Fundamental drivers of competitive advantage
Speed, innovation, service, sustainability, cost competitiveness, quality
Effectively creating ____ requires full considering a new/challenging set of stakeholders and issues
By _____ managers make sure the org resources are being used as planned and that the org is meeting its goals such as quality and safety
Which of the four managerial functions are most necessary for managers to devote adequate attention and resources?
Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Why is it important in a business career to be both a specialist and a generalist?
Being a spec. provides specific skills that help you provide concrete, identifiable value to your firm and customers, generalist over time gives knowledge about a variety of business disciplines so you can think strategically with different perspectives
the key to success of a company is the _____ advantage the company holds and how well the company can sustain the advantage
knowledge management supports ____ across boundaries
Frontline managers are AKA
operational managers, supervisors, lower-level managers
traditional functions of management
controlling, organizing, planning, leading
three essential skill categories include:
technical, conceptual and interpersonal
Major waves of change that are part of the challenges of managing in the new competitive landscape
globalization, importance of knowledge/ideas, collaboration across org boundaries, technological change
companies must realize the need to serve the _____ drives everything
the best managers achieve high performance by focusing on:
efficiency and effectiveness
_____ is the effort to minimize the use of resources, esp those that are polluting/non renewable
____is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish org goals.
____describes the monetary amount associated with how well a job, task, good, or service meet’s users needs
roles/ responsibilities of a successful manager
focus on customers (internal/external), knowledge of all business functions, coordinate resources and do real work with lower people, accountable for results, think strategical, translate strategies into objectives
factors that drive successful performance for a company, ultimately leading to competitive advantage
Quality, service, innovation
in order to improve better customer experience, Detroit institute of arts did:
ID ways to customize services, ID ways to make experience more pleasant, analyzed types of customer interaction that occur in a museum
frontline managers are:
lower-level managers who supervise operational activities of an org
organizing activities include
marshalling/allocating resource, grouping jobs into work units, attracting ppl to org, specifying job responsibilities
A____exective would be responsible for overall management and effectiveness of the org
_______ is the excellence of a product, whether its goods or services
a ______ skill is the ability to perform a specialized task that involves a certain method or process.
3 types of skills needed to be an effective manager?
Conceptual/decision skills, tech skills, interpersonal/communication skills
____ is the intro of new goods/services
qualities of total quality management
preventing defects before they occur, achieving zero defects in manufacturing, operating with a philosophy of continuous improvement, designing products for quality
speed refers to fast and timely execution, response and_____of results
what is the management function of specifying the goals to be achieved and deciding in advance the appropriate actions to achieve these goals?
practices aimed at discovering/harnessing an orbs intellectual resources are called:
skills pertaining to the ability to ID and resolve problems for the benefit of the org and its members are called:
conceptual and decision skills
to be _____ is to achieve org goals. to be____is to achieve goals with min. waste of resources
managers located in the middle layers of the org hierarchy, reporting to the top level execs are called
mid-level managers. duh.
What are ways quality can be measured?
product performance, conformance to standards, durability, customer service, aesthetics, reliability
role of knowledge management in successful innovation
capitalize on ppls expertise, find intellectual assets of ppl, help ppl colloboate/learn, help ppl generate and develop ideas into innovation
over time, individuals should learn to be a _____, knowing enough about a variety of business disciplines so they can think strategically and work with different perspectives
the management function of systematically making decisions
definition of controlling
monitoring performance and making needed changes
helps a company gain a competitive advantage
cost competitiveness, speed, quality, innovation, service
____means giving customers what they want or need, when they want it
3 essential categories of skills for successful manager
interpersonal/communication skills, technical skills, conceptual and decision skills
_____ is stimulating people to be high performers
cost _______ means keeping costs low enough so that the company can realize profit and price its products at levels that are attractive to the consumer.
____is giving people what they want or need when they want it
what is the role of knowledge management in modern business?
help people generate new ideas, develop new ideas into successful innovations, help people collaborate and learn, find human assets
three essential skill categories are
technical, interpersonal and conceptial
____ is the intro of new goods/services
components of total quality management
operating w/ philosophy of continuous improvement, preventing defects before they occur, achieving 0 defects, designing products for quality
assembling /coordinating human, financial, informational and other resources need to achieve goals is called_____
ways that wal mart manages its workforce to increase cost competitiveness?
computerized schedule based on store sales, transactions, units sold and customer traffic, schedule just enough workers, require employee flexibility
Cost Competitiveness involves:
lowering costs to increase profits. Cost competitiveness means keeping costs low enough so that the company can realize profits and price its products (goods or services) at
levels that are attractive to consumers.
Interpersonal and communication skills are sometimes known as:
people skills. Interpersonal and communication skills influence the manager’s ability to work well with people. These skills are often called people skills. Managers spend the great majority of their time interacting with people, and they must develop their abilities to lead, motivate, and communicate effectively with those around them.
The planning function for the new business environment is described as:
delivering strategic value.The planning function for the new business environment is more dynamically described as delivering strategic value.Planning is specifying the
goals to be achieved and deciding in advance the appropriate actions needed to achieve those goals.
Which of the following is true of the common practices of successful executives?
They take responsibility for decisions. Successful executives ask “What needs to be done?” not just “What do I want to do?”They take responsibility for decisions. This requires
checking up, revisiting, and changing if necessary.
Which of the following occurs when a person rises higher in a company?
Conceptual skills become more important than technical skills. Technical skills are most important early in a person’s career. Conceptual and decision skills become more important than technical skills as one rises higher in the company. But interpersonal skills are important throughout one’s career, at every level of management.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the management function of controlling?
Monitoring performance and making necessary changes. The fourth function of management, controlling, monitors performance and implements necessary changes. By controlling, managers make sure the organization’s resources are being used as planned and the organization is meeting its goals such as quality and safety.
Managers who have to create and articulate a broad corporate purpose with which people can identify, and one to which people will enthusiastically commit are known as:
top-level managers. Traditionally, the role of top-level managers has been to set overall direction by formulating strategy and controlling resources. But now top
managers are more commonly called on to be not only strategic architects but also true organizational leaders. As leaders, they must create and articulate a broader corporate purpose with which people can identify—and one to which people will enthusiastically commit.
______is one of the ongoing challenges that characterize the current business landscape.
Technological change. The four ongoing challenges that characterize the current business landscape are globalization, technological change, the importance of
knowledge and ideas, and collaboration across organizational boundaries.
The skills of understanding oneself, managing oneself, and dealing effectively with others is called:
emotional intelligence. Businesspeople often talk about emotional intelligence, or EQ—the skills of understanding oneself (including strengths and limitations),
managing oneself (dealing with emotions, making good decisions, seeking and using feedback, exercising self-control), and dealing
effectively with others (listening, showing empathy, motivating, leading, and so on).
_____ means keeping costs low enough so that the company can realize profits and price its products at levels that are attractive to customers.
Cost competitiveness. Cost competitiveness means keeping costs low enough so that the company can realize profits and price its products (goods or services) at
levels that are attractive to consumers.If a firm can offer a desirable product at a lower price, it is more likely to sell.
Companies that want to grow often:
tap into international markets where incomes are rising and demand is increasing.
One of the key activities of an operational manager is:
creating and pursuing new growth opportunities for the business. Frontline managers, or operational managers, are lower-level managers who supervise the operations of an organization. One of the key activities of an operational manager is creating and pursuing new growth opportunities for the business.
Which of the following is true of the modern approach to quality?
It focuses on preventing defects before they occur. W. Edwards Deming, J. M. Juran, and other quality gurus convinced managers to take a more complete approach to achieving total quality. This includes preventing defects before they occur, achieving zero defects in manufacturing, and designing products for quality.
Which of the following is one of the most important processes of knowledge management?
Planning. One of the most important processes of knowledge management is to ensure that people in different parts of the organization collaborate effectively with one another. Collaboration across boundaries occurs within and even beyond the boundaries of the organization itself.
The goodwill stemming from one’s interpersonal relationships is known as:
Social capital. Social capital is the goodwill stemming from one’s social relationships, and it can be mobilized on one’s behalf. It aids career success, compensation, employment, team effectiveness, successful entrepreneurship, and relationships with suppliers and other outsiders.
A more complete approach to achieving total quality would include:
achieving zero defects in manufacturing. W. Edwards Deming, J. M. Juran, and other quality gurus convinced managers to take a more complete approach to achieving total quality.
This includes preventing defects before they occur, achieving zero defects in manufacturing, and designing products for quality. The goal is to solve and eradicate from the beginning all quality-related problems and to live a philosophy of continuous improvement in the way the
_____ workers are those who primarily contribute their ideas and problem-solving expertise.
Knowledge. Workers whose primary contributions are ideas and problem-solving expertise are often referred to as knowledge workers. Managing these workers poses some particular challenges such as knowing if they are doing a good job.
Which of the following is characteristic of frontline managers?
They are the link between management and non-management personnel.Frontline managers are directly involved with non-management employees, implementing the specific plans developed with middle managers. This role is critical in the organization because these operational managers are the link between management and non-management personnel.
Which of the following is considered as an interpersonal role?
Monitor. One of the interpersonal roles required in a manager is liaison—maintaining a network of outside contacts who provide information and favors.
Products do not sell forever, and competitors are introducing new products all the time. Therefore, a firm must _____, or it will die.
Innovate. A firm must adapt to changes in consumer demands and to new competitors. Products don’t sell forever; in fact, they don’t sell for nearly as long as they used to because so many competitors are introducing so many new products all the time. A firm must innovate, or it will die.
Pluto Inc. is computer technology corporation that has been manufacturing laptops for the last five years. Recently, in the face of sinking
market share, Pluto reduced its dependency on laptops by venturing into tablets and smartphones. This is an example of _____.
Diversification.Diversification occurs when a firm invests in different types of businesses or products or when it expands geographically to reduce its dependence on a single market or technology.
Which of the following is a controllable environmental factor that can affect an organization?
Cost leadership strategy. External factors that influence an organization are often uncontrollable. Examples include recession, government regulations, competitors’ actions, and other factors. However, managers should not ignore controllable internal management issues.
Complexity and dynamism in the environment result in:
environmental uncertainty.Environmental uncertainty means that managers do not have enough information about the environment to understand or predict the future. Uncertainty arises from two related factors: complexity and dynamism.
Which of the following refers to the immediate environment surrounding a firm, including suppliers, customers, rivals, and new entrants?
Competitive environment. The competitive environment is the immediate environment surrounding a firm. It includes suppliers, customers, rivals, new entrants, and substitute products.
Which of the following is an example of a cooperative strategy to influence the environment?
Contractual marketing systems. In some situations, two or more organizations work together using cooperative strategies to influence the environment. An example of contracting occurs when suppliers and customers, or managers and labor unions, sign formal agreements about the terms and conditions of their future relationships.
Identifying the best-in-class performance by a company in a given area, such as customer service, and then comparing the process to one’s
own is called _____.
benchmarking. Benchmarking means identifying the best-in-class performance by a company in a given area, say product development or customer service, and then comparing your processes to theirs.
Differences in the way people dress and act, their interactions with each other and with customers, and what qualities are expected and
appreciated by their managers and company are examples of the _____.
Organization culture. Organization culture includes the way people dress and behave, the way they interact with each other and with customers, and the qualities that are likely to be valued by their managers.
Mercury Inc. is a successful tea manufacturer. The company recently branched out and announced a series of unique tea-flavored biscuits that will soon be available across all supermarkets. Which of the following is Mercury trying to do in this case?
domaine selection. Domain selection is the entrance by a company into another suitable market or industry with an existing expertise. For example, the market may have limited competition or regulation, ample suppliers and customers, or high growth.
According to Michael Porter’s competitive environment model, high switching costs increases _____.
the power of suppliers . Dependence on suppliers, and thus their power, results from high switching costs, the fixed costs buyers face if they change suppliers. For example, once a buyer learns how to operate a supplier’s equipment, such as computer software, the buyer faces both economic and psychological costs in changing to a new supplier.
Why is understanding an organization’s environment important?
Without this understanding, organizations tend to miss opportunities or make poor decisions. If managers do not understand how the environment affects their organizations or cannot identify opportunities and threats that are likely to be important, their ability to make decisions and execute plans will be severely limited.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a strong culture?
Everyone believing in the firm’s practices. A strong culture is one in which everyone understands and believes in the firm’s goals, priorities, and practices. In contrast to strong cultures, weak cultures have the following characteristics: different people hold different values, there is confusion about corporate goals, and it is not clear from one day to the next what principles should guide decisions.
Which type of culture is externally oriented and flexible, with a strategic emphasis on growth, new resource acquisition, and innovation?
Adhocracy culture. An adhocracy is externally oriented and flexible. This culture type emphasizes change in which growth, resource acquisition, and innovation.
The internal environment includes:
culture and climate. The internal environment includes a firm’s culture, climate, and values. The external environment includes all relevant forces outside the organization’s boundaries.
Which of the following is true of a company’s response to societal trends?
Responding to social trends can affect a company’s reputation in the marketplace. How companies respond to social issues may also affect their reputation in the marketplace, which in turn may help or hinder their competitiveness. Societal trends regarding how people think and behave have major implications for management of the labor force, corporate social actions, and strategic decisions about products and markets.
Raw materials, services, equipment, capital, and information are _____ for an organization.
inputs. Inputs are the goods and services organizations take in and use to create products or services. It includes raw materials, services, equipment, capital, and information.
When clothing retailers reduce prices to clear out last season’s merchandise to make room for new inventory, they are _____.
smoothing. At the end of each clothing season, retailers discount their merchandise to clear it out to make room for incoming inventories. This is an example of smoothing environmental cycles to level off fluctuations in demand.
Which of the following is a component of Porter’s competitive environment?
Suppliers. The competitive environment includes rivalry among current competitors and the impact of new entrants, substitute and complementary products, suppliers, and customers.
Which of the following is a dominant attribute of a hierarchical culture?
Rules and regulations. The hierarchical culture is internally oriented by more focus on control and stability. It values stability and assumes that individuals will comply with organizational mandates when roles are stated formally and enforced through rules and procedures
Which of the following is a demographic factor of an organization’s macroenvironment?
Employees’ age. Demographics are measures of various characteristics of the people who make up groups or other social units, such as the workforce. Work groups, organizations, countries, markets, and societies can be described statistically by referring to demographic measures such as their members’ age, gender, family size, income, education, occupation, and so forth.
In competition, a substitute is best described as a(n):
alternative to a product. A substitute is a potential threat; customers use it as an alternative, buying less of one kind of product but more of another.
types of control systems
balance sheet and profit and loss statement are 2 financial statements that
help control org performance
control process order
1.establish standards of performance, goals or targets against which performance is to be evaluated.
2. measure actual performance
3. compare actual performance against chosen standards
4. evaluate the result and initiate corrective action if the standard is not being achieved
______ systems will be ineffective if employees engage in tactics aimed at beating the system
price charged for one business unit for a good or service provided by another unit within an org is called
key financial rations are calculated from selected items on:
focusing on short term earnings and profits at the expense of longer term strategy is known as
a sales budget includes sales forecasts by:
control systems are an important method of constraining people’s behavior and making their behavior predictable; however it can lead to
ABC process requires
-employees break down what they do each day
-managers spread expenses over employee actions
budgetary control process
-budgetary ops stage
-reinforcing successes and correcting problems
types of bureaucratic control
when designing a control system managers should remember to
use multiple types of control
______ involves culture, shared values, beliefs, expectations, and trust. it works best when employees are empowered to make decisions
steps in the control process
-comparing performance to the standard
-taking action to correct problems
-setting performance standards
Last step of control process
to take appropriate action when there are significant deviations
performance level inside an org can be measure using which of the following?
balance sheet itemizes
in large, diversified firms, ____ are used to regulate independent business units
2 effects on pricing that occur as the result of using market controls
-price becomes an indicator of the value of the good
-price helps regulate productivity and performance
effective_____ maximize potential benefits and minimize dysfunctional behaviors
3 types of control systems
____ any process that directs the activities of individuals toward the achievement of org goals
a cash budget shows:
-whether external financing is req’
-anticipated receipts and expenditures
-amount of cash available
-working capital available
___ is one of the most widely recognized and commonly used methods of managerial control
info req for a production budget includes
-types and capacities of machines
-economic quantities to produce
-availability of materials
balanced scorecard comprises which of the following sets of performance measures?
firm’s capital budget
-plant or buildings
concurrent control is used at which stage of the process of transforming inputs into furnished goods and services?
while plans are being carried out
effective control system
-standards should be objective
-expressed in quantitative terms
-not capable of sabotage
-should incorporate all important performance aspects
the ___ states that control enhanced by concentrating on the exceptions to, or significantly deviations form, the expected result or standard
principle of exception
can be evaluated during a company’s internal audit?
managers should consider three types of potential employee responses to control including
rigid bureaucratic behavior
-resistance to control
freeforward control is used at which stage of the process of transforming inputs into finished goods and services?
feedback control is used at which stage of the process of transforming inputs into finished goods and services?
an effective control system must be based on ___ performance standards
-valid and accurate
the ___budget is used for areas of the org that incur expenses but no revenue, like HR
control system should emphasize_____ rather than focusing on controlling negative behavior alone
allowing people to initiate their own corrective action encourages self-control and reduces the need for outside supervision.
open book management
market controls involve the use of______ forces
____ is the process of finding out what’s being done and comparing the results with the corresponding budget data to verify accomplishments or remedy differences
the balanced scorecard incorporates elements of feedforward, concurrent, and ____ control
____ helps an organization identify streams of activity and allocate costs according to time spent on particular activities
activity based costing
type of control system that depends on pricing mechanisms and economic info to regulate activities within an org is known as a
the ____ shows a financial picture of a company at a given time
In order to eval an orgs effectiveness, a manager might conduct
a ______ control system is designed to measure progress toward performance goals and corrective measures, if necessary
a bureaucratic control system works best______
when tasks are certain and workers are independent
effective control system should accomplish which of the following two goals?
minimize dysfunctional behaviors
-maximize potential benefits
which of the following is an example of communication
-when employees participate in decision making
-when employee report deviation in production
-when employees give feedback
____ ties together feedforward control, concurrent control and feedback control at the point at which it is applied
analysis for an external audit can include:
-discovering the strengths and weakness of a competitor
-determining the soundness of potential supplier
-investigating other orgs for possible merger or acquisition
performance standards are set with respect to:
types of issues that can be avoided with feedforward for of policies
-public disclosure of corp info
when you compare performance with standard, and only pay attention to the deviation___ has occurred
principal of exception
budget begins with an estimate of
feedforward control is used at which stage of the process of transforming inputs into finished goods and services
triple bottom line
-impact on employees and communities where company operates
what are reasons control systems based solely on bureaucratic and market mechanisms are insufficient for directing today’s workforce?
-employment relationship has changed
-nature of management has changed
-employees jobs are more complex
if managers use too much____, they can reduce the level of learning
standard is a target that an org uses to
-benchmark actual performance
-establish a desired performance level
-motivate performance among employees
assets are equal to liabilities plus
leverage ratio that indicates the company’s ability to meet its long term financial obligations?
the most common liquidity ratio is called:
a manager designing a control system should evaluate the terms in three questions
-does it provide enough info to each part of org about how other parts of the company are functioning?
-proved people with data relevant to decisions they need to make?
-provide the right amount of info to decision makers throughout the org?
a culture that makes it difficult to adapt to a changing environment results from______
T/F market controls such as transfer prices provide natural incentives to keep costs down and quality up
true mother ****er
control that helps managers deal with problems as they are occurring
the amount accruing to the corps owners is known as
____ ratios show the relative amount of fund in the business supplied by creditors and shareholders
_____ ratios indicate a company’s ability to pay short term debts
balance sheet itemizes three elements ___, liabilities, and stockholder’s equity
The activity-based costing approach results in:
spreading costs over activities according to the time spent on each.
Bureaucratic control deals with:
rules and regs
_____ is designed to reduce defects in all organization processes—not just product defects but anything that may result in customer
_____ is the fee charged by one unit for a good or service provided to another unit within the organization.
A common disadvantage of _____ control is the long time lags that often occur between performance and review, slowing down
When an organization investigates several companies as potential new suppliers, it is conducting a(n) _____ audit.
Any company can conduct external audits of competitors or other companies for its own strategic decision-making purposes. This type of analysis (1) investigates other organizations for possible merger or acquisition, (2) determines the soundness of a company that will be used as a major supplier, or (3) discovers the strengths and weaknesses of a competitor to maintain or better exploit the competitive advantage of the investigating organization.
_____ ratio is a leverage ratio that indicates a company’s ability to meet its long-term financial obligations.
_____ has become an essential part of clan control because employees’ jobs, the nature of management, and the employment relationship
have all changed.
_____ control systems are designed to measure progress toward set performance goals, and if necessary, to apply corrective measures
to ensure that performance achieves managers’ objectives.
To increase the likelihood that employees will accept a control system, it should have performance standards that are:
useful and achievable
A balance sheet shows the financial picture of a company at a given time and itemizes assets, liabilities, and _____.
The principle of _____ states that only cases with significant deviation from the standard require corrective action, and that managers
need not be concerned with performance that equals or closely approximates the expected results.
_____ refers to focusing on short-term earnings and profits at the expense of longer-term strategic obligations.
Which of the following is typically considered part of a firm’s capital budget?
Which of the following types of control systems depends on pricing mechanisms and economic information to regulate activities
within an organization?
_____ ratios indicate management’s ability to generate a financial return on sales or investment.
Which of the following should be the subsequent step in a typical control process after setting performance standards?
A frank and open-minded discussion of four basic questions aimed at continuous improvement is referred to as a(n) _____.
When legal experts advise companies to establish policies forbidding disclosure of proprietary information, they are exercising _____ control.
two types of stretch goals are
3 needs ID’d by McClelland are critical to motivating people
job _____ involves giving people additional tasks at the same time
according to hackman and oldham model of job design, positive outcomes occur when people experience positive psychological states which are
-knowledge of actual results of work activities
-experienced responsibility for outcome of work
-experienced meaningfulness of the work
Maslow;s need heiracrchy
process of sharing power with employees is called
to be effective managers must motivate people to:
-remain in the organization
-come to work regularly
-join the org
to discourage behavior, _____may be used
broad categories that affect people working on their jobs according to herbergs theory
____ refers to the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
a ____ reward if a reward that the person derives directly from performing the job itself
ways people can restore equity when they feel they are being treated inequitably
-reduce their inputs by giving less effort
-performing at lower levels or quitting
-ask for a raise
-work harder or put forth more effort
managers must motivate people to
-join the org
-remain in the org
-come to work regularly
-exhibit good citizenship
according to _____ people must satisfy their needs from bottom to top of the hierarchy
ways to empower employees
-providing more access to resources
-increasing authority at all levels
-allowing independent judgement
what must take place in order for a firms reward system to support the firms strategy?
-employees rewarded for building new skills that are critical to strengthening core competencies
-are rewarded for creating value
-rewarded for developing themselves strategically important ways
Herzberg’s two-factor theory describes people’s work_____ and satisfaction
____ is a human needs theory–people have 3 basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously
alderfer’s ERG theory
impacts of empowerment on employees
-feel capable of performing their jobs with skill
-perceive meaning in their work
-sense of self determination
goal-setting theory is what type of theory?
2 key factors that people use to assess how fairly they have been treated are_____
a set of perceptions of what an employee owes their employer and what their employer owes them is called a ______
herzberg made several contributions to understanding motivation. ID those
-set stage for hackman/oldham theory
-highlighted the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards
-reminded managers not to count solely on extrinsic rewards to motivate workers
consequences of work life programs
-better business performance
ways to offer feedback to employees on their performance
-providing statistics on work that the employee directly influenced
-by conducting performance reviews regularly
accurate descriptions of new psychological contract
-company will keep providing about the same pay with small increases
-company will provide job if it can
-employees will need to do their own jobs as well as extra work when others are downsized
fear causes people to do?
-focus on themselves rather than the group or org
-focus on short term
a theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and how highly they value that outcome, is called the______
which theory suggest that there are three universal needs: existence, relatedness, and growth which constitute a hierarchy of needs and motivate behavior
provide inartistic motivation
-freedom to pursue interesting tasks
-a challenging problem
-a chance to create something new
the ____ theory states that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs
in order to motivate employees, managers should help create a workplace that provides which of the following?
the____ has to support the firm’s strategy, defining people’ performance in ways that pursue strategic objectives
broad factors that affect people working on their jobs according to herzberg
implications of expectancy theory
-managers need to make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes
-managers need to increase expectancies
-need to POSITIVELY ID valiant outcomes
impact of procedural justice can differ by culture, impact is strongest amongst nations characterized by
the application of reinforcement theory in org settings is called
org behavior modification
herzberg motivator hygiene theory highlights the distinction between _____ and _____
leverage point that addresses providing employees with a work environment that facilitates good performance is known as
true about feedback at work
it’s up to me to get feedback i need
-learning what i need to know about myself will help me ID needs and create new opportunities
-i need to know things about my performance and behavior
-taking initiative on this gives me more power and influence over my career
when managers want employees to continue performing certain behaviors they use
Maslow’s human motivation
-ID importatant needs
-helpful general levels of needs where lower levels must be satisfied before higher levels
-alerted managers to importance of personal growth/self actualization
according to equity theory, people compare the ration of their own outcomes to inputs against ___
outcome to input ration of a comparision other
accurate descriptions of new psych contract
-employees will need to do their own jobs as well as extra work when others are downsized
-company will keep providing same pay with small increases periodically
company will provide job if it can
employees with a ____locus of control tend to attribute results to luck or fate
first two consequences, + and – reinforcement are + for the person receiving them, the last two, punishment and extinction are?
costs usually __ in the short term when empowerment is implemented
motivational theory that builds on, but differs from mallow’s theory is called
Aldeferer’s erg theory
managers in japan are more motivated by security
job ____ is intended to alleviate boredom by giving people different things to do at different times
law of effect laid the foundation for countless investigations into the effects of positive consequences called
____ is the completion of a while, identifiable piece of work
job ____ means that jobs are restructured by adding higher levels of responsibility
Implication of the expectancy theory
-need to make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes
-need to positively ID valiant outcomes
brown flynn employees felt motivated bc the company offered them challenges, leadership opportunities and
the need for____ reflects a strong desire to be liked by other people
2nd belief described by expectancy theory is known as___. this is the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
_____ is a consequence a person receives for his/her actions
_____ is the degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development
growth need strength
____ is the value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it
____ is the value the person places on the outcome
the fundamental processes that influence the motivation of all people are described by goal setting, reinforcement and ____ theories
the ___ theory describes how a person’s work efforts lead to a level of work performance
the hackman and oldham model offers insight into ____ as a way to motivate workers
The use of reinforcement or punishment in organizational settings is an integral part of:
organizational behavior modification.
Job enrichment would be more successful for people with:
high growth need strength.
A psychological contract is described as:
a set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them.
Following Herzberg’s model, Hackman and Oldham proposed a more complete model of _____.
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs would one seek to satisfy first?
_____ performance goals can be dysfunctional when people work in a group if the goals create competition among team members.
Which of the following is one of the eight categories of quality of work life programs?
Harry has been promoted because of his hard work. Judy, his colleague, feels that it is unfair and that he does not deserve the promotion.
In this case, Judy illustrates _____.
Which of the following best describes extinction?
It refers to withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence.
Motivation for employees can come from an interesting project, a completed sale, or the discovery of a perfect solution, all of which
are examples of:
The goal-setting theory states that:
people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end.
Targets that are particularly demanding and sometime even thought to be impossible are known as _____ goals.
Herzberg’s two-factor theory highlights the distinction between:
intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Which of the following best describes motivation?
Forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts
Key beliefs in the expectancy theory include expectancy and _____.
According to the expectancy theory, _____ is the link between performance and outcome.
According to McClelland’s needs theory, the need for _____ involves a strong desire to be liked by other people.
Rachel has been exceeding her targets for the past two months, and therefore her boss decided to give her a bonus. This is an example of _____ reinforcement.
A person can restore _____ in a number of ways by behaviorally or perceptually changing inputs and outcomes.
approach that focuses on individual leaders and attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share is called the____ approach
participative leadership behaviors are appropriate when
people have an internal locus of control
Hershey and Blanchards situational theory states that before deciding whether task performance or maintenance behaviors are important, managers should consider an employees
-establish/implement org procedures
-accountable for goal accomplishment
-develop visions for orgs
-provide meaning/purpose for employees
2 key situations factos in path-goal theory are personal characteristics of ____, and the environmental pressures and demands they must cope with
_____ decision making is when managers involve their employees in making decisions
According to Fiedler, which 3 of the following determine the favorability of a situation
Leader-Member Exchange, LMX theory highlights the importance of leader behaviors towards individuals T/F
reasons visions can be inappropriate
-ignore stakeholders needs
-may not reflect current environment of the org
-reflect leaders personal needs
effective leaders must articulate and clearly _____ an org’s vision
if an employee is an independent thinker, who works best when left alone, it is counterproductive to use____leadership behaviors to instruct that employee
_____ performance behaviors are actions taken to ensure the work group or org makes a profit
behavioral approach to leadership attempts to ID
what leaders do
managers who were high on maintenance behaviors had____
-fewer grievances from their employees
most effective followers are capable of ____ thinking
effective leasers must point the way and clear the path so others can_____
3 key characteristics of path-goal theory?
-locus of control
the ___ model of leadership emphasizes how leaders go about making decisions
a leader who makes subs aware of the importance of their jobs and performance to the org and their needs for growth and motivates them to work for the good of the org is a ___ leader
path-goal theory, 3 functions of a leader are to
-increase opps for personal satisfaction
-reduce barriers to goal attainment
-provide coaching and direction
fielder used term “leader style” to refer to the characteristic approach of a manager toward leadership.
T?F path-goal is concerned with how leaders influence follower’s perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward goal attainment
____ leaders give purpose and meaning to orgs
___ leadership seeks info, opinions and preferences to make a decision
____ is the ability to influence other people in an org is defined as:
exemplifies transformational leader?
group maintenance is one of the categories of the ___ approach
directive leadership is appropriate when followers
-have low abilities
it is equally important for managers to follow as it is for them to___
when leaders vary their behavior to meet the needs of the specific situation, they are practicing the:
situational approach to leadership
which of the following are methods successful leaders have used to develop their leadership skills?
-attending seminars on skill development
-observing methods and skills of their managers
-learning from their mistakes
-reading leadership and professional development books
which of following methods successful leaders have used t develop their leadership skills?
-attending seminars on skill development
-observing methods and skills of their managers
-learning from their mistakes
-reading leadership and other professional books
transformational leadership theory emphasizes influencing followers through:
-intellectually stimulating subordinates
-being a charismatic leader
-engaging in developmental consideration
what do outstanding leaders have that provides direction, and the inspiration to move the org toward it?
_____ leadership involves making decisions and announcing them to the group
leaders have ____ power as a result of subordinate and coworker respect, admiration and loyalty
group maintenance behaviors are taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and
-preserve the stability of the group
according to path-goal theory, which of the following statements regarding the importance of follower characteristics is/are true?
-ability is peoples beliefs about their abilities to perform their jobs
-authoritarianism is the degree to which individuals defer to authority
-locus of control is the extent to which people believe they can affect their environment
which is NOT an important skill or strategy that contributes to effective transformational leadership?
authentic leaders posses which of the following characteristics?
5 sources of leadership
following acts of courage are required for a leader to fulfill his vision?
-persisting despite resistance
-saying what needs to be said to those that need to hear it
-seeing things as they are and facing them head on
among the 1st to acknowledge and explain that leadership effectiveness is reliant on both the situation and the person and why a leader is effective in one situation and ineffective in another is fielders__model of leadership
managers’ ability to control the valued rewards is using their____power
path-goal theory, 4 pertinent leadership behaviors are
______ leadership seeks info, opinions, and preferences to make a decision
the essence of a ___- leader is having a vision and enthusiastically communicating it to others. a quiet and earnest person as well as the larger than life type of person can portray this quality
personal characteristics of ____ and environmental pressures are two facts that determine which leadership behaviors are most appropriate in the path-goal theory
according to ohio state studies, effective leaders should exhibit _____
high levels of maintenance and high levels of performance behaviors
ways a leader’s vision can contribute to org
-necessary for effective leadership
-can be developed across org
-helps develop leaders within org
according to hershey and blanchard, the key factor of situational theory is the ____ of the followers
a vision expresses the leader’s ____ for the organization
4 skills/strategies that contribute to transformational leadership
-having a vision
-postitive self regard
-communicating the vision
manager’s ability to punish others is their ____ power
how a leader behaves influences people’s ____ and performance
T/F Leaders who pursue their own interests and ignore their follower’s real needs are said to be pseudotransformational
in exhibiting group maintenance behaviors, the goal is to preserve the __of the group
_____ leadership provides guidance and support for day-to-day activities
effective followers are
-capable of independent thinking
-actively committed to the org
a _____ leader is someone whose main purpose is to work for the benefit of others
leadership assessment is info about both your current levels of performance and
your primary development needs
when a substitute for leadership is present, a manager is free to use time to find new
ways to improve org effectiveness and efficiency
effective leaders have a high level of ______ about their business and technical matters
the best visions are both unique and convey an
traditional approaches to leadership include which of the following?
outstanding leaders combine good strategic substance and effective interpersonal processes that produce:
-sustainable competitive advantage
formal/informal support is important to leaders because it helps them to
-stay the course
participative behavior is esp helpful when___ is needed
subordinate support of a decision
-need for power
-desire to lead
actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members are___behaviors
personality characteristics of drive
-high levels of energy
-persistence in the dace of adversity
-high need for achievement
psychological maturity is defined as an employee’s self-___ and self-____
to being developing your personal leadership style you should:
-become competent in your chosen field
-learn from your mistakes
following experiences you should seek in developing your personal leadership style?
-overcome ideas and deals that failed
-exposure to positive role models
5 key behaviors that people want and need from their leaders according to kouzes and posner
-create change by challenging the process
-model the way
-encourage the heart
-inspire a shared vision
important for leaders to posses self confidence in order to
-make decisions despite uncertainty
-instill confidence in others
contemporary leadership approaches
formal or informal support is important to leaders because it helps them to
-stay the course
shared leadership is characterized by the rotation of people through the leadership role based on which person has ___-
the most relevant skills
a combination of strong professional will and humility that builds enduring greatness describes ____ leadership
a leader that leads interdepartmental cooperation is an____ leader
leadership behavior such as trust, open communication, mutual respect, mutual obligation, and mutual loyalty all work to improve relationships according to the ____ theory
leader member exchange
three components must be present in effective developmental experiences, assessment, challenge, and
a style in which the leader is true to himself is
appropriateness of democratic leadership depends on the characteristics of leaders, the followers and
effective followers are valuable to orbs because they
master skills that are useful
characteristics of relationship oriented behavior
-setting org goals
-keeping people informed
external locus of control means that whatever happens is a result of
maintenance behaviors are most important for followers with___ levels of maturity
task-oriented behaviors include planning, scheduling, coordinating, providing resources, and ____
setting performance goals
the absence of managerial decision making is known as___leadership
the level of a follower’s skills is known as___ maturity, and his self confidence is psychological maturity
the performance and maintenance behaviors of leadership are ____ each other.
Phil is an interior designer with 12 years of experience. In the firm he works, new people go to him for instructions or advice. In this scenario,
Phil clearly has _____ power
According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s classic Harvard Business Review article, managers should consider three factors before deciding
how to lead: forces in the manager, forces in the subordinate, and forces in the _____
Which of the following leadership perspectives attempts to identify what good leaders do?
As one of the developmental experiences that individuals should seek, assignments involve:
building something from nothing.
_____ leadership behavior provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.
_____ concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their task objectives and the way they work toward attainment of those
A leader who exhibits a(n) _____ style will make decisions alone, without soliciting input from others.
Which of the following best describes pseudotransformational leaders?
Leaders who talk a good game, but ignore followers’ real needs as their own self-interests take precedence.
_____ leaders are those who motivate people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group.
Which of the following is a situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership?
The Vroom model
Three general categories of leadership behavior are related to group maintenance, employee participation in decision making, and _____.
_____ behaviors refer to actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of team members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and
preserve the social stability of the group
Which of the following is a key behavior of the best leaders according to Kouzes and Posner?
Inspire a shared vision
The best leaders use a set of five key behaviors identified by James Kouzes and Barry Posner, two well-known authors and consultants,
which are (1) challenge the process, (2) inspire a shared vision, (3) enable others to act, (4) model the way, and (5) encourage the heart.
_____ leadership does not involve a hierarchical, superior-subordinate relationship but instead invites colleagues at the same level to solve
Katana is using a leadership model to help her decide how to approach a current business problem. The model is funnel-like, where she looks
at successive problem characteristics such as significance, importance of commitment, and leader and team expertise. Answering high or low
to these, she will end up with the most efficient and appropriate decision style for this problem. Katana is using _____.
the Vroom model of leadership
The Vroom model operates like a funnel. Individuals answer the questions one at a time, choosing high or low for each, sometimes skipping
questions as they follow the appropriate path. Eventually they reach one of 14 possible endpoints. For each endpoint, the model states which
of five decision styles is most appropriate. Several different decision styles may work, but the style recommended is the one that takes the
Muriel has taught at a public elementary school for six years, and every year she simply gets the raise given to all of the teachers at her
school, regardless of her performance. She has spoken to the principal about this, and has been told that it is based on the current union
contract wherein job performance is not currently considered in awarding raises. Here the union contract limits the principal’s _____.
_____ is a leadership philosophy characterized by an absence of managerial decision making.
Managers can spend less time in direct attempts to influence people when:
substitutes for leadership are operating.
Which of the following statements is true of an organization’s vision?
The best organizational vision is that which is both ideal and unique.
means that the organization is composed of many units that work on different kinds of tasks, using different skills and work methods
means that these differentiated units are put back together so that work is coordinated into an overall product
Division of labor
means the work of the organization is subdivided into smaller tasks. Various individuals and units throughout the organization perform different tasks
refers to the fact that different people or groups often perform specific parts of the larger task.
Which is true about matrix organizations
-employees have two bosses
-its a hybrid for of organization
-functional and divisional forms overlap
-define the goal succinctly
-select the person for the task
-solicit the subordinate’s views about suggested approach
-give the subordinate the authority, time, resource
-schedule checkpoints for reviewing progress
-follow through by discussing progress at appropriate intervals
top______ _____ typically are composed of the CEO, CFO, COO, president, and other key executives
randal robinson works within the field of research and development (R&D) for MNOP Corporation. Therefore, Randal works for a _______ department, rather than a line of department
three basic approaches to departmentalization
A ______ organization departmentalizations its units around products, customers, or geographic regions
which organizational structure is composed of dual reporting relationships in which some managers report to two superiors
units that deal directly with the organization’s primary goods and services are referred to as:
the number of subordinates that report directly to a manager is known as the managers___of____
what depicts the positions in the firm (reporting structure) and the way they are arranged? (division of labor)
corporate____is a term describing the oversight of the firm by its executive staff and board of directors
a divisional organization departmentalizes its units around:
_____ departments are those that have responsibility for the principal activities of the firm
_______ means that a person is assigned a task that he/she is supposed to carry out
Top Management team
CEO, CFO, President
_____ constrains actions and integrates various units by regulating what people do
In a ____ organization, departments are specialized and grouped according to business functions and the skills
legitimate right to make decisions and tell people what to do?
three broad levels of the organizational pyramid are commonly called the
disadvantages of the matrix structure?
-manager jockeying for power
-difficulty with accountability
the____organization is a collection of independent, mostly single-function firms that collaborate to produce a good or service
____ departments support the line departments by providing specialized/professional skills
-coordination by standardization
-by mutual adjustment
an organization with departmentalization around specialized activities is called a ____ org
when middle managers give orders to first line supervisors direct operative-level workers this exemplifies
when decision making is spread throughout an organization it is considered highly
which of the following statements are true about an organization chart?
-depicts level of authority/responsibility to assigned positions in the company
-provides a picture of the reporting structure of a company
-depicts the arrangement of positions in a company
procedures that link the various parts of the org for the purpose of achieving the org’s overall mission are called
a collaborative process, in which the manager and participants develop a shared sense of ownership for the work they are doing, will generate better
-participation in the project
-commitment to the outcomes
-ideas for the project
this concept refers to issues pertaining to authority within an organization, the board of directors, the CEP, and hierarchical levels
which of the following statements apply to the role of integration in an organization as it relates to the completion of tasks?
-recommended for highly differentiated and complex companies
-structured mechanisms to enhance collaboration/coordination
-activities formed to link the work of different units
techniques managers can use to reduce the need for information
-create self contained tasks
-create slack resources
generally, people at higher levels in the organization have ______ to make decisions and tell lower level people what to do
in a _______ organization, departments are specialized and grouped according ti business functions and the skills they require
which of the following are reasons why organization are moving to a flatter organization structure with fewer layers.
an organization with departmentalization around specialized activities, such as production, marketing, or human resources is called a ________ organization
which of the following are horizontal processes that may be used to increase the org’s info processing capability as uncertainty increases
which of the following are advantages of the functional approach to departmentalization
-monitoring of the environment is more effective
-performance standards are better maintained
-economies of scale are realized
advantages of matrix organizations?
-higher demand of flexibility
-higher degree of adaptability
managers can reduce the need for information by creating ______ resources and self-contained ______
shortcomings of the functional form except:
decision making and lines of communications are single
which of the following are disadvantages of product departmentalization
-duplication of effort
-it’s difficult to coordinate across product lines and divisions
when middle managers give orders to first-line supervisors and first-line supervisors direct operative level workers, this exemplifies:
elements of a traditional org chart?
-boxes representing the work performed in each unit
-title in boxes representing the work performed in each unit
-levels of management indicating the number of horizontal layers in the chart
structural differentiation is created through which of the following?
-division of labor
this concept refers to issues pertaining to authority within an organization, the board of directors, the CEO and hierarchical levels
Coordination by______ allows interdependent units to modify and adapt their actions as long as they meet the deadlines /targets required for working with others
the degree to which differentiated work units work together and coordinate their efforts is called_____
advantages of the product approach to departmentalization
– info needs are manged more easily
-people have a full time commitment to a particular product line
-task responsibilities are clear
a firm wishing to be a true ______ should have people who engage in disciplined thinking
an organization where job holder’s responsibilities increase as need arises and communication occurs through advice and information has ______ structure
allow companies to be adaptive and sensitive to changes in their environments and respond to them quickly, thus to be more agile?
flexible factories differ from traditional factories by all of the following except:
-longer production times
x-providing more production options
x-lot size, flow patterns, scheduling
x-provifing a greater variety of products
the larger an organization, the more likely that it will develop_____
-economies of scale
-economies of scope
huge, complex organizations face such problems as bureaucracy and __________
lean manufacturing strives for high quality, speed, and _______
managers in progressive companies do which of the following?
-prepare for an uncertain future
-place a premium on being able to act quickly
-act in accordance with customer needs and outside pressures
this type of org seeks to maximize efficiency
a company’s value chain can build competitive advantage when, through it, the company does all of the following except:
-increasing stock prices
X-achieves economies of scale
X-links the elements in innovative ways
X-develops innovative distro channels
in order for organizations to gain the flexibility and agility that todays dynamic organizations require, they must appropriately design which of the following
large-size organizations often lead to increased_____
being both a big and small organization can be achieved by___________
-organizing around small, adaptive team-based work units
-avoiding problems of growth and size
-decentralizing decision making
accurate descriptions of strategic alliances
-social links are formed b/w participating orgs
-participating orgs accept joint ownership
-individual orgs share admin authority
traditional downsizing was used by a company when there was a fall in _____ of a product or service in the short run
orgs need to be responsive so they can:
-constantly seek new ways to meet their customer’s needs
-build a competitive advantage for the future
-react to shifts in customer service
dr, kenichi ohm developed the strategic triangle to identify three key players that businesses must take into account:
-company, competitors, customers
_______ allow organizations to respond to customer demands and environments threats faster and less expensively than their own
ind. orgs share administrative authority, social links, and accept joint ownership when they form a ____
successfully developing leadership in core competencies can increase a company’s _____
T/F large orgs are typically less organic and more bureaucratic
managers who wish to strengthen their firm’s core competencies should focus on:
-ID’ing existing core competencies
-investing in core comp. to remain better than competitors
-extending competencies for future applications
-acquiring or building competencies for the future
to capitalize on the advantages of size, companies should strive to be both_____ and ______
big and small
particular form/degree of organic structure depends on the company’s_____
managers who want to strengthen their firm’s____can do so by focusing on issues surrounding the firm’s core competencies
primary activities in generic value chain?
_______ is the systematic application of scientific knowledge to a new product, process, or service
refers to an approach that uses statistical tools to analyze the cause of product defects and aims to defect-free outputs
organizing approach based on a commitment to making an operation both efficient and effective and continually strives for improvement is called______
allow companies to be adaptive and sensitive to changes in their environment and respond to them quickly, thus be more agile?
company’s value chain can build competitive advantage when, through it, the company
-links the elements in innovative in innovative ways
-develops innovative distribution
-achieves economies of scale
“if you were a customer, how would you like us to operate?”
paper plus manufactures toilet paper and paper towels bc there is such similarity in the materials used for production of these goods as well as in the processes used in production, paper plus has an_____
economy of scope
when managers screen potential partners, they should consider financial terms and each other’s_____
area of expertise
CEOS share their _____ with other ket members of the top management team
informal authority can come from:
_____ ______ describes the role of a corporation’s executive staff and board of directors in ensuring that the firm’s activities meet the goals of the firm’s stakeholders
creating self-contained____ refers to changing from a functional organization to a product or project organization and giving each unit the resources it needs
an approach that involves feedback and discussions to jointly figure out how to approach problems and devise solutions that are agreeable to everyone
coordination by mutual adjustment
the assignment of a a task that an employee is supposed to carry out is called his/her _________
______ resources are simple extra resources on which organizations can rely on in a pinch
which of the following does an organization chart provide?
-a picture of the various activities carried out by different individuals
-a picture of the reporting structure
which of the following are elements of a traditional organizational chart?
-levels of management indicating the number of horizontal layers in the chart
-boxes representing different work
-title in boxes representing the work performed in each unit.
NOT appropriate when delegating?
managers should use delegation to pass responsibility to their subordinates.
formal position______ is generally the primary means of running an organization and is exemplified by orders that a boss gives to a lower-level employee being carried out
an aspect of the organization’s internal environment created by job specialization and the division of labor is known as ______
which of the following are horizontal processes that may be used to increase the organization’s information-processing capability as uncertainty increases?
as tasks of organizations become increasingly complex, the organization inevitably must be_____ into smaller units or departments
a wide span of control builds a _____organization
when interdependent units are required to meet deadlines and objectives for a common goal, this approach is known as:
coordination by plan
shortcomings of the functional form?
-lines of communication and coordination are more complex
-managers become specialists but not generalist
-employees care more about the function than about the company
it is quite common for people to have more____ then____
______ may be valuable when departments have different priorities or conflicting goals, which need to be mediated by top management
a person who assembles and coordinates participants in a network is referred to as a
companies in simple, stable environments have____levels of differentiation
to cope with high uncertainty and heavy information demands, managers can use which two general strategies?
-increase the capacity to handle more information
-reduce the need for information
reasons for separating the position of CEO and the chairman of the board?
-prepare for successor to the ceo
-unseat/reduce CEO power
-improve corporate governance
should NEVER be delegated
-conducting performance reviews
focus of many boards in wake of scandals/lawsuits?
-laws against discrimination
four-person diamond matrix structure include:
-product managers must collaborate and mane conflicts with functional managers
-employees must learn how to respond to two superiors and prioritize multiple demands
-functional managers must collaborate and manage conflicts with product managers
-top execs need to balance power/emphasis between functions and divisions
a wide span of control build a _____ organization
this is generally the primary means of running an organization and is exemplified by orders that a boss gives to a lower-level employee being carried out
formal position authority
formalization is considered the appropriate method for organizations to use to improve coordination and eliminate uncertainty in ____situations
which of the following are techniques managers can use to increase information processing?
-create horizontal relationships
-invest in information systems
Which of the following is not a role that brokers perform to aid integration and coordination in a network structured organization?
which of the following are advantages of both the product and customer/regional approach to departmentalization
-focus on customer needs
-provide faster and better service
in response to corp. scandals related to governance at firms like Enron and WorldCom, congress:
-passed the Sarbanes-Oxley act imposing tighter rules on corporate governance
which of the following statements serve to illustrate the conflicts between line and staff departments?
-success of line managers is based on their knowledge of the organization and it’s environment
-success of staff managers is based on their knowledge and expertise in the functional area they oversee
the person who gets a delegated assignment should be given:
this type of departmentalization is primarily useful in a stable environment with a low need for flexibility
_____ and ______ refer to the way all parts of the organization will work together
how can small business owners obtain the expertise of a board of directors?
seek advisors who will hold the owners accountable for their goals and performance.
the degree to which differentiated work units work together and coordinate their efforts is called:
the challenge of_____ authority for managers is that it can help or hinder their achievement of the organization’s goals
traditionally, authority resides in _____ not____
a very flexible version of the network organization is the ____ _____ organization, composed of temp arrangements among members that can be assembled to meet a changing competitive environment
the key to managing a _____ structure is the realization that is a process that requires managers to attend the norms, values, attitudes that shape how employees behave
all of the following are potential benefits of network organization EXCEPT
antonina believes that there is too much specialization in the company. therefore she appears to favor:
The role of a corporation’s executive staff and board of directors in ensuring that the firm’s activities meet the goals of the firm’s stakeholders
is known as corporate
A collection of independent, mostly single-function firms that collaborate to produce a good or service is called a _____ organization.
The network organization is a collection of independent, mostly single-function firms that collaborate to produce a good or service. As depicted in Figure 8.7, the network organization describes not one organization but the web of relationships among many firms.
As organizations grow and become increasingly diversified, functional departments may become difficult to manage, which may result in a
As organizations grow and become increasingly diversified, they find that functional departments have difficulty managing a wide variety of products, customers, and geographic regions. In this case, organizations may restructure to group all functions into a single division and duplicate each of the functions across all the divisions, resulting in divisional departmentalization
Who among the following occupies the top of the organizational pyramid and is personally accountable to the board and to the owners for the
The authority officially vested in the board of directors is assigned to a chief executive officer (CEO), who occupies the top of the organizational pyramid. The CEO is personally accountable to the board and to the owners for the organization’s performance.
in any kind of organizational structure.
Delegation is perhaps the most fundamental feature of management because it entails getting work done through others. Thus, delegation is important at all hierarchical levels. The process can occur between any two individuals in any type of structure with regard to any task.
Which of the following is a coordination method?
As organizations differentiate their structures, they also need to be concerned about integration and coordination, the way all parts of the organization will work together. In general, coordination methods include standardization (complemented by formalization), plans, and mutual adjustment.
A matrix organization is an overlap of:
functional and divisional organizational forms.
A matrix organization is a hybrid form of organization in which functional and divisional forms overlap. Managers and staff personnel report to two bosses—a functional manager and a divisional manager.
To cope with high uncertainty and heavy information demands in today’s environments, managers can increase the capacity to handle more
reduce the need for information.
To cope with high uncertainty and heavy information demands, managers can use the two general strategies shown in Figure 8.8. First, management can act to reduce the need for information. Second, it can increase its capacity to handle more information.
Research, legal, accounting, and human resources departments are examples of:
Staff departments are those that provide specialized or professional skills that support line departments. They include research, legal, accounting, public relations, and human resources departments.
An organization chart:
depicts the positions in a firm.
The organization chart depicts the positions in the firm and the way they are arranged. The chart provides a picture of the reporting structure (who reports to whom) and the various activities that are carried out by different individuals. Levels of management are indicated by the number of horizontal layers in the chart.
Which of the following best describes integration?
It is the degree to which differentiated work units work together and coordinate their efforts.
As organizations differentiate their structures, managers must simultaneously consider issues of integration. Integration is the degree to which differentiated work units work together and coordinate their efforts.
Authority is defined as the:
legitimate right to make decisions and to tell people what to do.
At the most fundamental level, the functioning of every organization depends on the use of authority, the legitimate right to make decisions and to tell other people what to do. Traditionally, authority resides in positions rather than in people.
The optimal span of control should be narrow when:
subordinates are inadequately trained.
The optimal span of control depends on a number of factors. The span should be wider when (1) the work is clearly defined and unambiguous, (2) subordinates are highly trained and have access to information, (3) the manager is highly capable and supportive, (4) jobs are similar and performance measures are comparable, and (5) subordinates prefer autonomy to close supervisory control. If the opposite conditions exist, a narrow span of control may be more appropriate.
Organizations have several ways to subdivide their structures. The three basic approaches to departmentalization are functional, divisional,
As organizations divide work into different units, one can detect patterns in the way departments are clustered and arranged. The three basic approaches to departmentalization are functional, divisional, and matrix.
Which of the following is the first step in a delegation process?
Defining the goal
According to Figure 8.2, the first step in the delegation process—defining the goal—requires the manager to have a clear understanding of the outcome he or she wants.
Which of the following is an advantage of delegating?
It allows managers to accomplish more than they could alone.
Delegating allows managers to accomplish much more than they would be able to do on their own. Delegation frees up the manager to devote energy to important, higher-level activities. Delegation essentially gives the subordinate a more important job, an opportunity to develop new skills and to demonstrate potential for promotion. At least some employees tend to feel a stronger commitment, perform their tasks better, and engage in more innovation.
Karla recently accepted a job with a software developer. She is surprised that her boss frequently refers to her judgment to resolve problems,
despite the fact that she has not worked there long. Based on Karla’s experience, it can be concluded that the firm has:
In decentralized organizations, more decisions are made at lower levels. Ideally, decision making occurs at the level of the people who are most directly affected and have the most intimate knowledge about the problem. Karla’s boss decentralizes decision making by getting Karla’s opinion to resolve problems
Jerry has a written policy forbidding office romances. This is an example of:
To improve coordination, organizations may also rely on formalization, the presence of rules and regulations governing how people in the organization interact. Simple, often written, policies regarding attendance, dress, and decorum, for example, may help eliminate a good deal of uncertainty at work. Jerry’s written policy is a kind of formalization.
Which of the following is created through division of labor and job specialization?
Several related concepts underlie the idea of structural differentiation. Differentiation is created through division of labor and job specialization.
One of the major tasks performed by the board of directors in a corporation is:
selecting and recruiting the CEO.
Boards perform at least three major sets of duties: (1) selecting, assessing, rewarding, and perhaps replacing the CEO; (2) determining the firm’s strategic direction and reviewing financial performance; and (3) ensuring ethical, socially responsible, and legal conduct.
a fast changing environment requires an organization to respond_____
which of the following describe organic structure?
-communication occurs through advice/info
-decision making and influence are decentralizes
-expertise is highly valued
huge, complex organizations face such problem as bureaucracy and __________
a design approach in which all relevant functions cooperate jointly and continually in a maximum effort aimed at producing high-quality products that meet customers needs is:
_______ is a planned elimination of positions or jobs
types of products that are produced through mass customization include:
movement of resources/products into org to its customers is called______
the particular form/degree of organic structure depends on the company’s ______
an org skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying behavior to reflect new knowledge is a __________ organization
an org where jobholder’s responsibilities increase as need arises and communication occurs through advice and information has_____ structure
firm wishing to be a true learning org should______
-review successes/failures for deeper understanding
-search constantly for new knowledge/ways to apply it
-have people who engage in disciplined thinking
share ideas throughout the organization through multiple venues
T/F CRM focuses on creating two way exchanges with customers so that the firm can have an intimate knowledge of the customer needs, wants and buying patterns
primary activities in generic value chain
an organizational characteristic that is an important factor in how an organization responds to changes in its environment is______
strategy aimed at reducing the total time it takes to deliver a product or service is:
when those who have not been laid off during downsizing, but struggle with heavier workloads, lose commitment to the company and become risk adverse often exhibit what is known as ______ _____
managers who wish to strengthen their firms core competencies should focus on:
-investing in core competencies to remain better than competitors
-ID’ing existing core competencies
-extending competencies for future applications
-acquiring or building competencies for the future
a firm must respond to a fast-changing environment by being quick and _____
successfully developing leadership in core competencies can increase a company’s_______
in recent times, downsizing has been used as a way to become more_____
T/F diseconomies of scale lead to new organizational problems such as administrative difficulties that inhibit efficiency
Strategic alliances are sometimes formed between:
to capitalize on the advantages of size, companies should strive to be both_____ and _____
big and small
large organizations are harder to control because__
jobs become more specialized and complex
adapting to the changes in environment include being sensitive to all of the following except:
in a high involvement organization, top management ensures that_____
there is consensus about where the business is heading
being both a big and small organization can be achieved by:_____
-decentralizing decision making
-avoiding problems of growth/size
-organizing around small, adaptive team-based work units
t/f in a high involvement org, top management makes all the company decisions
____ is a way of managing in which the org is committed to continuous improvement of the product/service
total quality management
when all functional groups in an organization are involved with the efforts to design and produce a product that will satisfy customer needs, the org is using
which of the following are advantages of large size organizations?
-Easier access to capital
-lower operating costs
-greater purchasing power
the coordinated series or sequence of functional activities necessary to transform inputs such as raw materials or professional skills into the finished goods/services customers value and want to buy is called the____
JIT concentrates on reducing time in manufacturing, whereas TBC attempts to deliver speed in
a multifaceted process focusing on creating two way exchanges with customers to foster intimate knowledge of their needs, wants and buying patterns is:
Customer relationship management
which of the following represents an example of a lean manufacturing tactic that has resulted in chaos, overworked people, and low morale?
-laying off operational workers
-eliminating layers of management
continuous processes are characterized by which of the following?
-structure can be more organic
-machines and/or computers do all the work
which of the following is NOT a benefit of concurrent engineering?
-product design can be easily changed
X-functional departments are more committed to decisions
X-Management experience about product is enhanced
X-cost/quality can be determined early in the process
the benefits of CIM include which of the following?
-greater control and predictability of production process
-high-volume and high-variety products can be produced simultaneously
-faster throughput times
this type of organization seeks to maximize efficiency
JIT rep’s a # of key production and organizational concepts including:
-elimination of waster
reduced cycle items
-elimination of delays
-reduced setup times
economy of scope
Time-based competition (TBC) has several key org elements including:
avoid making the following downsizing mistakes
-laying off too many people
-implementing early retirement programs
-making slow, small and frequent layoffs
_____ is a way of managing in which the org is committed to continuous improvement of the product/service
total quality management
when all functional groups in an organization are involved with the efforts to design and produce a product that will satisfy customer needs, the organization is using:
which of the following are advantages of large-size organizations?
-lower operating costs
-greater purchasing power
-easier access to capital
Does NOT support Total Quality Management?
-use numerical quotas
x-break down barriers among departments
x-strive for long-term improvement rather than short-term profit
x-build long-term relationships instead of awarding business on price tag alone
A company where structure is more mechanistic, there are more rules and formal procedures, and decision making is centralized would most likely be using_____ technology
The principal idea of _______ is to revolutionize key organizational systems and processes to become more customer focus
Organizations that are typically less organic and more bureaucratic are_______
T/F customer relationship management (CRM) focuses on creating two-way exchanges with customers so that the first can have an intimate knowledge of the customer’s wants, needs, and buying patterns.
when materials and processes employed in one product can be used to make other related products, you have_____
economies of scope
An organizing approach based on a commitment to making an operation both efficient and effective, and that continually strives for improvement is called____
____offers efficiency only when the costs of storing items are greater than the costs of frequent delivery?
an organization’s environment is composed of many different parts. The environmental aspect that has had the most profound impact on organizing in recent years is_____
a customer focus
For the ____ approach to be effective, people must be broadly trained, communication is informal and horizontal among line workers, equipment is general purpose, and supplier relationships are long-term and cooperative
Managers must usually restructure their internal processes and their relationships wwith customers in fundamental ways to achieve ____quality
The task of organizing a business includes designing the____, information flows, and technology that make the organization effective
The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to sequence and make mass customization possible is called:
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
the research and development alliance that resulted in the most innovation occurred when the partners were_____
experts in moderately different types of research
an organization that is prepared to meet the complex and ever-changing challenges that it constantly confronts is
One of the most important contributors to total quality management has been the intro of statistical tools to analyze causes of product defects. the approach that assesses whether the product or process is less than 3.4 defects per million is called
Six Sigma quality
when downsizing is used to lead a more agile, flexible and responsive firm it is often called____
in JIT operations, a customer order triggers a factory order and the _____
For reengineering to be effective and successful, a ____ change must take place in the way the parts of the organization work together
organizationally, companies should be viewed as a portfolio of____, not just a portfolio of specific businesses
In lean manufacturing, ______ are considered wasteful
overhead and inventory
companies that provide goods/services in very low volume, such as restaurants or doctors’ offices are called_____
The focus of reengineering is to:
revolutionize key operational processes
_____tags help boost logistics efficiency and speed
companies are able to mass customize products by organizing around interdependent operating units, called_____, that perform specific processes or tasks
economies of _________ allow firms to compete with large foreign rivals, by using materials and processes from one product to make others
Six sigma defects include all of the following EXCEPT
-deficient corporate culture
x-poor customer service
in organic organizations, people work more as ______, rather than as subordinates who take orders from the boss
Japanese business philosophy centers on the belief that a company retains competitive advantage by continuing to improve. this is known as______
an organic structure is much less____ than a mechanistic structure
before a company commits to winning market share, it should commit to excellence and leadership in its_______
burns and stalker a _________ organization as being similar to a bureaucracy
an org is a_______ system
the best type of set-up when are very different is:
deming’s 14 points of quality emphasized a ______ approach to management
the Malcolm baldric quality award recognizes companies that meet certain criteria in all of the following areas except:
_____ is a team-based approach that incorporates perspectives of all functions, resulting in a higher quality product
manufacturing plants that have short production runs, are organized around products, and use decentralized scheduling are called_____ factories
in a flexible factory, scheduling is:
this term refers to wherever the work goes next, and highlights the interdependence among functions in the organization
once the company answers the question “how would our customers want us to operate?” a ______is formed and decisions and actions are directed toward achieving it.
managers must usually restructure their internal processes and relationships with customers in fundamental ways to achieve_____quality
six sigma defects:
-poor customer service
(XXXX–deficient corp. culture)
an organization can achieve competitive advantage if it’s resources are valuable, _____, imitatable, and organized
reasons structured interviews are superior to unstructured interviews
-more likely to yield valuable information
-less influenced by interviewer bias
T/F employers today are attempting to increase benefit costs, even as their value to their employees are rising?
two critical issues related to the testing methods used in the selection of employees are:
a performance appraisal focuses on three basic categories
adequate background checks include which of the following?
criminal records check
three basic employee benefits offered to every employee, regardless of employment status, as req’ by law
how many and what types of employees the org will actually have is known as
supply of labor
responses that managers have made to deal with the skills shortage have included
-increasing training budgets
-retraining downsized workers
-recruiting qualified workers from other countries
legally, job applications and resumes would contain basic information on the candidate including
an org can check a variety of references for a job candidate. which of the following would be considered useful in supplementing candidate-provided info?
workers typically vote for unions b/c
-desire for better benefits
-desire to raise average wage
human resource management
-1st interaction with an org you wish to join involves it’s HR
-historically known as personnel management
-deals with managing people at work
companies can create a strategic competitive advantage by creating value through their human resources. Whats NOT a program?
-continuous improvement programs
-total quality initiatives
1964 civil rights act prohibits discriminate against
-describing tasks, duties, and responsibilities
-describing the skills and knowledge needed
360 degree performance appraisal has the advantage of giving a fuller picture of an employee’s ___-
guidelines for choosing performance eval method
-comm performance standards to employees
-use more than one rater
-develop former appeal process
-take legal considerations into account
-document the performance appraisal carefully
-eval employees on specific performance-related behaviors
-base performance standards on job analysis
commonly used paper and pencil inventories measure such personality traits as
collective bargaining agreement might include
-union security clause
-rate of pay
-determination of pay increases
training and development helps to ensure that employees
-take on new responsibilities
-have the knowledge and skills needed to perform jobs effectively
-adapt to changing conditions
_____ are used when objective performance measures are not available
-merit pay systems
pay ____ refers to the choice of whether to be a high, average or low paying company
areas of human resources management
verbal comprehension tests measure which of the following?
national labor relations act has resulted in:
-establishing five unfair employer practices
-creating the national labor relations board
-declaring labor unions legal
guidelines for giving feedback
-why employees work is important
-express confidence in future performance
-raise relevant issues
equal pay act of 1963
law prohibits unequal pay for men and women who preform the same work
emphasis on different human resources activities depends on whether the org is
performance appraisals serve basic purposes
-documentation to ID/plan training
-documentation to justify decisions in court
-info for salary, promotion, dismissal
disadvantages of trait appraisals
-don’t enable managers to provide feedback to improve performance
-traits do not show a direct relation to performance which can result in workers and courts viewing them as unfair and discriminatory
3 human resource functions that contribute to org’s strategy are:
4 criteria highlight the importance of people and show human resources as similar strategic management
-difficult to imitate
HR deals with the following daily
three stages in HR planning process
___- is the use of a third party to resolve a labor dispute
A BARS os used for a _____ appraisal
assessment center exercises tap a number of critical managerial dimensions such as
orbs can achieve competitive advantage when they posses or develop resources that are
how many and what types of employees the org will actually have is known as its:
supply of labor
which of the following are crucial decisions for designing an effective pay plan?
The WARN Act req’ employers to give affected employees ____ day’s written notice of plant closings or mass lay offs
MOB is an acronym for
management by objectives
a 360 degree performance appraisal is most effective in a culture that is
The four sets of values that human resources should advocate for the organization are:
The labor-Management relations act accomplished several things, including:
-protecting employers’ free speech rights
-defining unfair labor practices by unions
-permitting workers to reject a union as their representative
a ____ center is a managerial performance test in which candidates participate in a variety of exercises and situations
the______ created two employee categories: exempt and non-expempt
fair labor standards act
union members are given a voice during contract negotiations and admin through which procedure
needs assessment is used to ID training needs for?
phase 1 of training starts with an ____, in which managers conduct an analysis to ID the jobs, people, and departments for which training is necessary
managers can help employees who feel a traditional benefits package does not meet their needs by offering a _____ benefit plan
the description of skills, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics needed to perform a job is called_____
job analysis provides the info req’ by virtually every human resources activity, in which way would it add value to an org?
-assist with training
-assist with recruitment
-assist with appraisal
-help defend against unfair dismissal claims
periodic ritual, which typically takes place every three years, of negotiating an agreement over wages, benefits, hours, and working conditions is called____
ADA prohibits employment discrimination against people:
-recovering from alcoholism
-remission from cancer
-recovering from drug abuse
protects private pension plans from mismanagement
-employment retirement income security act of 1974
______ is the strategic value of the knowledge of employees and abilities
the type of validity that refers to the degree to which a test actually predicts job performance is called______.
phase two of training involves the design of______
job analysis provides the information required by virtually every human resources activity. In which of the following ways would job analysis add value to an org?
-help defend against unfair dismissal claims
-assist with recruitment
-assist with training
-assist with appraisal
content validity is more____ than evals of criterion related validity
Social Security verification, a criminal records review, and verifications of past employment and education are all a part of a(n):
For a higher level of scrutiny, background investigations also have become standard procedure for many companies. The different types of checks include Social Security verification, past employment and education verification, and a criminal records check.
When a company prefers to base salary on performance, in the absence of objective performance measures, it uses a(n) _____ which is
based on ratings given by managers.
merit pay system
The three stages in the HR planning process are planning, programming, and _____.
The process of using multiple sources of appraisal to gain a comprehensive perspective on one’s performance is known as a _____appraisal.
In a process known as 360-degree appraisal, feedback is obtained from every level involved with the employee: subordinates, peers, and superiors.
Employees are a source of competitive advantage when they are:
Firms can create a competitive advantage when they possess or develop resources that are valuable, rare, inimitable, and organized. People are a source of competitive advantage when organizations know how to deploy them as needed based on their experience, skills, and potential.
Which of the following is NOT a reason why workers typically vote for unionization?
An attempt to influence the stock price
The four factors that play a significant role in a workers’ vote for a union are presented in Figure 10.8. First, economic factors are important, especially for workers in low-paying jobs; unions attempt to raise the average wage rate for their members. Second, job dissatisfaction encourages workers to seek out a union. Poor supervisory practices, favoritism, lack of communication, and perceived unfair or arbitrary discipline and discharge are specific triggers of job dissatisfaction. Third, the belief that the union can obtain desired benefits can generate a pro-union vote. Finally, the image of the union can determine whether dissatisfied workers will seek out a union.
A seemingly neutral employment practice that has a disproportionately negative effect on a group protected by the Civil Rights Act is said
to have a(n):
One common reason employers are sued is adverse impact, when a seemingly neutral employment practice has a disproportionately negative effect on a group protected by the Civil Rights Act.
An internal recruitment tool used by organizations is the:
_____ has been criticized for resulting in unrealistic expectations, too much rigidity, and too much focus on short-term achievement at the
expense of long-term goals.
Management by objectives
Management by objectives (MBO) involves a subordinate and a supervisor agreeing in advance on specific performance goals (objectives). But the approach has disadvantages. It can result in unrealistic objectives being set, frustrating the employee and the manager. The objectives can also be too rigid, leaving the employee with insufficient flexibility should circumstances change. Finally, MBO often focuses too much on short-term achievement at the expense of long-term goals.
An internal factor that influences the wage mix is:
worth of job.
The wage mix is influenced by a variety of factors including internal factors (the organization’s compensation policy, the worth of each job, the employee’s relative worth, and the employer’s ability to pay) and external factors (conditions of the labor market, area wage rates, the cost of living, the use of collective bargaining, and legal requirements).
A job analysis determines:
the skills and knowledge needed for a position.
Job analysis does two things. First, it tells the HR manager about the job itself: the essential tasks, duties, and responsibilities involved in performing the job. This information is called a job description. Second, job analysis describes the skills, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics needed to perform the job. This is called the job specification.
Considering current understanding of employment at will, under which of the following conditions is it legal to terminate someone?
If an employee performs adequately at work
One difficult part of human resources planning is trying to determine how many and what type of people are needed in an organization, which
is known as a(n):
_____ refers to the degree to which a selection test predicts or correlates with job performance.
Right-to-work legislation allows employees to work without having to join a:
_____ involves teaching managers and professional employees broader skills needed for their present and future jobs.
_____ is a design approach in which all relevant functions cooperate jointly and continually in a maximum effort aimed at producing high-quality products that meet customers’ needs.
Many companies are turning to concurrent (sometimes called simultaneous) engineering as the cornerstone of their TBC strategy. Concurrent engineering is a design approach in which all relevant functions cooperate jointly and continually in a maximum effort aimed at producing high-quality products that meet customers’ needs.
Rightsizing refers to:
arriving at the size at which a company performs most effectively.
A high-involvement organization:
In a high-involvement organization, top management ensures that there is a consensus about the direction in which the business is heading. The leader seeks input from the top management team and from lower levels of the company.
Which of the following steps in the value chain involves focusing on innovation and new products?
Research and development
Marques Tech is a leading mobile phone manufacturer. The company has a deal with FoodZone, a leading fast-food chain. Anyone with the latest Marques cell phone will get 20% off on their bill at FoodZone, with the offer being valid for six months. Which of the following best
describes this scenario?
A strategic alliance is a formal relationship created with the purpose of joint pursuit of mutual goals. In a strategic alliance, individual organizations share administrative authority, form social links, and accept joint ownership.
An effective strategy for enabling a firm to be responsive and competitive is to focus on fundamental strengths and expertise, and developing leadership in and organizing around its _____.
Almost any competitive advantage is temporary, so companies should strive for continuous improvement, which is also known as _____.
At _____, a product or process is defect-free 99.99966 percent of the time.
In an organic structure, _____.
employees depend more on one another and relate more informally
The support activities in the generic value chain include:
Which of the following is a characteristic of a large batch organization?
More rules and formal procedures
In _____, materials and processes employed in one product can be used to make other, related products.
economies of scope
In _____, the emphasis is on quality, speed, and flexibility more than on cost, efficiency, and hierarchy, which is exemplified by employees’
authority to halt operations to correct problems.
In a lean operation, the emphasis is on quality, speed, and flexibility more than on cost, efficiency, and hierarchy. If an employee spots a problem, the employee is authorized to halt the operation and signal for help to correct the problem at its source so that processes can be improved and future problems avoided.
Diseconomies of scale refers to the:
varied costs associated with an organization being too big.
Which of the following types of organization is similar to a bureaucratic structure?
A mechanistic organization
Which of the following is one of the two areas of focus of learning organizations?
Which of the following is a practice that is recommended for firms to ease the pain of downsizing?
Train people to cope with the new situation
Order the stages of decision making
1.ID and diagnose proble, 2.generate alternative solutions, 3.Eval alternatives, 4. make the choice, 5. Implement the decision, 6. Evaluate the decisions
Bias that interfere with objective rationality are called____biases
determining the value or adequacy of the alternatives that were generated, or, deciding which solution is best, is the primary task in the ______ _______ stage of decision making.
How do social realities affect decision making?
Important managerial decisions are marked by conflict among interested parties, interpersonal factors decrease decision-making effectiveness, a manager must consider the preferences/reactions of many people, many decisions are the result of intensive social interactions, bargaining, and politicking
In a situation where winning the argument becomes more important than solving the problem, goal_____has occurred.
Managers are faced with tough decisions daily that lack structure and lead them to avoid making decisions or taking action. Which characteristics add to the difficulty managers experience when making tough decisions?
-level of uncertainty
-complexity of the problem
-degree of risk
the condition of certainty exists when managers have____of the necessary information and can precisely predict the consequences of actions
Which model of organizational decision making occurs when groups with differing preferences use power and negotiation to influence decisions?
An alternative to an individual making a decision would be a manager convening several people together to make a _____ decision
What are characteristics consistent with a non programmed decision?
-new and complex
-no certain outcomes
-no proven answers
The fourth step in decision banking, after all the possible consequences of the options ave been evaluated, is called_____
making the choice
What are the potential advantages of using a group to make a decision?
-provides intellectual stimulation
-leads to higher level of commitment
-more info is available
-more perspectives on different issues or different approaches to solving the problem are available
-participants in the group discussions are more likely to understand why the decision was made
Managerial decisions usually lack____
Barriers to effective decision making
______ conflict can improve group decision making by encouraging diverse viewpoints and creative solutions as well as discouraging group think
when decision makers weigh short term costs and benefits more heavily than long term, they are guilty of what psychological bias in their decision making process
-discounting the future
In order to make timely and high-quality decisions under time pressure, which would managers rely?
-real time info
-daily operating measures
alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds are called______ plans
Periodic reorders of inventory in business
Program v. non
procedure for admitting patients in a hospital
Program v. non
amount calculated when COL adjustment is given to all employees in a certain job category
program v. non
ideas that have been seen or tried before are called_____ made solution
which of the following describes the condition of risk?
-losses may occur
-outcome is uncertain even though you can estimate the likelihood of various consequences
-the probability of an action being successful is less than 100 percent
In terms of managerial decision making, _____ occurs when the decision makers carefully and conscientiously execute all 6 stages of decision making, including making provisions for implementation and eval
best stragey for managers to apply to avoid mistakes when making decisions under time pressure
rely on real-time info
programmed decisions are ones that:
-have objective, correct answers
-solvable by using simple rules
-have been encountered before
steps manager should take when planning an implementation
-assign responsibility for each step
-determine how things will look when the decision is fully operational
-chronologically order the steps necessary to achieve a fully operational decision
-list resources and activities required to implement each step
opposing pressures from different sources, occurring on the psychological level, or of disagreement between individuals or groups is called
a decision bias influenced by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or presented is known as a _____ effect in decision-making terminology
which of the following are ways that time pressures influences effective decision making?
-meeting the deadline becomes more important than content
-decision quality may be reduced when the decision is made to quickly
-business decisions made too slowly become irrelevant
determining the value or adequacy of the alternatives that were generated, or, deciding which solution is the best, is the primary task in the _____ ______ stage of decision making
when searching for solutions, there are times when what has been done before is not applicable. In these situations, managers search for____solutions, or those that must be designed for specific problems
disadvantages of using groups to make decisions
2nd stage of decision making, generating alt. solutions, which of the following are used by managers to develop alternative courses of action
-search ready made solutions to use ideas that have already been tried before
-follow the advice of others who have faces similar problems
-generate custom-made solutions designed for a specific purpose
in decision-making terminology, ___ exists when the probability of a successful action is less than 100 percent and losses are possible
the organizational decisions that are not routine, but instead are novel and _____ are more typical for managers
4th step in decision making, making the choice, the decision will differ according to the criteria and method used. What are the important methods managers should recognize when choosing from among the alternatives evacuated?
Characteristics are consistent with a non programmed decision
-new and complex
-no certain outcomes
-no proven answers
a phenomenon that occurs in decision making when group members avoid disagreement as they strive for consensus is known as
5th step in decision making, implementing the decision, which of the following are actions taken when planning the implementation
-determine how things will look when the decision is fully operational
-ID potential problems/opportunities with implementation
-diagram the steps necessary to achieve a fully operational decision
NOT a potential advantage of using a group
Sixth and final stage of decision making process
-compare collected info with specified goals
-use feedback to either continue the decision or go back to the first stage
-collect info on how well the decisions is working
procedures to manage decision making in groups?
0encourage constructive conflict
-stay focused on groups goals
-avoid group think and satisficing
-encourage people’s input
gambling is an example of the ____ in that some people believe they have the skill to beat the odds, even though most of the time they cannot
illusion of control
traditional budget process which begins with the budget from the previous period and makes small adjustments from that starting point is an example of which type of decision making model?
_____ occurs when you achieve the best possible balance among several goals
how a problem or decision alternative is_____can subjectively influence objective facts
Managers are being____ decision makers when they carefully execute all states of decision making
T/F decision makers should assume that things will go smoothly during implementation
Often, managers do not expend their time/energy to gather more information when needing to make a decision. Rather, in decision making terminology, they opt for_____ , that is, making an expedient decision based on readily available information
In decision making, which is NOT a potential advantage of using a group?
T/F the incremental model of organizational decision making depicts a chaotic process and seemingly random decision
When evaluating alternatives to decision making, what goal-related questions should managers consider in deciding among other alternatives?
-Which alternatives are most acceptable
-how solution relates to the goal, defined earlier
-which goals does alternative address
-which alternatives can be implemented at lowest risk
Ways to be creative?
-bringing something into creation
-joining two previously unrelated things
-improving something or giving it a new application
When group members don’t want to break up a positive team spirit and remain friendly_____ may occur
being vigilant in the decision making process occurs when decision makers______
-make provisions for implementation and evaluation of decisions
-improve their decision making processes by incorporating lessons learned in successive decisions
-carefully and conscientiously execute all six stages of the process
when decision makers weigh short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term ones, they are guilty of what psychological bias in their decision making?
discounting the future
Total and consistent agreement among group members, called groupthink, can be destructive. however, some degree of conflict can be_____in managing groups
Disadvantages of group decision making due to the phenomenon of groupthink?
-pressure to conform
which of the following are consistent with the use of a devil’s advocate to create constructive conflict?
-make conflict less personal and emotional
-criticize ideas and point out problems
-lessen people’s inhibitions about disagreeing with others
A manager deciding which employee to lay off when all team members are essentially performing at identical levels produces what type of conflict in the manager?
According to bounded rationality, decision makers cannot be truly rational because:
-they have imperfect incomplete information
-people have conflicting goals
-there is not enough time to process all the information
-problems faced are complex
When assessing alternatives in decision making, which one of the following actions is fundamental to the process?
predict the possible consequences that will occur if the various options are put into effect
_____ is acceptable when there is no other known option because time is short, info unavailable, or other constraints make maximizing impossible
The three requirements for effectively managing group decisions include:
-enhancement of creativity
-an appropriate leadership style
-constructive use of disagreement and conflict
which of the following are ways in which managers have encourages creativity in their employees
-give creative efforts the rewards they are due
-listen to employee’s ideas
-stimulate and challenge people intellectually
Managers make many large and small scale organizational decisions on a daily basis. Therefore, _____ is a critical managerial skill; without this ability, managers will not be effective.
many mangers are more comfortable in analyzing decisions v. making them. when having to choose from among alternatives, what is a common condition that may prevent managers from making a choice?
Which of the following are constraints on decision making?
“Illusions of control” are pitfalls in decision making; these illusions may include:
Which of the following questions should a manager ask to aid in decision making when evaluating alternatives?
-does the alternative meet our primary objective?
-is our info about alternatives complete and current
-what problems could we have if we implement the alternative?
How can a problem be turned into an opportunity?
by understanding what the organization is doing now and what it can do to create a more positive future.
A structured debate comparing two conflicting courses of action, ____ is a a form of constructive conflict.
Ways managers can encourage more creativity in their employees
-don’t punish creative failures
-strive to be creative yourself
stimulate and challenge people intellectually
During brainstorming, when group members are non-engaged due to inhibition or anxiety, which of the following could help increase effectiveness?
-utilize electronic communication (reduces face to face)
-take time for members to silently write down ideas
choosing the first option that is minimally acceptable or adequate when making a decision is known as_______
______ conflict is defined as differences in perspectives / judgments about issues, or issues-based differences
Effective crisis management
-communicate and reinforce the org’s values
-be optimistic and honest
When managers are considering alternatives for future planning, what are the four alternative scenarios from which to consider outcomes or consequences?
When generating alternative solutions to problem solving, managers cannot help but to use______
which of the following conditions is helpful for managers to make better decisions?
-getting enough rest
-putting distractions aside
A less-than-perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex and complete information is unavailable or can’t be processed is referred to as:
When managers express that they are not satisfied, or comfortable with, the what ifs, or what may happen in a given set of circumstances, they are demonstrating their preference for______
when brainstorming, groups should do which of the following to encourage ideas?
-post ideas for everyone to read
-encourage people to say anything that comes to mind
-withhold criticism of people and ideas
risk is uncertain at best, good decision makers in an org prefer to__
ways to improve your own potential to “get creative” may include:
take a “break” to read or try something new
talk to other people about your own ideas and issues
assume you can be creative
Elements of an effective crisis management plan
-evaluation and diagnostic actions
when a competitor lowers prices, managers generally think they must do the same. Which of the following alternatives to consider if a competitor cuts prices?
-emphasizing consumer risk to low-price products
-building awareness of products/features and overall quality
-communicating your cost advantage to your competitors so they realize they can’t win a price war
its useful to take a little extra time to ID potential problems/opportunities associate with implementation. Which of the following questions could be useful for managers to ask when planning for potential outcomes.
-what problems could this action cause?
What can we do to prevent the problems?
What unintended benefits or opportunities could arise?
Which of te following is a necessary and daily activity of all managers within organizations
to be able to understand decision making within a particular organization, it is important for managers to understand three characteristics about the organization
-org decision processes
-decision making during a crisis
the constraints decisions makers face
one of the potential problems when using a group for decision making is an_____member or leader
playing devils advocate and the dialetic are both techniques of constructive conflict. the dialectic approach goes further by requiring a ___ debate between two conflicting courses of action.
the most constructive type of conflict is_____conflict, or difference is perspectives/judgements about issues; _____ conflict is emotional and directed at other people
A decision bias influenced by a framing effect is more likely when which of the following occur?
previous successes are referenced with a specific alternative
Today evaluation of alternatives relies more on data collected through______ than in the past
The framing effect can have a disastrous effect in decision making when:
managers believe a current problem is similar to come they already experienced, so they don’t look for alternatives
Which of the following statements is true of brainstorming?
It creates an environment where there is no criticism. In a proper brainstorming environment, which is free of criticism, people are less inhibited and are more likely to voice their unusual, creative, or even wild ideas. By the time people have exhausted their ideas, a long list of alternatives has been generated. Only then does the group turn to the evaluation stage.
Which of the following terms refers to the condition that causes new goals to replace the original ones?
The goal of group members should be to come up with the best possible solution to a problem. But when goal displacement occurs, new goals emerge to replace the original ones. Often winning the argument becomes the new goal. Saving face and defeating the other person’s idea become more important than solving the problem.
The leader of a decision-making group must:
engage in affective conflict.
The leader should avoid dominating the discussion or allowing another individual to dominate.
_____ refers to a less-than-perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex
and complete information is unavailable or cannot be fully processed.
Bounded rationality refers to a less-than-perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex and complete information is unavailable or cannot be fully processed.
_____ comes into play when a manager makes a decision with a bias weighing short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term
costs and benefits.
Discounting the future
Which of the following is a potential disadvantage of group decision making?
n the decision-making process, _____ refers to choosing the first option that is minimally acceptable or adequate.
Which of the following is the organizational decision process model in which major solutions arise through a series of smaller decisions?
Hesitation to invest in promising research and development that will not pay off until far into the future is an example of _____.
discounting the future.Decision makers often discount the future. That is, in their evaluation of alternatives, they weigh short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits. The avoidance of short-term costs or the seeking of short-term rewards often results in negative long-term consequences.
_____ refers to people’s belief that they can influence events even when they have no control over what will happen.
Illusion of control
When a manager must decide between several attractive options, or when there are no attractive options, he or she experiences _____ conflict.
psychological. Conflict exists when a manager must consider opposing pressures from different sources. Individual decision makers experience psychological conflict when several options are attractive, or when none of the options is attractive.
_____ is referred to as emotional disagreement directed toward other people.
Which of the following should be the first phase in an ideal six-phase decision-making process?
Identifying and diagnosing the problem
What is the role of a devil’s advocate in constructive conflict?
To criticize ideas and point out problems
Marcus Imports is a trading firm that has a stiff, bureaucratic structure. The company has a promotion scheme where people who have
finished a certain number of years in service get a pay hike and a promotion. For the manager at Marcus, this decision highlights which
of the following types of decisions?
Programmed.Programmed decisions have been encountered and made before. They have objectively correct answers and can be solved by using simple rules, policies, or numerical computations.
Which of the following are characteristics of effective goals?
Strategic Management process
1-est. mission, values, goals
2-analysis of external opportunities/threats
3-analysis of internal strengths/weaknesses
4-SWOT analysis and strategy formulation
Which of the following are some components of a mission statement?
-what the organization does
-who it provides goods/services to
The process of assessing how well one company’s basic functions and skills compare to those of another company or set of companies is known as
A tacticle level plan requires a moderate amount of detail and involves the____level of management
Which of the following correctly describes a corporate strategy:
-It ID’s a set of businesses, markets, or industries the company competes in
-it ID’s the distribution of resources among a company’s business.
T/F Two types of resources are tangible and quantifiable
F/ the two types are tangible and intangible
There are several things at a minimum, a plan should include. Which of the following?
-obstacles that may develop while attaining the goal
-an outline of alternatives that may lead to goal attainment
-resources required to reach the goal
In the planning process the targets or ends that managers want to pursue are:
A _____ strategy identifies a set of businesses, markets, or industries in which the organization competes and the distribution of resources among those businesses
a _____ strategy involves expanding the domain of the org into supply channels or to distributors
T/F A strategic vision helps a company understand its past so it can succeed in the present
F—its solely focused on future
The mission and vision of the org drive the_____, the 2nd component of the strategic management process
analysis of the external environment
Which of the following tasks are typically conducted by managers in the goal and plan evaluation step of the formal planning process?
-prioritize and, if necessary, eliminate goals
-estimate the costs of each plan
-evaluate advantages of each goal and plan
Which of the following are necessary for successful implementation of a plan?
-employees must understand the plan
-managers and employees must have the resources to implement the plan
The actions or means the manager intends to use to achieve goals are known as:
A strategic ______ system evaluates whether or not organization outcomes are meeting expectations and taking corrective actions where necessary
A company making use of a low-cost business strategy attempts to be_____ and offer a standard product
4 conditions necessary for resources to be a source of competitive advantage
-must create customer value
-be well organized
-difficult to imitate
A resource that is ____ and not equally available to all competitors gives the company that has access to that resource a competitive advantage
Key drivers of a strategy map
How are planning and decision making similar
-both processes lead to an implementation
-both processes can be revised as needed
-both processes involve evaluating alternatives
Stakeholders are groups and individuals who affect and are affected by:
The organizations mission
The type of org plan that involves making decisions about the org’s long term goal is a ____ plan
A________ examines time and resource constrains by gathering, interpreting, and summarizing all information relevant to the planning issue
The type of planning that identifies the procedures and processes, such as delivery schedules, required of the lower levels of the organization is known as ___planning
Just possessing a resource, even one that is rare and difficult to imitate, may not be sufficient to attain a competitive advantage. In order to create value for the customer, the resource must also be:
A strategic plan specifies organizational-level_____ for up to the next 5 years in the future.
Companies concentrate on a single industry to_____
strengthen their competitive position
The monitor and control step of the planning process is the______ step
When a company has a conglomerate diversification strategy, it expands into_______businesses
Which of the following are the characteristics of a cash cow, according to the BCG matrix?
-operates in a low-growth market
-has a strong competitive position
A strategy of____ involves moving into new businesses that are related to the company’s original core business.
Which of the following are among the levels of organizational planning?
Steps of strategy implementation
-define strategic tasks
-create an implementation plan
-assess organizational capabilities
-develop an implementation agenda
Which of the following problems can imede the successful implementation of a company strategy?
-top down senior management style
-unclear strategy and conflicting priorities
-poor coordination across functions, businesses, or borders
Stakeholders are groups and individuals who affect and are affected by
the organization’s mission
A strategic plan differs from an operational plan in that a strategic plan requires a _____ level of detail while an operational plan requires a ______ level of detail
A_____ business strategy is one where companies attempt to be efficient and offer a standard, no-frills product.
A strategic control system has dual responsibilities that seem conflicting: setting goals to encourage _____operations while allowing flexibility to adapt to changing conditions.
Ideally, a vision statement clarifies the long-term direction of the company and its strategic ______
A strategic plan involves management at the____ level creating a plan with a ___level of detail
An example of a process that operational planning might be concerned with is:
a production run
which of the following tasks are typically conducted by managers in the goal and plan evaluation step of the formal planning process
-estimate the cost of each plan
-evaluate advantages of each goal and plan
prioritize and, if necessary, eliminate goals
A strategic____ system evaluates whether or not organization outcomes are meeting expectations and taking corrective actions where necessary.
tactical planning occurs at the____level of the organization while operational planning occurs at the _____ level
middle; front line
Planning is a decision-making processes so that like other decision making processes, the process can return back to the beginning as a circumstances change. this means the process is:
______strategic goals evolve from the mission and vision of the organization
A _____ approach to planning occurs when top-level executives develop the plans and then communicate them to lower level employees for implementation
in the selection step of the planning process, managers will select the plan they believe to be the:
Not all companies have core capabilities, but when they do it is because they have resources that are rare, ____, valuable, and organized
not easily imitated
When a company is employing a conglomerate diversification strategy, the many businesses that make up the corporation ma be referred to as a business
A ____, according to the BCG matrix, is a company with a strong competitive position in a high growth market
The primary difference between tactical and operational plans is that tactical plans have a time horizon of _____ while operational plans only over a few months
An ________ diversification strategy is often less profitable than a more focused related diversification strategy
______ is the planning step where the plan is executed by taking action
when a company does something particularly well relative to its competitors, it can be said to have a
According to the BCG matrix, a dog is a company that has a weak competitive position in a ______ market
A company that currently operating in a ____, mature, or threatened industry might benefit by diversifying into an unrelated industry
effective goals specify a _____ so that employees know when to deliver the results
to be effective, strategic, tactical, and operational plans must be_____, which means they are consistent, mutually supportive, and focused on achieving the common purpose and direction of the organization
A goal is specific so that:
it describes particular behaviors or outcomes
an internal analysis helps decision makers better understand their firm’s existing functions, ____, and skills
the best way for companies to make use of the environmental data they collect is:
through expert quantitative analysis
a relevant goal is one that will the org achieve its:
one critical task in environmental analysis is forecasting, which means
predicting future trends
A company in a ____ growth market and with a strong competitive position in that market is known as a star in the BCG matrix
3rd step of 6 steps of planning is:
goal and plan evaluation
buyers, suppliers, competitors, govt. and regulatory agencies are all____
4th step in the formal planning process is
goal and plan selection
often. companies seeking to diversify their portfolio of businesses might choose to do so through______
the type of plan that translates broad strategic goals and plans into specific goals and plans that are relevant to a particular function is known as a _____ plan
environmental analysis examines?
economic and tech factors
Components of a mission statement
-what org does
-who it provides goods/services to
-the company’s values
a strategy of concentric diversification involves moving into new businesses that are related to the company’s original____ business
the monitor and control step of the planning process is the _____ step
characteristics of effective goals
Targets or ends that managers want to reach
While a business strategy specifies how particular business units will compete, a _____ strategy specifies which businesses a company should be in
Should be included in a plan
-resources req to reach the goal
-obstacles that may develop while attaining the goal
-outline of alternatives that may lead to goal attainment
_____ is considered as an activity of the external environment of an organization.
Macroeconomic analysis. Macroeconomic conditions are the economic factors that affect supply, demand, growth, competition, and profitability within the industry. It is an activity involved in the external environment of the organization.
In a SWOT analysis, the absence of reliable suppliers would be considered as a(n):
SWOT analysis helps managers summarize the relevant, important facts from their external and internal analyses. Weaknesses might be lack of spare production capacity and the absence of reliable suppliers.
The planning process is similar to the _____ process in that both have a series of steps that are typically repeated in a cycle.
The similarities between decision making and planning includes the fact that both move not just in one direction but in a cycle. The outcomes of decisions and plans are evaluated, and if necessary, they are revised.
In the BCG matrix, high growth, weak-competitive-position businesses are called _____.
High-growth, weak-competitive-position businesses are called question marks. They require substantial investment to improve their position; otherwise divestiture is recommended.
Which of the following is true of strategic planning?
Strategic plans have a strong external orientation. Strategic planning involves making decisions about the organization’s long-term goals and strategies. Strategic plans have a strong external orientation and cover major portions of the organization. Senior executives are responsible for the development and execution of the strategic plan, although they usually do not formulate or implement the entire plan personally.
A(n) _____ illustrates the four key drivers of a firm’s long-term success, and shows how goals in each area are linked to others.
One method for aligning the organization’s strategic and operational goals is a strategy map. It illustrates the four key drivers of a firm’s long-term success, and it shows how specific plans and goals in each area link to the others and can generate real improvements in an organization’s performance.
Which of the following is true of operational planning?
It identifies specific plans and procedures.
Operational planning identifies the specific procedures and processes required at lower levels of the organization. Frontline managers usually focus on routine tasks such as production runs, delivery schedules, and human resource requirements.
The planning level with the shortest time horizon is known as _____ planning.
_____ provides individuals and work units with a clear map to follow in future activities.
Planning provides a clear map to follow in future activities; at the same time this map may be flexible enough to allow for individual circumstances and changing conditions.
The letter S in the acronym SMART stands for:
The BCG matrix categorizes businesses within a conglomerate’s portfolio as dogs, stars, question marks, and _____.
A _____ system is a component of the strategic management process designed to support managers in evaluating the organization’s progress
with its strategy and, when discrepancies exist, taking corrective action.
The final component of the strategic management process is strategic control. A strategic control system is designed to support managers in evaluating the organization’s progress with its strategy and, when discrepancies exist, taking corrective action.
A vertical integration strategy is a strategy:
hat involves expanding the domain of the organization into supply channels or to distributors.
A vertical integration strategy involves expanding the domain of the organization into supply channels or to distributors. Vertical integration generally is used to eliminate uncertainties and reduce costs associated with suppliers or distributors.
The strategy an organization uses to build competitive advantage by being unique in its industry or market segment along one or more
dimensions is known as a(n) _____ strategy.
Benchmarking is the process of assessing how well one company’s basic functions and skills compare with:
those of another company.
To assess and improve performance, some companies use benchmarking, the process of assessing how well one company’s basic functions and skills compare with those of another company or set of companies. The goal of benchmarking is to thoroughly understand the “best practices” of other firms and to undertake actions to achieve both better performance and lower costs.
Which of the following takes place after a firm formulates its strategy?
_____ include sets of actions to be taken when a company’s initial plans have not worked well or if events in the external environment require
a sudden change.
The most effective _____ statements inspire organization members, offering a worthwhile target for the entire organization to work together
visionThe most effective vision statements inspire organization members. They offer a worthwhile target for the entire organization to work together to achieve. Often these statements are not strictly financial because financial targets alone may not motivate all organization members.
The coordinated series or sequence of functional activities necessary to transform inputs such as raw materials or professional skills into the finished goods or services customers value and want to buy. is called the:
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