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Chapters 1-3

Business Intelligence (BI)
provides historical, current, and predictive views of business operations and environments and gives organizations a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
Computer Literacy
is having the skills in using productivity software, such as word processing, spreadsheet, database management systems, and presentation software, and having a basic knowledge of hardware and software, the Internet, and collaboration tools and technologies.
data
consists of raw facts and is a component of an information system.
database
a collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files.
Five Forces Model
analyzes an organization, its position in the marketplace, and how information systems could be used to make it more competitive. The five forces include buyer power, supplier power, threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, and rivalry among existing competitors.
Information
consists of facts that have been analyzed by the process component and is an output of an information system.
Information Literacy
is understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence.
Information Technologies
support information systems and come in the form of the Internet, computer networks, database systems, POS systems, and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags.
Management Information Systems (MIS)
an organized integration of hardware and software technologies, data, processes, and human elements designed to produce timely, integrated, relevant, accurate, and useful information for decision-making purposes.
Pocess
component of an information system generates the most useful type of information for decision making, including transaction-processing reports and models for decision analysis.
Transaction Processing Systems (TPSs)
focus on data collection and processing, and the major reason for using them is cost reduction.
Control Unit
tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to.
CPU case
also known as a computer chassis or tower. It is the enclosure containing the computer’s main components.
disk drive
a peripheral devise for recording, storing, and retrieving information.
Fifth Generation Language (natural language processing (NLP),)
are the ideal computer languages for people with minimal computer training. These languages are designed to facilitate natural conversations between you and the computer.
Fourth-generation Language
use macro codes that can take the place of several lines of programming. The commands are powerful and easy to learn, particularly for people with little computer training.
High-Level Language
are machine independent and part of the third-generation computer language. Many options are available and each is designed for a specific purpose.
Input Devices
send data and information to the computer. Examples include keyboards and mouses.
Machine Language
consists of a series of 0s and 1s representing data or instructions and was part of the first generation of computer languages. It depends on the machine, so a code written for one type of computer does not work on another type of computer.
Magnetic Disk
made of mylar or metal is used for random-access processing. In other words, data can be accessed in any order, regardless of its order on the surface.
Magnetic Tape
made of a plastic material, resembles a cassette tape and stores data sequentially.
Main Memory
stores data and information and is usually volatile.
Motherboard
the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards. It usually contains the CPU, Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), memory, storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers for standard peripheral devices, such as the display monitor, disk drive, and keyboard.
Network-attached storage (NAS)
is essentially a network-connected computer dedicated to providing file-based data storage services to other network devices.
Operating System (OS)
a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software. An OS provides an interface between a computer and the user and increases computer efficiency by helping users share computer resources and performing repetitive tasks for users.
Optical Disks
use laser beams to access and store data. Examples include CD-ROMs, WORM discs, and erasable optical discs.
Output Device
is capable of representing information from a computer. The form of this output might be visual, audio, or digital and examples include printers, display monitors, and plotters.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
is volatile memory, in which data can read from and be written to “read-write memory.”
read-only memory
Nonvolatile memory is called read-only memory (ROM), so data can’t be written to ROM.
redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system
A redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system is a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance, typically in large network systems.
Secondary Memory
which is nonvolatile, serves mostly as archival storage, as for backups.
Server
a computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network.
Storage Area Network (SAN)
a dedicated high-speed network consisting of both hardware and software, used to connect and manage shared storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical storage devices.
Allocation
approach to a distributed DBMS combines fragmentation and replication, with each site storing the data it uses most often.
client/server database
users’ workstations (client) are linked in a local area network (LAN) to share the services of a single server.
create, read, update, and delete (CRUD)
Data administration is used to determine who has permission to perform certain functions, often summarized as create, read, update, and delete (CRUD)
data dictionary
The data dictionary stores definitions, such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field.
Data hierarchy
is the structure and organization of data, which involves fields, records, and files.
Data Mart
is usually a smaller version of a data warehouse, used by a single department or function.
Data Model
determines how data is created, represented, organized and maintained. It usually contains data structure, operations, and integrity rules.
Data Warehouse
is a collection of data from a variety of sources used to support decision-making applications and generate business intelligence.
Data-driven website
acts as an interface to a database, retrieving data for users and allowing users to enter data in the database.
Data-mining analysis
is used to discover patterns and relationships.
Database
a collection of related data that can be stored in a central location or in multiple locations.
Database Administrators (DBA)
found in large organizations, design and set up databases, establish security measures, develop recovery procedures, evaluate database performance, and add and fine-tune database functions.
Database Management System (DBMS)
software for creating, storing, maintaining, and accessing database files. A DBMS makes using databases more efficient.
Distributed Database
stores data on multiple servers throughout an organization.
Encapsulation
Grouping objects along with their attributes and methods into a class is called encapsulation, which essentially means grouping similar items into a single unit. It helps handle more complex types of data, such as images and graphs.
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
describe the processes used in a data warehouse. It includes extracting data from outside sources, transforming it to fit operational needs, and loading it into the end target (database or data warehouse).
Foreign Key
a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column of another table. It can be used to cross-reference tables.
Fragmentation
approach to a distributed DBMS addresses how tables are divided among multiple locations. There are three variations: horizontal, vertical, and mixed.
Hierarchical Model
the relationships between records form a treelike structure (hierarchy). Records are called nodes, and relationships between records are called branches. The node at the top is called the root, and every other node (called a child) has a parent. Nodes with the same parents are called twins or siblings.
indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
records can be accessed sequentially or randomly, depending on the number being accessed. For a small number, random access is used, and for a large number, sequential access is used.
Logical View
involves how information appears to users and how it can be organized and retrieved.
Network Model
similar to the hierarchical model, but records are organized differently. Unlike the hierarchical model, each record in the network model can have multiple parent and child records.
Normalization
improves database efficiency by eliminating redundant data and ensuring that only related data is stored in a table.
object-oriented databases
databases both data and their relationships are contained in a single object. An object consists of attributes and methods that can be performed on the object’s data.
Online analytical processing (OLAP)
generates business intelligence. It uses multiple sources of information and provides multidimensional analysis, such as viewing data based on time, product, and location.
Physical View
involves how data is stored on and retrieved from storage media, such as hard disks, magnetic tapes, or CDs.
Primary keys
uniquely identify every record in a relational database. Examples include Student ID numbers, account numbers, Social Security numbers, and invoice numbers.
query by example (QBE)
you request data from a database by constructing a statement made up of query forms. With current graphical databases, you simply click to select query forms instead of having to remember keywords, as you do with SQL. You can add AND, OR, and NOT operators to the QBE form to fine-tune the query.
random access file structure
records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical location in storage media. This method of access is fast and very effective when a small number of records need to be processed daily or weekly.
Relational Model
uses a two-dimensional table of rows and columns of data. Rows are records (also called “tuples”), and columns are fields (also referred to as “attributes”).
Replication
approach to distributed DBMS has each site store a copy of data of the organization’s database.
Sequential File Structure
records in files are organized and processed in numerical or sequential order, typically the order in which they were entered.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
is a standard fourth-generation query language used by many DBMS packages, such as Oracle 11g and Microsoft SQL Server. SQL consists of several keywords specifying actions to take.

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