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Cold War Vocab Unit 2

Korean War
1950-1953 Conflict that began with North Korea’s invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People’s Republic of China allying with North Korea and the SU
38th Parallel- Demilitarized Zone
Result of the Korean war, a divide between North and South Korea, that has no military combat on the “Line”
Joseph McCarthy- McCarthyism
Senator that wanted to be re elected so he created McCarthyism that basically McCarthy would accuse them of communism and they would be trialed- people eventually saw him as a bully and that he was accusing innocents
HUAC
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda, specifically in Hollwood
Alger Hiss, Rosenberg’s
Three people convicted of a charge that has to do with spying on the US and giving info the the Soviet Union
Hydrogen Bomb
One thousand more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Baby Boomers
The 78 million people born during the baby boom, following World War II and lasting until the early 1960s. Was because everyone was in high spirits and so many men were coming home from war, and the marriage age lowered so more people had kids, and advancements in medicine could decrease the infant death rate
Suburbs
Was a cause of the Interstate Highway act- more people wanted to live out of the city, but still close to it. Wanted a friendly neighborhood for their families
1. Levittown, New York – one of the earliest mass-produced suburb
Automobile Culture
Suburban living made owning a car a necessity (no public transportation available). Interstate highway act singed in 1956 created 41,000 miles of expressways made trucking possible, decline in railroads), drive-ins, etc.
Consumerism/obesity
-New products were produced and sold because of the Increase in inventions and technology
-Created- Planned obsolescence- producers created products that were going to go out of style so that people would have to come back and get the latest thing
People spent too much $, and People put too much money on credit cards- Buy now, Pay later. Huge in increasement in advertising. People bought things they didn’t need
TV (Mass Media)
Different types of media began to compete, and it created mass media because people could have tvs in their homes, Radio, movies, Tv and other media all became really advanced because of all of the advancements
Elvis Presely
First white performer to sing rock ‘n’ roll on national TV. He appeared on the ed sullivan show. The first rock and roll hero of the fifties. He was very controversial artist because of his rapid hip movement and dance moves; led way to the “sexual” era of music. Brought black music into white teens and communities.
James Dean
United States film actor whose moody rebellious roles made him a cult figure- who starred in “Rebel Without a Cause” in 1955. Embodied the new generation’s “moral decay”, teen angst, and dysfunctional families.
Marilyn Monroe
An American actress, model, singer, and icon. She always seemed to be in the spotlight; all of America knew her name (especially in the 40’s and 50’s). Monroe was probably most infamous for her several marriages and rumored affairs with JFK and his brother Robert.
Female icon of the 1950s and 60s, she could sing, dance, act, the most infamous Playboy Bunny, was America’s “sex icon”
a) What was The Hollywood Ten accused of?
b) How was The Hollywood Ten affected by the accusations?
c) Do these accusations about
The Hollywood Ten seem to have been fair? Explain.
a) Putting communist propaganda in films.
b) -Sent to prison because they refused to testify.
-Others were blacklisted
c) Probably not- many pro-soviet films accused were made when USSR was ally in WWII.
a) What was Alger Hiss accused of?
b) How was Alger Hiss by the accusations?
c) Do these accusations about
Alger Hiss seem to have been fair? Explain.
a) Spying for the USSR.
b) -Accused by Whittaker chambers- a known communist.
-Convicted of perjury.
-Nixon Prosecutes him
c) Hiss probably was a communist- not likely a spy.
a) What was Ethel & Julius Rosenberg accused of?
b) How was Ethel & Julius Rosenberg affected by the accusations?
c) Do these accusations about
Ethel & Julius Rosenberg seem to have been fair? Explain.
a) Giving atomic secrets to USSR.
b) Executed- no other spies were!
c) -No-Julius was a spy. But not of atomic secrets.
– Ethel probably not involved
What seems to have motivated McCarthyism?
Fear of Communism
McCarthy desire for fame/re-election
Attempt to discredit Democrats – blame them for loss of China, etc…
Why did McCarthyism succeed at first?
Played on people’s fears
He blamed people he wouldn’t get accused of slander by.
Accused George Marshall of having Communist sympathies…
Why did McCarthyism fall out of favor?
In 1953, a Republican, Eisenhower takes office
McCarthy accuses army once Eisenhower is president.
No support, televised hearings show him as a bully.
What was the significance of the HAUC?
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda. Specifically communist influence inside and outside the US gov. after WWII.
What was the significance of blacklist?
List of people in the Hollywood film industry who were refused jobs because they did not cooperate with HUAC and thus were alleged to have communist backgrounds.
What was the significance of Senator Joseph McCarthy?
Wisconsin Republican senator who exploited public concern for political gain during the 1950’s by claiming to have a list of communist in the state department and conducting investigations of the alleged Communists. He was discredited in 1954.
Trends = Business expansion: conglomerates and franchises
What were the effects?
Standardized what people ate; Economic advancement to people who would conform; Offered job security to more Americans; Contributed to the baby boom and suburbanization; Offered consumers more choices
Trends = Suburban expansion: flight from the cities
What were the effects?
Offered people the chance to live the American Dream; Caused many Americans especially women, to feel dissatisfied with their lives; Contributed to the popularity of the automobile; Led to the decline of cities; Created racial and economic gulfs between suburban and city dwellers
Trends = Population growth: the baby boom
What were the effects?
Created the largest generation in U.S. History; Contributed to suburbanization and business expansion; Led to the widespread overcrowding in schools and a teacher shortage; Led to a boom in activities geared toward youth
Trends = Dramatic increase in leisure time
What were the effects?
Contributed to business expansion in leisure fields; Gave people time to engage in a wide variety of recreational pursuits; Helped to increase sales of books and magazines
Trends = Dramatic increase in
the use of the automobile
What were the effects?
Spurred the building of roads and interstate highways; Encouraged suburbanization and urban decline; Helped the trucking industry to take business from the railroads; Helped to unify & homogenize the nation; Offered Americans more possibilities for leisure activities ; Stimulated other industries
Trends = The rise of consumerism
What were the effects?
Helped to popularize the equating of material goods with success; Contributed to the expansion of business; Encouraged manufacturers to produce a wider variety of goods; Encouraged planned obsolescence and the “throwaway society”; Caused an increase in private debt; Led to a boom in the advertising industry
Then tell how Dr. Jonas Salk affected American society in the 1950s.
A policy of producing consumer goods that rapidly become obsolete and so require replacing, achieved by frequent changes in design, termination of the supply of spare parts, and the use of nondurable materials. Jonas Salk is the man that discovered the Polio Vaccine.
What are some of the most popular shows produced on the television?
I Love Lucy; See It Now; Playhouse 90
What kinds of subjects did the television tend to present?
Comedy; Idealized White America; Western Frontier
What kinds of subjects did the television tend to avoid?
Poverty; Diversity; Contemporary Conflicts, such as Radical Discrimination
How did radio change to compete with television?
turned to local programming; began targeting specialized audiences
What role did the radio play in popularizing African- American culture?
hundreds of stations focused on African-American performers helping to sell their records
How did movies change to compete with television?
Introduced innovations such as stereoscopic sound and cinema-scope to capitalize on its advantages over TV; Introduced such fads as piped-in smells and 3-D
Who were the most famous beat writers?
Ginsberg; Kerouac
What were the beat movement’s chief characteristics?
Nonconformity; Anti materialism; Interest in a higher consciousness; The shunning of structure in life and art
Who helped to popularize rock ‘n’ roll?
Freed; Presley; Berry; Little Richard; Radio; TV
What were rock’s chief characteristics?
Heavy Rhythm; Simple melodies and lyrics; Focus on youth
What was the purpose of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)?
A federal agency who is tasked as a “watchdog” too determine what is appropriate to be aired on the radio and television.

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