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CIS Chapter 11 Key Terms

Alphabetic Check
In a database, confirms that only textual characters are entered in a field
Artificial Intelligence
Branch of computer science that deals with the attempt to create computers that think like humans
Batch Processing
The accumulation of transaction data until a certain point is reached, at which time several transactions are processed at once
Binary Large Object (BLOB)
Same as “Unstructured Data” see below
Business Intelligence Systems
Systems used to analyze and interpret data in order to enable managers to make informed decisions about how best to run a business
Clickstream Data
Software used on company websites to capture info about each click that user make as they navigate through the site
Completeness Check
In a database, ensures that all required fields have been completed
Consistency Check
In a database, compares the values of data in two or more fields to see if those values are reasonable
Digital collection of related data that can be stored, sorted, organized, and queried
Database Administrator (database designer)
An information technology professional responsible for designing, constructing, and maintaining databases
Database Management System (DBMS)
A specially designed application software used to create and mage databases
Data Dictionary (database schema)
A map of a database that defines the features of the fields in the database
Data Inconsistency
Data for a record being different in two different lists
Data Integrity
When the data in a database is accurate and reliable
Data Mart
Small slices of data warehouse grouped together and separated from the main body of data in the data warehouse so that related sets of data can be analyzed
Data Mining
The process by which great amounts of data are analyzed and investigated. Objective is to spot significant patterns or trends within the data that would otherwise not be obvious
Data Redundancy
Duplicated data in a list
Data Staging
The act of formatting data from source databases before fitting it into a data warehouse.
It consists of three steps: extraction, transformation, and storage
Data Type (field type)
1) Describes the kind of data being stored at the memory location; each programming language has its own data types
2) In a database, indicates what type of data can be stored in a field and prevents the wrong type of data from being entered into the field
Data Warehouse
A large-scale collection of data that contains and organizes in one place all the data from an organization’s multiple databases
Decision Support System (DSS)
Type of business intelligence system designed to help managers develop solutions for specific problems
Default Value
Value a database automatically uses for a field unless the user enters another value
Detail Report
Report generated by a management info system that provides a list of the transactions that occurred during a certain time period
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System
Business intelligence system that accumulates in a central location all information relevant to running a business and makes it readily available to whoever needs it to make decisions
Exception Report
Report generated by management information system that shows conditions that are unusual or that need attention by system users
Expert System
System that tries to replicate the decision-making processes of human experts in order to solve specific problems
The component of a database in which the database stores each category of information
Field Constraint
Property that must be satisfied for an entry to be accepted into the field
Field Properties
In an Access database table, the field name, data type, and other data elements
Field Size
Defines the maximum number of characters that a field can hold in a database
In a database, temporarily displays records that match certain criteria
Foreign Key
In a relational database, the common field between tables that’s not the primary key
Fuzzy Logic
Enables the interjection of experiential learning into knowledge-based systems by allowing the consideration of probabilities
Information System
System that includes data, people, procedures, hardware, and software that help in planning and decision making; a software-based solution used to gather and analyze information
Input Form
Used to control how new data is entered into a shared database
Join Query
A query used to extract data that’s in two or more tables in a database
Knowledge-Based System
Business intelligence system that provides intelligence that supplements the user’s own intellect and makes the decision support system more effective
Management Information System (MIS)
Type of business intelligence system that provides timely and accurate information that enables managers to make critical business decisions
Many-to-Many Relationship
In a relational database, records in one table are related to multiple records in a second table, and vice versa
Data that describes other data
Model Management System
Software that assists in building management models in decision support systems; an analysis tool that, through the use of internal and external data, provides a view of a particular business situation for the purposes of decision-making
Multidimensional Database
Database that stores data from different perspectives, called dimensions, and organizes data in a cube format
Natural Language Processing (NLP) System
Knowledge-based business intelligence system that enables users to communicate with computer systems using a natural spoken or written language instead of a computer programming language
Process to ensure data is organized most efficiently in a database
Numeric Check
In a database, confirms that only numbers are entered in a field
Object-Oriented Database
Database that stores data in objects rather than in tables
Object Query Language (OQL)
A query language used by many object-oriented databases
Office Support System (OSS)
A system designed to improve communications and assist employees in accomplishing their daily tasks
One-to-Many Relationship
In a relational database, a record appears only once in one table while having the capability of appearing many times in a related table
One-to-One Relationship
In a relational database, for each record in a table there’s only one corresponding record in a related table
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
Software that provides standardized tools for viewing and manipulating data in a data warehouse
Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)
The real-time processing of database transactions online
Primary Key Field
In a database, a field that has a value unique to a record
In a database, a way of retrieving information that defines a particular subset of data; can be used to extract data from one or more tables
Query Language
A specially designed computer language used to manipulate data in or extract from a database
Range Check
Ensures that the data entered into the field of a database falls within a certain range of values
Real-Time Processing
The processing of database transactions in which the database is updated while the transaction is taking place
Group of related fields in a database
Referential Integrity
In a relational database, a condition where, for each value in the foreign key table, there’s a corresponding value in the primary key table
Relational Algebra
Use of English-like expressions that have variables and operations, much like algebraic equations, to extract data from databases using Structured Query Language
Relational Database
Database type that organizes data into related tables based on logical groupings
In a relational database, a link between tables that defines how the data is related
Select Query
In Structured Query Language, displays a subset of data from a table (or tables) based on the criteria specified
Structured (analytical) Data
Data such as “Bill” or “345” as opposed to unstructured data (see below)
Structured Query Language (SQL)
Database programming language used to construct queries to extract data from relational databases; one example of a fourth-generation language
Summary Report
Report generated by a management information system that provides a consolidated picture of detailed data; these reports usually include some calculation or visual displays of information
Table (file)
Group of related records in a database
Time-Variant Data
Data that doesn’t pertain to one period in time
Transaction-Processing System (TPS)
Type of business intelligence system for keeping track of everyday business activities
Unstructured Data
Audio clips, video clips, pictures, and extremely large documents. Also called binary large object (BLOB) (see above)
The process of ensuring that data entered into a field of a database meets specified guidelines
Validation Rule
In a database, generally defined as part of the data dictionary and specified in the filed properties for each field; violations result in an error message and a suggested action

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