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Chapter One Key Terms

Artificial intelligence (AI)
A field in which the computer system takes on the characteristics of human intelligence.
Computer-based information system (CBIS)
Consists of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information.
Computer literacy
Knowledge of computer systems and equipment and the ways they function; it stresses equipment and devices, programs and instructions, databases, and telecommunications.
Data
Raw facts, such as an employee number, number of hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers, or sales orders.
Database
An organized collection of facts and information.
Decision support system (DSS)
An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision-making.
E-commerce
Any business transaction executed electronically between companies, companies and consumers, consumers and other consumers, business and the public sector, and consumers and the public sector.
Effectiveness
A measure of the extent to which a system achieves its goals; it can be computed by dividing the goals actually achieved by the total of stated goals.
Efficiency
A measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed
Electronic business (e-business)
Using information systems and the internet to perform all business related tasks and functions.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system
A set of integrated programs capable of managing a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization.
Expert system
A system that gives a computer the ability to make suggestions and act like an expert in a particular field.
Extranet
A network based on Web technologies that allows selected outsiders, such as business partners and customers, to access authorized resources of a company’s intranet.
Feedback
Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities.
Forecasting
Predicting future events to avoid problems.
Hardware
Computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities.
Information
A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of facts themselves.
Information system (IS)
A set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, sort, and disseminate data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to met an objective.
Input
The activity of gathering and capturing raw data.
Internet
The world’s largest computer network, actually consisting of thousands of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information.
Intranet
An internal network based on Web technologies that allows people within an organization to exchange information and work on projects.
Knowledge
An awareness of understanding of a set of information and ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision.
Knowledge base
The collection of data, rules, procedures, and relationships that must be followed to achieve value or the proper outcome.
Management information system (MIS)
An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to provide routine information to managers and decision makers.
Mobile commerce (m-commerce)
Transactions conducted anywhere, anytime using wireless communications.
Networks
Computers and equipment that are connected in a building, around the country, or around the world to enable electronic communications.
Output
Production of useful information, usually in the form of documents and reports.
Procedures
The strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using a CBIS.
Process
A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome.
Processing
Converting or transformation data into useful outputs.
Software
The computer programs that govern the operation of the computer.
System
A set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals.
System performance standard
A specific objective of the system.
Systems development
The activity of creating or modifying existing business systems.
Technology infrastructure
All the hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information.
Telecommunications
The electronic transmission of signals for communications; enables organizations to carry out their processes and tasks through effective computer networks.
Transaction
Any business-related exchange, such as payments to employees, sales to customers, and payments to suppliers.
Transaction processing system (TPS)
An organization collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions.
Virtual reality
The simulation of a real or imagined environment that can be experienced visually in three dimensions.

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