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chapters 16-19

The Social Gospel
Called for equalization of wealth and power.
Which statement about the theory of Social Darwinism is FALSE?
The theory argued that the “deserving poor” only included children.
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877:
was evidence of worker solidarity and the close ties between industry and the Republican Party.
Which statement about the Haymarket Affair is FALSE?
The Knights of Labor was directly responsible for the violence that took place at Haymarket.
William M. Tweed was a(n):
political boss who, although corrupt, provided important services to New Yorkers.
In the nineteenth century, pools, trusts, and mergers were:
ways that manufacturers sought to control the marketplace.
In 1883, ____________ divided the nation into the four time zones still used today.
the major railroad companies
During the second industrial revolution, the courts:
tended to favor the interests of industry over those of labor.
Which of the following statements best summarizes the reasons for the tripling of railroad track miles in the United States between 1860 and 1890?
Private investment and massive grants of land and money by federal, state, and local governments spurred the building.
The Knights of Labor:
was an inclusive organization that advocated for a vast array of reforms.
One significant economic impact of the second industrial revolution was:
frequent and prolonged economic depressions.
The second industrial revolution was marked by:
the acceleration of factory production and increased activity in the mining and railroad industries.
The Haymarket Affair:
was provoked by the 1886 bombing at a Chicago labor rally.
By 1890, the majority of Americans:
worked for wages
The theory of Social Darwinism argued that:
the theory of evolution applied to humans, thus explaining why some were rich and some were poor.
Which statement about labor and the law is FALSE?
Workers generally welcomed the Court’s decisions on industry.
The American working class:
lived in desperate conditions.
In “How the Other Half Lives”, Jacob Riis:
focused on the wretched conditions of New York City slums.
Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller:
built up giant corporations that dominated their respective markets.
The ________________ made possible the second industrial revolution in America.
railroads
One of the reasons that the Great Strike of 1877 was important is that:
it underscored the tensions produced by the rapid industrialization of the time.
The Supreme Court in Lochner v. New York:
voided a state law establishing that bakers could work a maximum of sixty hours per week.
All of the following factors contributed to explosive economic growth during the Gilded Age EXCEPT:
low tariffs.
Thomas Edison:
invented, among other things, a system for generating and distributing electricity.
For workers, the second industrial revolution meant all of the following EXCEPT:
a decrease in child labor.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882:
prohibited any Chinese from entering the United States.
In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court:
ruled that “separate but equal” accommodations were constitutional.
How did the Civil War come to be remembered by the 1890s as the white North and South moved toward reconciliation?
As a tragic family quarrel among white Americans, in which blacks played no significant part.
During the “Age of Empire,” American racial attitudes:
had a global impact.
Which statement about the disenfranchisement of blacks in the South is FALSE?
The Supreme Court upheld the grandfather clause.
In his Atlanta speech of 1895, Booker T. Washington:
encouraged blacks to adjust to segregation.
In the South, the Redeemers:
imposed a new racial order.
The Philippine War:
was far longer and bloodier than the Spanish-American War.
Twenty years after the end of Reconstruction, African-Americans in the South:
suffered the most from the region’s poor conditions.
After the 1890s, American expansionism:
was partly fueled by the need to stimulate American exports.
Journalists who worked for newspapers like William Randolph Hearst’s “New York Journal,” which sensationalized events to sell papers, were called:
yellow journalists.
The “white man’s burden”:
comes from a poem by Rudyard Kipling.
Founded in 1886, the American Federation of Labor:
restricted membership to only skilled workers.
Americans have referred to the 1890s as the women’s era because:
women’s economic opportunities and roles in public life expanded.
The Spanish-American War:
brought the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico under U.S. control.
What explains the appeal of the Lost Cause mythology for Southern whites in the late nineteenth century?
It helped southern whites cope with defeat but preserve white supremacy.
In 1900, most of the nearly 5 million women who worked for wages worked in:
the garment industry and as domestic laborers.
By the end of the nineteenth century, African-American men in the South:
were forced out of politics and passed leadership to female African-American activists.
Plessy v. Ferguson:
sanctioned racial segregation.
Newspaper and magazine writers who exposed the ills of industrial and urban life, fueling the Progressive movement, were known as:
muckrakers.
All of the following statements about Urban Progressives are true EXCEPT:
they worked with political machines.
Jane Addams:
advocated for the working poor.
Progressive governor of Wisconsin, Robert La Follette, instituted all of the following reforms EXCEPT:
promising lower taxes and less government interference.
During the Progressive era:
new immigration from southern and eastern Europe reached its peak.
All of the following measures expanded democracy during the Progressive era EXCEPT:
literacy tests and residency requirements.
Margaret Sanger was a:
birth-control advocate.
Most new immigrants who arrived during the early years of the twentieth century:
lived in close-knit communities.
President Theodore Roosevelt:
believed the president should be an honest broker in labor disputes.
Maternalist reform:
was supported by both feminists and more traditional women.
Which statement about the American Federation of Labor in the early twentieth century is FALSE?
The AFL proposed an overthrow of the capitalist system.
A cause not widely championed by Progressives was:
civil rights for blacks.
What brought about a new wave of sympathy for the plight of women in the garment industry in Lawrence, Massachusetts?
The appearance of malnourished children evacuated from Lawrence shocked the public.
The program that sought to streamline production and boost profits by systematically controlling costs and work practices was called:
scientific management.
All of the following statements about Jane Addams and Hull House are true EXCEPT:
She believed that immigrant women primarily needed union protection.
In the early twentieth century, the Socialist Party advocated for all of the following EXCEPT:
national health insurance.
The Progressive movement drew its strength from:
middle-class reformers.
The writer whose work encouraged the passage of the Meat Inspection Act was:
Upton Sinclair.
During the Progressive era;
growing numbers of native-born white women worked in offices.
The new concepts of “living wage” and the “American standard of living”:
allowed for criticism of the inequalities of wealth and power.
The term “Fordism”:
describes an economic system based on mass production and mass consumption.
Why did workers experience the introduction of scientific management as a loss of freedom?
Skilled workers under scientific management had to obey very detailed instructions.
During the Progressive era
urban development highlighted social inequalities.
The Sixteenth Amendment:
authorized Congress to implement a graduated income tax.
A worker who crossed a picket line during a strike was called a:
scab
The work “Progressivism” came into common use around 1910:
as a way of describing a loosely defined political movement.
Which of the following social groups was NOT heavily involved in the Progressive movement?
Unskilled immigrant workers.
In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court:
argued that women were too weak to work long hours.
The Industrial Workers of the World:
advocated a workers’ revolution.
The Triangle Shirtwaist fire:
brought in its wake much-needed safety legislation.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Progressive reformers?
Progressives pursued radical alternatives to capitalism.
The battle for free speech among workers in the early twentieth century:
was led by the Industrial Workers of the World.
All of the following statements about mass consumption in the early twentieth century are true EXCEPT:
southerners fully participated in the mass-consumption society.
Which statement about the textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1912 is FALSE?
The strikers asked the American Federation of Labor for assistance.

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