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Chapter Two: Tracing the History of Sport Management as a Professional Field and Academic Discipiline

Growth of the Sports Industry
As the sports industry continues to grow, the organizations and their products and services will increase in value along with their domestic and international complexities that accompany their existence

Responding to the demands and challenges presented by society for sport products and services is the cornerstone of sport management as an academic discipline and profession

Sports Managing
Managing sport organizations, like other industries, involves the effective and efficient process of coordinating financial, physical, and especially human resources to acheieve pre-detemined objectives established by a community, organization, or other institution

Also requires performing specific functions of leadership that focus on product delivery and services of sport
– Planning
– Organizing
– Implementing
– Controlling
– Evaluation

Sport management occurs in a variety of organizational settings (from amateur to professional levels) on local, regional, national, and international foundations

A wide and diverse range of employment opportunities associated with the production and management of sport products and services are available and emerged as an outcome of the maturation of the sport industry

Growth of Sport Organizations and Education
The growth of sport organizations and management activities over time has prompted the need for academic and professional programs to help prepare individuals for careers in sport

To respond for the need for individuals with special training and education, sport management programs have grown in number and quality throughout the world

The US has the most eductaional programs for sport management, followed by Canada

Legitimacy of Sport
Because sport management does not enjoy a substantial academic past, the field faces a legitimacy challenge as a newer field
Early History of Sport Management During the 1920s-1940s
First formal sport management or administration courses were established during the early 1900s as primarily amateur organizations (college and interscholastic); began to recognize the need to better organize and train the people who ran their sport organizations
– University of Wisconsin-Madison made the first course “Adminstration and Organization” in 1911 to help the institution better understand how to manage its own athletic competitions and reams

1920s and 1930s, several other institutions of higher education also offered similar courses for the management and/or administration of sport but primarily within physical education departments and within large metropolitan areas
– No sports management yet, just business classes that sometimes dealt with sport
– As a field, sports management began in departments of physical education
– Knowledge base began in terms of understanding the body and how it moves

Early sport management research was conducted chiefly for professional or practical purposes (ex: to assist the management and/or coaching of activities and events)
– Dissertation research focused on the organization of interscholastic athletics
– Research papers focused on the practical management and administration of sport; continued to support the building of the field, but were primarily focused on identifying, describing, and solving local and other major existing problems
– No theory creation or theory building

Interscholastic context remained a major context of focus for sport researchers

National Federation of State High School Associations
Established in 1920

Purpose: help students enjoy a better educational experience through participation opportunities centered around interscholastic sport and other activities (fine arts programs in speech, theater, debate, and music)

Mission: to improve the participation experience through standardizing rules of competition, reducing risks, regulating interstate competition, establishing amateur award,s preserving records, good sportmanship and citizenship

Spreading Sport Management as an Academic and Professional Preparation Program: 1950s-1970s
During 1950s, dissertation research expanded as it began to emerge in other locations outside of large metropolitan areas and diversified to cover both professional and amateur sport

During 1960s, the build up of interest in sport management and the exploration of theory was boosted by the first creation of graduate degree programs that began with Ohio University in 1966
– James Mason helped organize the first graduate sports management program cirriculum while at Ohio University based on ideas drawn from O’Malley

Growth of sport industry during this time allowed sport to be seen as large enough to legitimately support generalists and specialists and to be capable for producing mature research to create theory, sport products, and sport services

Research for dissertations used the study of high school sport as interest associations

Research studied during this time remained focused on identifying and solving existing problems
– Created a body of shared knowledge
– Sport management began a subtle shift toward theory during the 1950s
– Acknowledged that most doctoral dissertations were too descriptive and absent of management theory

The increasing sixe and complexity of the sports industry prompted the need to establish ecademic programs outside the infleunce of physical education
– Needed to serve the sports industry by training administrators/managers capavle of using the outcomes of theoretical study as sepcialists and/or generalists
– University of MA: firstphD program for sport management in 1971

Ziegler
Ziegler’s dissertation: argued that “athletic administrators are generally not prepared to be leading in those settings and are generally asked to learn on the job and are not well read on the past failures and sucesses of their predecessors”
– Laid the groundwork for establishing sport-specific adniminstration and management programs (came about when walter O’malley began to create demand for programs to train future sport managers at Ohio University)

Arugued that the managers were still not prepared to meet the expectations of managerial jobs, and their leadership suffered because they did not receive enough sport-specific training

Ziegler developed “Administrative Theory and Practice” at university of Michigan

Helped advance the theory and rigor in the sprot managmenet field by pushing for increased standards in programs in higher education within the US; added a theory aspect to dissertations

Shift in Sport Management During 1970s
The added theory component to sport management dissertations during the 1970s reflected greater emphasis to advance management science from a scholarly perspective

Change in emphasis as a practice-focused discipline previously focused on managing amateur sporting events to the maturation of commercialized sport an the effort to enhance organizational performance

Theory-practice marriage was necessary to identify and ultimately build a curriculum that could move the discipline toward greater legitimacy through corresponding improvements in rigor and training

O’Malley
Desired employees capable of a variety of tasks but also potentially provided new opprotunities for experts in an area of sport management to help organizations by conducting research and developing management theory and principles that could be broadly applied to the sport industry
The Creation of Societies and Journals During the 1980s-1990s
The collective maturation of commercial and/or organized sport that appeared in the decades following WWII and the desire to trian researchers and academics to stufy sport ultimately produced a surge i the number and interst level of sport management programs during the 1980s
– Number of sportmanagement programs at start of 1980: 18. Increased to 120 by 1993

3 Specialized items were created that led to the tremendous growth of sport magagement as a distinct academic discipline and progessional practice field during this time (Chelladurai and Costa):
1) Degree programs with academic standards focused on a sport-oriented ciricculum
2) Establishment of progessional/scholarly associations or societies
3) Establishment of peer reviewed journals

Scholarly and progessional societies can best support opportunities for scholars and practitioners to exchange ideas, construct theory, engage in peer mentorship, and develop models and/or policies for self-regulation and member participation
– NASSM

NASSM
North American Society for Sport Management; 1985
– Journal of Sport Management

First major association that helped establish a journal and facilitate discussions about appropriate curriculum choices, professional and educational preparedness, and scholarly advancement for sport management
– Provided a profound influence on the development and evolution of sport management
– Helped organize the field of sport management and to figure out how to train students and further develop the field

Large international sport management associaiton

Founding of NASSM
Began with recognizing the need to supplant the Sport Management Arts and Science Society (SMARTS)
– Too focused on professional sport and those who had profit as their primary concern, not the generalization and dissemination of knowledge about sport organizations (Slack)
– In 1984 Ziegler also suggested to Janet Parks that SMARTS was not sufficient and that a new society for North America should be established

Canadian Association for Health, PE, and Recreation (CAHPED) was also recognized as too fragmented and insufficient to meet the needs of a growing field
– More could be done to bridge the sport management programs of Canada and the US within a national association

Wanted a new association that respected the wishes of the field to study pro sport but to do so in a manner that would preserve allegiances with PE and university athletics
– Main goal was to iplement strategies to differentiate sport management from other inadequate associations centered mostly on physical education

Establishing NASSM
October 4, 1985

Meeting discussed institutional differences in Canadian and US schools, differentiated sport management from sport administration; agreed to form NASSM

Another meeting in December established meeting place, naming the co-editors of the newly founded journal to be Janet Parks and Gordon Olafson
– Journal of Sport Management

Febuary meeting in 1986 established officers and the approvval of the final draft o fthe constitution
– Established NASSM as a scholarly society which shall promote, stimulate, and encourage study, research, scholarly writing, and professional development in the area of sport management with expressed concern regarding the theoretical and applied aspects of management theory and practice specifically related to sport
– Represented a clear desire to legitimize the study of management through sport

Journal of Sport Management
Designed to exist as a vehicle to communicate research regarding the development of sport management as a social science

Established to help legitimize the field of sport management as a stand-alone discipline

Trevor Slack
Argued for more research to focus on improving the theoretical base for the creation of sensible management practices; wanted to produce and revise theory through the vehicle of sport management journals

Argued that sport management as an academic discipline field to keep pace with the maturation of the sport industry

Supported the effort to broaden the search for enhanced theoretical understanding and contribution through efforts to better utilize work from the general management field

Said that field of sport management would improve significantly if sport scholars attempted to read those works produced by other scholars

Worked to prompt the field produce more weighty and recognized research during 1998

Argued that sport management should utilize a variety of sport organizations to help elevate the potential theoretical outcomes and practical applications of such work; helped move the discipline forward so that it could be considered capable of standing alone
– Suggestions also expanded the number of sub-disciplines within sport management

Initial Emergence of Sport Management
Initially, sport management surfaced as a subsidary of PE to help coaches and administrators solve existing problems with primarily amateur sport and in large metropolitan areas

The need for better managers of sport continued to evolve as sport developed into a created commercial product and service
– This need was highlighted by the increase in number and diversity of dissertations and the professionalization of sport as a product and service available for consumption
– Early research efforts provided a base that ultimately promoted the opportunity to establish sports management educational and professional development programs and curriculum, beyond a class or 2, to help train individuals to work in the sport industry

The development of these programs and growing external pressure for professional management in sport promoted enhanced academic rigor of the field and an increased emphasis on theory with a theory-practice marriage in mind toward application within the field

Legitimizing Sport
The development of NASSM and establishment of journals helped achieve legitimacy

The pursuit of commercial and/or professional sport served as the primary context for theoretical application, revision, and creation to help quickly legitimize sport management and to develop a membership capable of sustaining its survival

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