between quality circles and continuous improvement teams is:

A. quality circles work on product design only.

B. continuous improvement teams work on product and process design.

C. continuous improvement teams use only engineers, while quality circles use just the workers doing the work.

D. the amount of employee empowerment.

E. There is no difference—they are the same.


Which of the following is not a goal of process improvement?

A. increasing customer satisfaction

B. reducing waste

C. achieving higher quality

D. identifying the cause of a problem

E. All are the goals


Managers have obligations to a wide variety of stakeholders such as shareholders, employees, and customers. When considering outsourcing production to offshore suppliers, managers have to weigh:

(I) cost benefits that might make shareholders wealthier.
(II) quality issues that might make firms less productive and/or products riskier.
(III) the investments already tied up in relationships with existing suppliers.

A. I



D. I and II only

E. I, II, and III


Focusing a supply chain on ________________ is a modern way of ensuring high-quality inputs and a ready supply of process-improvement ideas.

A. lowest cost per unit sourced

B. close, collaborative ties with suppliers

C. suppliers that emphasize continuous-flow production

D. ISO 14000 customers

E. partners pursuing similar strategies


To minimize quality risks, which of the following would be least likely to be outsourced to less-developed countries?

A. rubber processing

B. repetitive assembly

C. packaging

D. pharmaceuticals

E. steel manufacturing


If customer satisfaction does not always lead to customer loyalty, firms may need to focus additional effort on __________ strategies.

A. remediation

B. retention

C. rework

D. repatriation

E. reprocessing


Before a dimension of quality can be made operationally useful, it must be restated in some ___________ form.

A. qualitative

B. manipulative

C. certifiable

D. measurable

E. marketable


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