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cis chapter 17

7 phases of the systems development cycle
planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance
legacy systems
an old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life.
conversion
the process of transferring information from legacy system to a new system
software customization
modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
off the shelf application software
supports general business process and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organizations needs
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
the overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance

the foundation for all systems development methods and hundreds of different activities are associated with each phase.

planning
brainstorm issues and identify problems
analysis
gather the business requirement for the system, design the system models
design
design the technical architecture required to support the system
development
build the technical architecture, build the database, build the applications
testing
write the test conditions, perform system testing
implementation
write detailed user documents, provide training for users
maintenance
build a help desk to support system users
planning phase
establishes a high level plan of the intended project and determines goals
(jad) joint application development
session where employees meet sometimes for several days to define or review the requirements for a system
(P1) change agent
person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes
(P1) project mangement
application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet requirements
(P1) manager
individual who is an expert in project planning
(P1) scope
the problem the project will solve
(P1) plan
formal document that manages the entire project
analysis phase
firm analyses its end user business requirements and refines goals into defined functions and operations
(P2) business requirements
are the specific business requests the system must meet to be successfull
(P2) requirements definition document sign off
consists of the users actual signatures indicating they approve
(P2) modeling
graphically representing the process
(P2) data flow diagram
illustrates the movement of info between external entities and the process and data stores within the system
(P2) computer aided software engineering
tools are software suites that automate systems analysis design and development
design phase
establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system
(P3) graphical user interface
interface to an information system
development phase
takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system
(P4) software engineering
disciplines approach for constructing information systems through the use of common methods techniques or tools
(P4) control objects for information and related technology
set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors.
(P4) scripting language
programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website
(P4) object oriented languages
group data and corresponding processes into objects
(P4) fourth generation languages
programming languages that look similar to human languages
testing phase
brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and make sure it meets the requirements
implementation phase
the organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations
maintenance phase
organization performs changes, corrects, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet business goals
corrective maintenance
makes the system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or issues
preventive maintenance
makes system changes to reduce chance of future system failure
parallel implementation
uses legacy system and new system until all users verify that the new one functions correctly
plunge implementation
discards the legacy immediately and migrates all users to the new system
pilot implementation
assigns small group of people to use the new system until it is verified
phased implementation
installs the new system in phases
unclear or missing requirements
the most common reason systems fail is because the business requirements are either missing or incorrectly gathered during analysis
skipping SDLC phases
the first thing individuals tend to do when a project falls behind schedule is start skipping phases. this can lead to many issues
failure to manage scope
as project progresses the manager must track the status of each activity and adjust the plan if needed
failure to manage project plan
managing the project plan is one of the biggest challenges during the systems development. it is a road map for development and must be followed

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