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Combo with "Bureaucracy in a Democracy (ch. 14)" and 2 others

Bureaucracy
(def): The complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed to coordinate the work of an institution’s personnel
-Part of everyone’s daily lives
Implementation
(def): The efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic rules and actions
-Rule making
-Enforcement
Merit System
(def): A product of civil service reform, in which appointees to positions in public bureaucracies must objectively be deemed qualified for those postions
Organization
-Promotion of the public welfare
-Promotion of national security
-Promotion of a strong economy
Department
(def): The largest subunit of the executive branch
-The secretaries of the fifteen departments from the Cabinet
Independent Agency
(def): An agency that is not part of a Cabinet department
Government Corporation
(def): A government agency that performs a service normally provided by the private sector
Public Welfare
-Enhancing or protecting the general well-being of the public
-Provide services, build infrastructure, and enact regulations
Public Welfare: Examples
-Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)
-Medicaid
-Medicare
-Food and Drug Administration
-National Park Service
Regulatory Agencies
(def): Departments, bureaus, or independent agencies whose primary mission is to impose limits, restrictions, or other obligations on the conduct of individuals or companies in the private sector
Iron Triangle
(def): The stable, cooperative relationship that often develops among a congressional committee, an administrative agency, and one or more supportive interest groups
National Security
-Security agencies for the US are mostly located in state and local governments
-National security agencies:
-Defense against internal security threats
-Defense against external security threats
National Security: Internal
-Pre- and post-9/11
-Mostly DOJ before 9/11
-After 9/11, Dept. of Homeland Security was created and joined DOJ in domestic security e orts
National Security: External
-State Department’s primary mission is diplomacy
Department of Defense
-They coordinate the US military
-They are the largest employer in the world
-They contain the Joint Chiefs of Sta , Army, Navy, Air Force, the Marine Corps, and the National Guard
Strong Economy
-The government does not run the economy
-However, it conducts activities critical to maintain a strong economy
Economy: Fiscal Policy
(def): Related to government taxation and spending
-Treasury Department:
-Collects income, corporate, and other taxes
-Prints currency
-Manages the national debt
Economy: Monetary
(def): Related to banks, credit, and currency
-Federal Reserve System:
-System of twelve banks that facilitates cash exchange, checks, and credit
-Regulates member banks
-Uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation
-Authority over bank interest rates and lending activities
Economy: Economic Development
-Agencies designed to strengthen particular economic segments
Ex: Department of Agriculture, Federal Housing Administration (HUD)
Revenue Agencies
(def): Agencies that are responsible for collecting cash
Improving Government
-While bureaucracy is necessary, many aspects of it can be inefficient or wasteful
-Making improvements:
-Reinventing the bureaucracy
-Termination
-Devolution
-Privatization
Reinventing Bureaucracy
-Make government more efficient, accountable, and effective
-National Performance Review task force created during Clinton years
-Cost and size of the federal workforce has been reduced, but no sweeping reform
Termination
-Entails eliminating programs
-This is very difficult once specific programs are targeted
-During the 12 years of Reagan and Bush (I): Not a single agency terminated
-A related approach is deregulation
Deregulation
(def): A policy of reducing or eliminating regulatory restraints on the conduct of individuals or private instituions
Devolution
(def): Removing a program from one level of government by delegating it down to a lower level of government
Devolution: Issues
-Poorer state have diculty implementing policies
-Problems with e ectiveness | states are bureaucracies too
-Goals often unaccomplished | more social/economic inequalities
Privatization
(def): Entails moving all or part of a program from the public sector to the private sector
-It should encourage eciency, but services not always
consistent with a pro t motive
-No evidence that privatization is more ecient or less costly than government
Effective Management
-Bureaucracies are needed to implement policy, but they can also become inecient and wasteful
-Need to learn how to take advantage of bureaucratic bene ts while keeping bureaucracy accountable
Congressional Oversight
-Congress plays a large role in bureaucratic responsibility
-Vague legislations = more bureaucratic discretion
-More bureaucratic discretion = creates confusion
-Congress needs more effective oversight
Oversight
(def): The effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies
buearcracy
staffers and administrative officials who help the president carr out his duties are “institutional presidency”
key persons
majority(51%) by senate
cabinet
president closest advisors
Jack Lous
white house cheif of staff
office management budget
omb, helps carry out budget
going public
president popular appeals to create a mass base of support that will allow them to subordinate their political foes
bureacrats
implement the laws
spoil system
executive had broad authority to appoint and remove personels
civil servant act 1883
restricts president power over appointments, set up permanent professional employers, set up bipartisan
office of personnel management
hiring and firing
federal employees
its difficult to fire
merit system protection board
bipartisan body appointed by president and confirmed by senate
hatch act
limited ablility of federal employees to fully particapate on partisian issues
federal employees political activites act (1993)
clinton pushed for changes to liberalize hatch act
independant agencies
outside typical cabinet structure; nominated by president and confirmed by senate, and president can remove at any time ex: EPA CIA
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
works with state and local governments to control and abate pollution
government corporations
entities which provide private sector goods; ex: US postal service and amtrak
independent regulatory commissions
created to remove key functions from partisan bickering, and president does not have power to remove
Federal communication commission (FCC)
charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable
executive order
illegal to text when driving government vehicles or private vehicles if being reimbursed for driving
issue networks
different issue grous compete for favorable regulation
cozy little triangles
close relationship amoung powerful actors that keep average citizem out of participating; special interest groups get control over agencies, members of congress and get benefits that others do not
department of homeland security (DHS)
created as a result of the high priority of domestic security; created after 9/11
fiscal policy
department of the treasury; protecting currency, but contains secret service
monetary policy
federal reserve system and board; magage expansion and contraction of the money supply
revenue agencies
tax collection
When the government’s goals are embodied in a law or an order, backed by punishments or rewards, it is best described as
public policy
What is the most important way the government affects personal and corporate investments?
Promoting investor confidence through policies enforcing stability and regard for the law
Which of the following is not a goal of governmental intervention in the economy?
promoting corporate accountability
The Securities and Exchange Commission was established
After the stockmarket crash of 1929
Which of the following is not a function of the Securities and Exchange Commission?
It protects the confidentiality of all sales of stocks and bonds
Which of the following are the three basic prerequisites for economic growth?
public investment, innovation, strong workforce
The goal of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) was to
Put unemployed persons to work on public projects
What event marked the major historical turning point in the relationship between the government and the marketplace?
Great Depression
What did the Great Depression and World War II do to the public’s expectations regarding employment?
They showed that the government could help to ensure full employment
When the price level of goods and services increases over several months, it is called
inflation
Which of the following was not one of the goals of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009?
providing for a national health care system
Public policy can be embodied in all of the following forms except
a petition
All of the following are strategies to combat inflation except
increasing the amount of government spending on public works projects.
______ are given to states and local governments on the condition that all expenditures are limited to the problem or group specified by law.
Categorical grants
Which of the following is not a way in which the government promotes business development?
regulations
Which of the following was not a major form of economic promotion by the federal government in the nineteenth century?
public works projects
Which of the following does the Small Business Administration (SBA) provide?
disaster assistance
Before the 1930s, relations between labor and management in the United States were
among the most violent in the world
Vehicle safety is one of the chief responsibilities of the Department of
transportation
Which of the following actions marked a decisive break with the tradition of the federal government promoting compromises between labor and management?
In 1981, Ronald Reagan fired striking air traffic controllers and hired permanent replacements to fill their jobs
Upton Sinclair’s 1906 exposé The Jungle revealed
The unsanitary practices at meatpacking plants
During the 1960s, Ralph Nader was influential as
a consumer advocate
Which of the following has not been a major goal of the government’s involvement in the economy?
Promoting economic equity and fairness for all citizens
Adam Smith’s theory of ______ argues that many individual economic transactions come together to create a greater good for all.
the invisible hand
Classic laissez-faire theory argues all of the following except that
a truly efficient government allows private enterprise to provide all government services
Which of the following is the most important economic value for supporters of laissez-faire?
efficiency
Which U.S. president once said, “I am now a Keynesian”?
Richard Nixon
What economic development, according to many critics, has made Keynesian economics less useful?
the rise of international trade
Who among the following advocated for laissez-faire capitalism?
Adam Smith
Those who believe in ______ argue that the government’s role in regulating the economy should be limited to regulating the supply of money.
monetarism
The idea that the government can stimulate a slow economy by increasing public spending or cutting taxes is called
Keynesianism
Which statement is the key argument of John Maynard Keynes?
Government can pull an economy out of a recession by stimulating demand and creating a cycle of increased production and jobs
When did Keynesian economic ideas become government practice in the United States?
the 1930s
Something that must be supplied by the government because it cannot be provided by the marketplace is called
a public good
Who was the most prominent monetarist in the United States?
Milton Friedman
Which of the following best describes the views of Milton Friedman?
Government should let the growth in the money supply match the rate of economic growth
Which economist is best known for arguing that there is an optimal rate of taxation, and if taxes go above this rate, tax revenues will shrink because economic activity will decline?
Arthur B. Laffer
How did the Federal Reserve respond to the terrorist attacks of 9/11?
It cut interest rates to promote increased investment and spending
Which of the Founders was most responsible for the establishment of the Bank of the United States?
Alexander Hamilton
______ is the current chair of the Federal Reserve Board, appointed by George W. Bush in 2005.
Ben Bernanke
Which of the following statements about the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) is false?
The FRB is part of the Department of the Treasury
Open-market operations describes
The method by which the federal reserve buys and sells government securities to increase or decrease the supply of money in the economy
What is the reserve requirement?
The rule that every bank must have a certain amount of cash and negotiable securities on hand at all times
If the Federal Reserve wants to help boost a sagging economy, which one of the following is the most direct way it can do this?
Lower interest rates so that banks can provide more loans at cheaper rates to individuals and businesses
Which of the following is the best example of a public good?
the interstate highway system
The power to raise or lower the tax rate is part of
fiscal policy
A tax on imported goods is called a
tariff
Before World War II, ______ of federal revenue was generated from individual income taxes.
less than 15 percent
When people in the lower income brackets pay a larger percentage of their income toward a tax, it is called ______ taxation.
regressive
Sales taxes are ______, and most income taxes are ______.
regressive, progressive
A(n) ______ is an incentive in the tax code for individuals and corporations to invest their money in ways the government desires in exchange for a reduction in tax liabilities.
loophole
______ were the centerpiece of George W. Bush’s economic policy.
tax cuts
Why did the Democrats believe that the 2001 tax cuts should only remain permanent for those making less than $250,000 a year?
High income earners (those making more than $250,000 a year) had benefited disproportionately from economic growth in the early 2000s
The ______ is determined by the amount government spending exceeds government revenue in a fiscal year.
budget deficit
In order to have reliable information about the costs and impact of economic policies, Congress created the ______.
Congressional Budget Office
Why do many businesses prefer Congress to regulate the economy?
One national regulation is better than the inconsistencies and disparities of different state laws
Which of the following is not an example of mandatory spending?
defense spending
Approximately what percentage of the federal budget is made up of uncontrollables?
60 percent
______ policies are designed to eliminate the abuses of powerful ______.
antitrust, monopolies
What did Congress see as the principle cause of the economic recession that began in 2007?
excessive risk taking by investors
______ are government grants of cash or other valuable commodities, such as land, used to promote activities desired by the government.
subsidies
Why have politicians always favored using subsidies to promote certain economic activities?
they can be treated as “benefits” that can be spread widely in response to many demands
Which of the following is not a benefit to government provided by contracting?
Governemnt officials almost always use contracting to award businesses and corporations that donated substantial amounts of money to their political campaigns
Which of the following is not one of the concerns politicians have to consider when attempting to pass regulations that seek to protect the environment?
public opinion, which overwhelmingly favors economic interests over the environment
The United States has ______ percent of the world’s population, and is responsible for ______ percent of its greenhouse gas emissions.
10, 25
Most of the groundbreaking environmental laws were written in the
1970s
Which of the following statements about the relationship between government and capitalism is false?
Before the progressive era, the market place was untouched by government interference
Setting emissions standards for each industry, while allowing companies to trade “carbon credits” is an approach to environmental policy known as
cap and trade
The Kyoto Protocol was designed to
set binding targets for greenhouse gas emissions to be met by each country
Which of the following was not a result of the 2009 Copenhagen Summit?
the meeting ended with a legally binding agreement between countries to limit greenhouse emissions across the world
What year marked the beginning of the Great Depression?
1929
Which of the following is the best description of the changing expectations of government’s role in the economy since the 1930s?
people hold the government responsible for a healthy economy
The most consistently powerful nongovernment actors in determining economic policy are
business organizations
Which of the following is not a possible cause of the increase in economic inequality over the past several decades?
the collapse of the domestic high-tech industry
Which of the following was a driving force for the economic growth during the late nineteenth century?
manufacturing industries
The index of the total output of goods and services produced in a national economy is called the
gross domestic product
The goals of American social policy are
often controversial
Which of the following is an example of nineteenth-century “indoor relief”?
the police station
Which group was the first to receive government assistance throughout the United States?
mothers with dependent children
Social case work, in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, was largely concerned with
personal counseling and “mental hygiene”
How did the Great Depression change American attitudes about welfare?
It revealed that poverty could be caused by a flawed economic system, not just by personal irresponsibility
When was Social Security established?
1935
Which of the following is not a program of forced savings?
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
Social Security is a good example of
a contributory program
Which of the following statements about Social Security is false?
Contributors receive benefits in strict proportion to their contribution
Medicare is a ______ program; Medicaid is a ______ program.
contributory, noncontributory
The periodic adjustment of benefits or wages that takes into account the increased cost of living is called
indexing
Why have Americans typically been apprehensive about government efforts to reform health care?
they fear reform will be too costly and will jeopardize current health care arrangements
A cost-of-living adjustment is based on what?
the rate of inflation
When potential recipients of a benefit must establish their genuine need, the government program is called
means tested
What important noncontributory program was abolished by Congress in 1996?
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
When was Medicare established?
1965
The Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program is administered
by the states with benefit levels varying between states
Which of the following statements about noncontributory programs is false?
the existence of these programs dates from the Civil War
Which program was designed to help augment the benefits to the aged, blind, and disabled?
Supplemental Security Income
Which of the following is an in-kind benefit?
food stamps
How does an entitlement differ from a right?
Unlike an entitlement, a right cannot be taken away by an act of congress
What was the significance of the Supreme Court case Goldberg v. Kelly?
It held that public assistance benefits could not be revoked without due process of law
Which of the following is not a goal of American social policy?
closing the gap between rich and poor
What do public opinion polls reveal about welfare policies?
they are among the most disliked government programs
What was the reason behind Progressive-era welfare for single mothers?
reformers wanted women to stay home with their children rather than going to work
The welfare reforms of 1996 did all of the following except
taking the federal government out of welfare policy, granting all authority to the states
Which of the following can be concluded from the results of the 1996 welfare reforms?
the reforms have reduced the number of people on welfare, but have done little to reduce poverty
The main change in welfare policies since 1996 is
increased use of non-cash assistance
Approximately what percentage of the current federal budget is spent on entitlement programs, such as Social Security and Medicare?
55 percent
Over the past three decades, the level of federal payroll tax has ______, and the level of federal corporate taxes has ______.
risen, fallen
Which of the following social policies is the most costly to the government?
social security
Which of the following is not an identifiable problem with Social Security?
the political consensus supporting a federal retirement program is crumbling
The idea of ______ was at the heart of George W. Bush’s 2005 plan for Social Security reform.
private accounts
The goals of social policy
reflect changing views about which risks should be borne by the individual or shared by society
After the election of 2004, President George W. Bush announced that ______ would be the centerpiece of his domestic policy.
Social Security Reform
The first federal government assistance in education came
in 1785, when the federal government set aside land for public schools
What is the most significant force determining the distribution of opportunities in the United States?
education
What was the most significant education policy developed by the federal government in the nineteenth century?
the establishment of land-grant colleges
What event brought federal attention to elementary school education?
the fear that the soviets were winning the cold war through better technology
The idea that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to achieve their goals is called
equality of opportunity
Which of the following statements about the No Child Left Behind Act is false?
it creates a standard national test for all students
Which of the following was a key part of President Obama’s overhaul of No Child Left Behind?
a proposal to change the criteria for allocating $14 billion in federal assistance to schools from a per pupil formula to a system of competitive grants
Which of the following is not a reason why the No Child Left Behind Act has been controversial?
the states were made responsible for setting standards and devising appropriate tests
Charter schools are best described as
public schools that are free to design special curricula
Who was in charge of caring for the poor during the nineteenth century?
private corporations
Since the 1930s, American employment and training programs have
fared poorly in terms of both expense and results
Which of the following was created during the New Deal?
Works Progress Administration
When was the U.S. Public Health Service founded?
1798
What was the result of the efforts to reform health care in the United States in 1994?
Health care reform met resistance and no bill was voted on by congress
In 2010, approximately what percentage of American workers were offered health insurance through their jobs?
60 percent
Which of the following was not included in the congressional plans for health care reform?
a “public option” allowing individuals to acquire medical coverage directly from the government
The central thrust of federal housing policy has been to
promote homeownership
In 2007 and 2008, the government faced a housing crisis caused by
foreclosures
Which of the following is the strongest factor in predicting which groups in society receive the most benefits from government’s social policies?
groups that are the most politically powerful
Which of the following groups receives the most benefits from government’s social policies?
the middle class
When did the American welfare state begin?
the 1930s
Which of the following groups receives the least benefits from government’s social policies?
children
Which of the following least explains why the elderly receive a large share of social benefits?
most member of congress are themselves elderly or soon will be
AARP has a membership of approximately ______ members.
40 million
Between 1959 and 2004, the percentage of elderly Americans living in poverty has gone from ______ to ______.
35 percent, 10 percent
______ are programs where the government provides a tax deduction for spending on health insurance and other benefits by both employers and employees.
tax expenditures
Which of the following is the best example of the shadow welfare state?
workplace medical insurance
What is the shadow welfare state?
social benefits that are distributed by private employers who are being subsidized by the government
Which of the following programs most benefits the working poor?
earned income tax credits
Which of the following is not a reason the working poor receive such a small amount of social policy benefits?
the working poor are often considered undeserving by public opinion
Since the welfare reforms of 1996, what is the primary reason for receiving federal cash assistance if one is nonworking and able-bodied?
the recipient is caring for children
What was the primary problem with private charities before the development of the welfare state?
they would make subjective decisions on who was deserving or undeserving of aid
Since the mid-1990s, by how much has the number of welfare recipients declined in the United States?
over 50%
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
men are more likely to be poor than women
Which of the following groups are more than twice as likely as other Americans to be below the poverty line?
single mothers
According to the text, why is it difficult to lobby for the interests of poor children?
children cannot vote
What was outdoor relief distributed by private charities?
money
What was the main fear concerning the consequences of outdoor relief?
it perpetuated poverty
Which of the following is not a component of American foreign policy?
social security
The policy of striking a nation that you fear might be contemplating hostile actions is called
preemption
A ______ nation is one with unstable leadership, whose polices are driven by ideology rather than by economic or human costs and benefits.
rogue
When a nation is granted “most favored nation” status with the United States, it means the nation
is to be offerred the lowest tariff rates
In 1998, the foreign trade term most favored nation was changed to what?
normal trade relations
The North American Free Trade Agreement is
a trade treaty between the United States, Canada, and Mexico designed to lower and eliminate tariffs
Which of the following statements about the World Trade Organization is incorrect?
The United States dropped out of the World Trade Organization in 2004 over a disagreement about steel tariffs
Protests against the World Trade Organization (WTO) in recent years were prompted by
the perception that the WTO was not paying enough attention to developing countries
In 1997, the United States withdrew from
the Kyoto Protocol
Which of the following goals has traditionally been of lowest priority in U.S. foreign policy?
human rights
Most American presidents have been
domestic politicians who set out to make their place in history through domestic achievements
What eighteenth-century politician warned Americans against too much involvement with foreign nations?
George Washington
In foreign policy, the Bush Doctrine refers to
preemptive war
Which official is not a major actor in American foreign policy?
Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Which of the following is the most important actor in the foreign policy establishment?
the president
What is the chief task of the National Security Council?
to coordinate the differences among the executive’s key foreign policy makers
What is the main job of the director of national intelligence?
to collate and coordinate intelligence coming in from multiple sources and to report this to the president
Which president established preemption as the centerpiece of his foreign policy?
George W. Bush
In 2005, which of the following set off a new set of power struggles in Washington, D.C., over control of the intelligence community?
the appointment of a national intelligence “czar”
Which war was officially declared by Congress?
War of 1812
Why has Congress become a major foreign policy maker since World War II?
Congress is regularly called upon to approve financing of foreign policies
An agreement between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but lacks congressional approval is called
an executive agreement
The nineteenth-century policy of ______ was based on the geographic distance of the United States from other countries.
isolationism
In the sphere of foreign policy, which of the following is not a constitutional power possessed by Congress?
negotiating treaties on behalf of the United States
The most important task of the Senate in foreign policy is
reviewing and approving treaties
What is the main difference between a maker and a shaper of American foreign policy?
makers are those within government, while shapers are influential groups outside of official government
Which of the following is not an influential interest group affecting American foreign policy?
diplomats from foreign nations
Which of the following does not represent an important interest reflected through the actions of foreign policy interest groups?
domestic representation of foreign governments
Which interest group in the United States is more likely to depend on demonstrations and other nontraditional strategies of influence?
environmental groups
Which ethnic group has the reputation of having the greatest influence on American foreign policy?
Jewish Americans
What is the most critical resource the media has to influence foreign policy?
the speed and the scale with which the media can spread political communication
Why did embedded journalists in Iraq lead to controversy?
there was widespread suspiscion and fear that the journalists were being managed or manipulated by the government to provide favorable reporting of the war effort
In a crisis, which of the following has the greatest foreign policy influence?
the president
What was the key to American security during the nineteenth century?
geographical isolation
In regard to foreign policy, which of the following is not a problem that the media poses to the president?
the media is generally biased against international conflict, thus making it difficult for the president to engage U.S. troops abroad
Which of the following statements about who really makes American foreign policy is false?
the influence or power of the president varies depending on which particular country or group of countries the United States is dealing with
The representation of a government to other foreign governments is called
diplomacy
The main effort to change the foreign service into a fully professional diplomatic corps was
the Foreign Service Act of 1946
The first efforts by the United States to create a professional Foreign Service staff started
after World War I
President Clinton’s appointment of former senator George Mitchell to chair the Northern Ireland peace talks in 1998 is a good example of
the president’s avoidance of conventional diplomatic staff
Currently, the United Nations has approximately ______ member states.
192
The traditional American distrust of diplomacy has resulted in which situation?
Presidents often use military or political leaders outside the State Department during a crisis
Which of the following nations does not have a permanent seat on the UN Security Council?
Germany
According to the text, which of the following does not describe the United Nations?
is generally adversarial to the interest of the United States
Deterrence assumes the ______ of the U.S. response and the ______ of an adversary.
certainty, rationality
The International Monetary Fund
provides loans and facilitates a short-flow of money to countries in need
The UN Security Council has ______ permanent members and ______ elected members.
five, ten
Foreign aid is an economic ______. Sanctions are an economic ______.
carrot, stick
What was the Marshall Plan?
the economic recovery package of aid from the United States to Western Europe after World War II
When was NATO formed?
1949
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an example of
multilateralism
Which of the following is not a NATO member?
mexico
During the Persian Gulf War, allies of the United States paid for what percentage of the war’s costs?
90 percent
Of which collective security organization is the United States not a member?
the warsaw pact
Which of the following describes the “realist” view of foreign policy?
Foreign policies should be guided by the national interest, even if from the outside the nation appears cold and ruthless.
Why did the United States fight wars in Korea and Vietnam?
policy makers believed if we didn’t fight, it would embolden the communists
The foreign policy ideals that Americans have historically espoused assert
that our foreign policies should have a higher purpose than the pursuit of our own interests and to use force only as a last resort.
The most noteworthy example of the policy of deterrence was
the arms race
When did the Cold War begin?
the 1940s, soon after World War II
All of the following are elements of a nation-state except that
it must be a member of the united nations

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