The most common source system for a company’s data warehouse is its corporate operational databases.
Companies often have to clean up the data before it can be imported into the data warehouse.
The ETL process is now typically called data integration.
The most common method for storing data in a data warehouse is:
One central data warehouse
The IT department is solely responsible for the quality of the data in the data warehouse.
Governance of a data warehouse must be a collaboration between business users and IT personnel.
Big Data is the same thing as huge amounts of structured data in organizational databases.
Which of the following is not a type of Big Data?
Traditional enterprise data
All of the above
Data in a data warehouse are organized by business process, where data in corporate databases are organized by subject.
Data updates in a data warehouse are performed by the MIS department, not the users.
A data warehouse is a repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization.
Organizational databases access one record at a time, where data warehouses access groups of related records.
Each ___ in a relational database is a record.
One of the attributes in a record must be a primary key.
One field that uniquely identifies an entity or a record is:
ER diagrams consist of entities, attributes, and relationships.
The relationship between Student and Parking Permit is mandatory 1:1 because each student may have only one parking permit.
In an ER diagram, relationships are expressed as diamonds and entities are expressed as boxes.
The MIS department is solely responsible for the organization’s ER diagrams.
After you have taken a particular course, your insights on how to do well in that course would be considered to be tacit knowledge.
The IT infrastructure needed for you to register online for next semester would be considered to be explicit knowledge.
Managing data is difficult because data is stored in one place in an organization, its database.
In the preceding example, “Robert Jones” is an example of:
NoSQL databases can manage more different types of data than a traditional relational database.
A/B experiments are so-named because there are only two possible outcomes for each experiment.
Normalization typically improves processing performance.
When data are normalized, attributes in the table depend on the primary key and the secondary key.
Data subject to constraints is an example of:
A group of logically related fields is a(n):
A collection of logically related records (see table).
The identifier field or attribute that uniquely identifies a record.
A grouping of logically related records (see data file).
Attributes that are unique to an entity instance.
A binary digit—that is, a 0 or a 1.
The most effective and efficient ways to do things.
Data collected about user behavior and browsing patterns by monitoring users’ activities when they visit a Web site.
Popular relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple instructions.
structured query language (SQL)
A group of eight bits that represents a single character.
An identifier field or attribute that has some identifying information but typically does not identify the file with complete accuracy.
Each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity.
A group of logically related files that stores data and the associations among them.
A method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form for minimum redundancy, maximum data integrity, and best processing performance
Information technologies used to systematize, enhance, and expedite intra- and interfirm knowledge management.
Knowledge management systems (KMSs)
Collection of definitions of data elements; data characteristics that use the data elements; and the individuals, business functions, applications, and reports that use this data element.
The software program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database.
database management system (DBMS)
An approach to managing information across an entire organization.
Database language that enables the user to fill out a grid (form) to construct a sample or description of the data wanted.
query by example (QBM)
The process of designing a database by organizing data entities to be used and identifying the relationships among them.
entity-relationship (ER) modeling
A grouping of logically related records.
A process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate, transfer, and apply information and expertise that are part of the organization’s memory and that typically reside within the organization in an unstructured manner.
A process that provides companies with the ability to store, maintain, exchange, and synchronize a consistent, accurate, and timely “single version of the truth” for the company’s core master data.
Master data management
A particular entity within an entity class.
A low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse that is designed for the end-user needs in a strategic business unit (SBU) or a department.
Definition of the way data in a DBMS are conceptually structured.
Groupings of entities of a given type.
A person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained in a record.
The cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning, which is highly personal and hard to formalize.
Diverse, high-volume, high-velocity information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision making, insight discovery, and process optimization.
A grouping of logically related characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number.
Databases that can manipulate structured as well as unstructured data and inconsistent or missing data; are useful when working with Big Data.
Processing of business transactions online as soon as they occur.
Online transaction processing (OLTP)
A grouping of logically related fields; describes an entity.
A set of core data, such as customer, product, employee, vendor, geographic location, and so on, that spans an enterprise’s information systems.
Data model based on the simple concept of tables in order to capitalize on characteristics of rows and columns of data.
relational database model
The more objective, rational, and technical types of knowledge.
Other terms for knowledge
intellectual capital (or intellectual assets)
Document that shows data entities and attributes and relationships among them.
entity-relationship (ER) model
A repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization.
Storage of data in more than two dimensions; a common representation is the data cube.
What is one of the problems with Big Data?
collecting the data
Customer data degradation is the inability to manage data because of
customers changing their addresses
Which statement becomes true as the amount of data increases?
The data becomes harder to manage
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was created to force companies to disclose what type of information?
Data __________ prevents data from being used by more than one application.
Data integrity deals with
meeting system constraints with the data
Storing data in a database minimizes the risk of what scenario for the data?
Normalization of a relational database involves what process?
What type of data depends on the primary key as its only attribute in the data table?
Historical data is stored in a
Which of the following statements is true about data warehouses?
the use of a warehouse does not degrade the database’s performance
What does OLAP involve?
the analysis of accumulated data by users
Relational databases are based on what type of structure?
Explicit knowledge is
Which type of knowledge depends on employees’ willingness to transfer it?
The first step in a knowledge management system cycle is to
Data governance manages
Which statement is characteristic of a data mart?
they are primarily used by smaller companies
Companies transform data in order to
make it more useful
Why is metadata important?
it tells about the data stored in data warehouse
How is an attribute used in a relational database?
it stores information about entities stored in the database
An online retailer can gain a competitive advantage by utilizing what characteristic of Big Data?
An international financial research firm wishes to capture old financial market data from the past few decades in a database. Some of the data is missing and not well structured. This type of data is better handled by a(n)
An employee observes his co-worker programming SQL statements to query the university’s database. His query will use many variables to retrieve a student’s records. The employee thinks that the database will run too slowly as more university employee need to use it. To improve the situation, he might suggest that his co-worker
create a form template into which users can enter all search data.
One characteristic of Big Data is that it focuses on algorithms instead of ______ to make decisions.
Using a KMS to capture the expertise of an organization’s human resources can make it easier to handle
In a database, quick comparison across rows and columns is achieved by
A database becomes unsearchable when
neither a primary key nor a secondary key exist
Getting employees to share their work experience builds____ knowledge, which is needed to develop a KMS in an organization.
Managing the security and access of a database is the job of a(n)
Transferring data to a new storage device could prevent which problem?
Data cannot be retrieved from an old device
An entity is different from a record because it is a(n)
____ way of designing the information for the database.
Which of the following problems do organizations face when managing data?
Processing and analyzing the data that are being stored
Collecting the vast amounts of data that are being generated
Storing the data that are being collected
The term “data rot” refers to
The deterioration of the medium on which the data are stored.
Data redundancy refers to:
Having copies of the same data in multiple locations.
The management of data across the entire organization is most accurately defined as:
a data model is the diagrammatic representation of a database that clearly defines a database’s ___, ____, and ____.
entities, attributes, relationships
a standardized language used to manipulate data is ____.
None of these
___ is a method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form.
Operational data that are constantly updated are stored in:
It is very difficult to manage data for which of the following reasons?
Data are scattered throughout organizations
When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate ______.
In a relational database, the customer record contains information regarding the customer’s last name. The last name is a(n):
Place the following members of the data hierarchy in the correct order:
bit – byte- field-record-database
In a database, the primary key field is used to _____.
uniquely identify a record
data dictionaries perform all of the following functions except:
Providing information on each record
A standardized language used to manipulate data is ____.
structured query language
the data in a data warehouse have which of the following characteristics?
the are organized by subject
Compared to data warehouses, data marts have which one of the following characteristics?
which of the following is an example of explicit knowledge?
explicit knowledge has which of the following characteristics?
the most important benefit of knowledge management systems is:
they make best practices available to employees
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