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Chpt 6 – Project Time Management

Plan Schedule Management process
The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.
Key benefit of the Plan Schedule Management process
Provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project.
Define Activities process
The process of identifying and documentation the specific action to be performed to produce the project deliverables.
Key benefit of the Define Activities process
Break down work packages into activities that provide a a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work.
Sequence Activities process
The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.
Key benefit of the Sequence Activities process
It defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints.
Estimate Activity Resources process
The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.
Key Benefit of Estimate Activity Resources process
Identifies the type, quantity, and characteristics of the resources required to complete the activity which allows more accurate cost and duration estimates.
Estimate Activity Durations process
The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
Key benefit of the Estimate Activity Durations process
Provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete, which is a major input into the Develop Schedule process.
Develop Schedule process
The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.
Key benefit of the Develop Schedule process
By entering schedule activities, durations, resources, resource availabilities, and logical relationships into the scheduling tool, it generates a schedule model with planned dates for completing project activities.
Control Schedule process
The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.
Key benefit of the Control Schedule process
Provides the means to recognize deviation from the plan and take corrective and preventive actions and thus minimize risk.
What is a schedule model?
The scheduling tool populated with project data.

A representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce project schedule along with other scheduling artifacts.

Where are the Project Time Management processes and their tools and techniques documented?
The schedule management plan
What does the schedule management plan do?
Identifies a scheduling method
Identifies a scheduling tool
Sets the format and establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule
Defines how schedule contingencies will be reported and assessed
Inputs to Plan Schedule Management Process
Project management plan
Project charter
Tools and Techniques for Plan Schedule Management Process
Expert judgment
Analytical techniques
Outputs from Plan Schedule Management Process
Schedule management plan
What is the Schedule Management Plan?
A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.

May be formal or informal, highly defined or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project.

What can the Schedule Management Plan establish?
Project schedule development model – methodology and tool
Level of Accuracy – Acceptable range used in determining realistic activity duration
Units of Measure – Each unit of measure is defined for each of the resources (ex: (such as staff hours, staff days, or weeks for time measures, or meters, liters, tons, kilometers, or cubic yards for quantity measures)
Organizational Procedures Links
Project schedule Model Maintenance – Process to update the status and record progress during execution
Control Thresholds – Variance thresholds for monitoring. Usually % of deviations
Rules of Performance Measurement – EVM or other measurement rules
Reporting Formats – Format and frequency
Process Descriptions – Of each process
Inputs to Define Activities process
Schedule management plan
Scope baseline
Tools and Techniques for Define Activities process
Rolling wave planning
Expert judgment
Outputs from Define Activities process
Activity list
Activity attributes
Milestone list
Decomposition used in Define Activities process
Technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller more manageable parts.
Work packages from WBS are decomposed into smaller components called activities that represent the work effort required to complete the work package.
Define activities process defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables

Activity list, WBS, and WBS dictionary can be developed either sequentially or concurrently, with the WBS and WBS dictionary as the basis for development of the final activity list

What is rolling wave planning?
Iterative planning techniques in which the work to me accomplished in the near term is planned in details, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.

A form of progressive elaboration

What is an activity list?
A comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on a project.

* An identifier
* Unique title that is descriptive even if displayed outside the project schedule
* Scope of work description for each activity in enough detail that team members understand what work is required to be completed

What are activity attributes?
Details about each activity. These evolve over time

ex: Activity ID, WBS ID, activity label or name, duration, activity codes, predecessor, successor, leads or lags, resource requirements, assumptions, etc.

What is a milestone?
A significant point or even in a project.

Similar structures and attributes to activities but they have zero duration because they represent a moment in time.

Milestones may have scheduled dates that influence the way activities are sequenced.

What is a milestone list?
A list identifying all project milestones. Indicates if the milestone is mandatory (ex: contract) or optional (ex: from historical information).
Inputs to Sequence Activities process
Schedule management plan
Activity list
Activity attributes
Milestone list
Project scope statement
Tools and Techniques of Sequence Activities process
Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
Dependency determination
Leads and lags
Outputs from Sequence Activities process
Project schedule network diagrams
Project document updates
What information from the project scope statement may be used in the Sequence Activities process?
Product scope description
Project deliverables
Project constraints
Project assumptions
What is the PDM?
Precedence Diagramming Model
It is a technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which activities are to be performed.
What is AON?
One method for representing a precedence diagram. This is the method used by most PM software
What is a predecessor?
An activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in the schedule
What is a successor?
A dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule
What are four types of dependencies or logical relationships in the PDM?
* Finish-to-start (FS) – most common
* Finish-to-finish (FF)
* Start-to-start (SS)
* Start-to-finish (SF) – rarely used
What is FS?
Successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity is finished
What is FF?
Successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished
What is SS
Successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started
What is SF?
Successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started
What are the four dependency attributes?
Mandatory , Discretionary
Internal , External

Only two can be used at the same time (ex: mandatory external or discretionary internal)

Mandatory dependencies
Legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work

Aka hard logic or hard dependencies

Determination is made during the sequencing of activities

Discretionary dependencies
Established based on knowledge of best practices

Aka preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic

Should be fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit scheduling options

These should be removed and reconsidered when employing fast tracking

Determination is made during the sequencing of activities

External dependencies
Involve a relationship between project and non-project activities

These are usually outside the project team’s control

Determination is made during the sequencing of activities

Internal dependencies
Have a precedence relationship between project activities

Generally within the project team’s control

Determination is made during the sequencing of activities

Amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity

Example: landscaping can begin before the punch list is completed. Would be shown as a FS with a two-week lead

Amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.

Example: a technical writing team may begin editing the draft of a large document 15 days after they begin writing it. Shown as SS with a 15 day lag

good reminder from PMBOK
The project management team determines the dependencies that may require a lead or a lag to accurately define the logical relationship.

The use of leads and lags should not replace schedule logic.

Activities and their related assumptions should be documented.

What is a project schedule network diagram?
A graphical representation of the logical relationships (aka dependencies) among the project schedule activities.

Diagram may be accompanied by a narrative. that describes the basic approach for sequencing. Unusual activity sequences should be fully documented.

What project documents may be updated from the Sequence Activities process?
Activity list
Activity attributes
Milestone list
Risk register
Inputs to the Estimate Activity Resources process
Schedule management plan
Activity list
Activity attributes
Resource calendars
Risk register
Activity cost estimates
Tools and Techniques of the Estimate Activity Resources process
Expert judgment
Alternative analysis
Published estimating data
Bottom-up estimating
Project management software
Outputs from the Estimate Activity Resources process
Activity resource requirements
Resource breakdown structure
Project documents updates
The Estimate Activity Resources process is closely coordinated with what other process?
Estimates Costs process, part of the Project Cost Management knowledge

This coordination could be due to hiring resources

What is a resource calendar?
A calendar that identifies the working days and shifts each resource is available

This information is used for estimating resource utilization
Information may be at the activity or project level

Includes consideration of attributes such as experience or skill level, or locations

What is a risk register?
A document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded.

Risk events may impact resource selection and availability

What is published estimating data?
Data like production rates and unit costs for resources
Bottom-up Estimating
Method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS (or by activity?)

Once estimated, they are aggregated into a total quantity for each activity

Activity Resource Requirements
Activity resource requirements identify the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package

Requirements can be aggregated to determine the estimated resources for each work package and each work period

Can include the basis for the estimates and assumptions

Resource Breakdown Structure
Hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information

Category examples: labor, material, equipment, supplies
Type examples: skill level, grade level

Inputs to the Estimate Activity Durations process
Schedule management plan
Activity list
Activity attributes
Activity resource requirements
Resource calendars
Project scope statement
Risk register
Resource breakdown structure
Tools and Techniques for the Estimate Activity Durations process
Expert judgment
Analogous estimating
Parametric estimating
Three-point estimating
Group decision-making techniques
Reserve analysis
Outputs from the Estimate Activity Durations process
Activity duration estimates
Project document udpates
The inputs of the estimates of activity duration should originate from…
…the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of the work in the activity
Is the duration estimate process progressively elaborated?
What does the Estimate Activity Durations process require?
An estimation of the amount of effort required to complete the activity
The amount of available resources estimated to complete the activity

Together these are used to approximate the number of work periods (activity duration) to complete the activity using the appropriate project and resource calendars

Must document all data and assumptions that support the estimate

How can activity resource requirements impact Estimate Activity Durations?
If additional or lower-skilled resources are assigned to an activity, there may be reduced efficiency or productivity due to increased communication, training, and coordination
What are contingency reserves?
The estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed.

Associate with “known-unknowns”

Analogous Estimating
Technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project

Uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project

This is a gross value estimating approach. Can be adjusted for known differences in project complexity.

Frequently used where there is limited amount of detailed information about the project

Generally less costly and less time consuming, but it is also less accurate.

Can be used in conjunction with other methods.

ūüôā “most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance”

Parametric Estimating
An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters

Uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate

Durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit work

This method can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication of the underlying data built into the model

Can be applied to the total project or segments in conjunction with other methods

Three-point Estimating
Can improve on single-point activity duration estimates by considering uncertainty and risk
What is PERT?
Program Evaluation and Review Technique. A three-point estimation method
What are the three points of estimation?
* Most Likely (tM) – based on realistic expectations of resources assigned, availability, dependencies on other projects, interruptions

* Optimistic (tO) – best-case scenario

* Pessimistic (tP) – worst-case scenario

Final estimate based on distribution calculation

Three-point estimate distribution calculations
Triangular Distribution – tE = (tO +tM+tP)/3

Beta Distribution (PERT) – tE = (tO+4tM+tP)/6z

Group-decision making techniques
By involving a structured group of people who are close to the technical execution of work in the estimation process, additional information is gained and more accurate estimates obtained.
Contingency Reserves
The estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed


May be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis (ex: monte carlo simulation)

May be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers

As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated

Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation

Management Reserves
Specified amount of project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within the scope of the project


Can also create estimates for these

Not included in the baseline but is part of the overall project duration requirements. Use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline

Activity Duration Estimates (output)
The likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity

Do not include lags

Mau include some indication of range

Inputs to Develop Schedule process
Schedule management plan
Activity list
Activity attributes
Project schedule network diagrams
Activity resource requirements
Resource calendars
Activity duration estimates
Project scope statement
Risk register
Project staff assignments
Resource breakdown structure
Tools and Techniques for Develop Schedule process
Schedule network analysis
Critical path method
Critical chain method
Resource optimization techniques
Modeling techniques
Leads and lags
Schedule compression
Scheduling tool
Outputs from Develop Schedule process
Schedule baseline
Project schedule
Schedule data
Project calendars
Project management plan updates
Project documents updates
Develop Schedule Process overview from PMBOK
Iterative process
Schedule model (tool with the data populated) is used to determine planned start and finish dates
Dates are based on the accuracy of the input
Once dates are determined it is common to have project staff review their activities to confirm the dates present no conflict with resource calendars or assigned activities in other projects
Schedule Network Analysis
A technique that generates the project schedule model

Employees various analytical techniques (ex: critical path, critical chain, what-if, resource optimization) to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of the project activities.

Some network paths may have points of path convergence or divergence that can be identified and used in schedule compression or other analyses

Critical Path Method
Used to estimated the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model

Calculates the early start, early finish, late start, and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward backward pass analysis

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