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Chapter 9 Section 9.2

Reputational Method
Individuals rank other community members
Subjective Method
Individuals rank themselves
Objective Method
Sociologist define social class by income, occupation, and education.
Upper Class
Owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to family fortunes, some top business executives
Upper Middle Class
The members of this class are primarily high-income businesspeople and professionals
Lower Middle Class
Most individuals in this class hold white-collar jobs, work that does not involve manual labor
Working Class
Mant members of this class hold jobs that require manual labor
Working Poor
Have the lowest-paying jobs these jobs are often temporary of seasonal
Underclass
Families that have experienced unemployment and poverty over several generations
Social Mobility
The movement between or within social classes or strata- is an important of the open class system
Horizontal Mobility
Refers to movement within a social class or stratum
Vertical Mobility
Is the movement between social classes or strata
Intergeneration Mobility
Status differences between generations in the same family- a special form of vertical mobility
Upward Mobility
Individual effort often plays a major role in a person’s movement up the social-class ladder
Downward Mobility
Can result from such personal factors as illness, divorce, widowhood, and retirement

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