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The ACTH axis begins in which endocrine gland?
Posterior hypothalamus
According to Carl Jung, the unconscious mind is well versed in this method of articulating itself.
Symbolic thinking
There are many physiological cycles affected by environmental stressors. Which of the following cycles occurs more than once in a 24-hour period?
Ultradian cycles
“Cognitive Surplus” is a term the best explains:
digital consciousness with online media
Vasopressin is released from which gland?
The concept of “individuation” was coined by this person.
Carl G. Jung
College students have their own “life changes” or stressors. According to experts who track this information, these three “events” top the list of most stressful events during the academic year.
Poor grades, financial problems, roommate problems
The term “shallow effect” is related to this concept:
the dumbing down of Americans from Internet exposure
This level of the brain is called the seat of emotions because it appears to be the first to register pain
the limbic area
The term “individuation” refers to:
the process of self-reflection toward wholeness
Hans Selye listed this as the first stage of his General Adaptation Syndrome
This type of stress is most commonly associated with illness and disease.
Chronic Stress
“Superstress” is a term coined by Dr. Roberta Lee to mean:
21st century lifestyle stress
The stress response initially involves this system.
The Limbic system
Which of the following defense mechanisms is not commonly associated with the psychology of everyday stress?
The “tend and befriend theory” proposed by Shelley Taylor speaks best to the coping technique used by:
According to experts, the field of sociology involves the study of human behavior within all but the following:
This endocrine gland is called the master gland for its role in hormonal control.
Freud would not agree with the following statement:
Defense mechanisms are conscious volitions
This stressor would be classified as a bioecological influence.
Inadequate sunlight
Stressfully speaking, the anxiety from the digital divide, information overload, and cell phone proliferation can be summed up in one expression:
This vitamin is called the sunshine vitamin
Vitamin D
Based on brain imaging research in the last decade, which of the following statements is not true?
Damage to brain cells from chronic stress is reversible
Jung would not agree with the following statement:
Dreams are a fabrication of the unconscious mind
The Yerkes-Dodson Theory suggests that:
there is an optimal stress level that promotes performance
It is suggested that attitudes and behaviors about race and gender begin in:
grade school
This term(s) explains the brain’s ability to create new cell tissue and repair itself well into adulthood
Kubler-Ross’s original order of the grieving stages is:
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
Regarding stress management, the holistic wellness paradigm suggests that:
All the above..
-one should address the causes and the symptoms of stress equally
-the whole is equal to the sum of the parts
-the Newtonian view of medicine is wrong
-one should address the mental, emotional, spiritual, and physical aspects of well-being
Tragic optimism is:
finding or making the best of a terrible situation
Dr. Wayne Dyer would not agree with this statement
Guilt can be productive if it prevents worrying
Leo Buscaglia would not agree with this statement:
Love is innate to all human beings
Positive psychology is based on these three aspects
The study of happiness, positive virtues, and positive institution
This psychologist’s concept of the Hierarchy of Needs nicely mirrors the concept of the chakra system
Abraham Maslow
The most common theme among theorists regarding the psychology of stress is:
In todays rapidly paced world, the terms “change” and “stress” are often used synonymously, by experts and ordinary people alike, to mean the same thing
Sociology is best described as the study of different cultures in the same locality
The vegetative level of the brain is thought to be the most primitive of the three levels
Freud was of the opinion that stress was an innate part of the human condition, and consequently, never fully resolvable
It is not the situation that one finds oneself in that is stressful, but the perception (interpretation) of the situation that determines one’s level of stress
Brain tissue is not able to adapt to the host of cognitive challenges and stimuli
The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the relaxation response
According to Jung, at some level of consciousness all minds connect at one point -the collective unconsciousness
“Tend and befriend” is a coping style used more by cancer patients than war veterans under stress
The shallow effect: web-linked jumping and cherry picking information leads to an inability to concentrate, focus, and comprehend a subject well
Neuroplasticity refers to the body’s ability to create new nerve cells closest to the skin
Jung believed that only recurring dreams were of significance to resolving stress related issues
By and large, healing and curing mean the same thing
Experts in the field of sociology suggest that narcissism and a lack of values promotes incivility in our culture
Like Jung, Viktor Frankl saw stress and suffering as a spiritual growth process
Emotional well-being is best described as “the ability to feel and express the entire range of emotions but to control them, not be controlled by them”
The term “presenteeism” is a corporate business term to describe high productivity levels often motivated by one’s optimal stress level
According to Dr. Wayne Dyer, basically, stressors fall into one of two categories: guilt or worry
Many biologists now refer to our age as the “sixth mass extinction” due to overhunting and fishing, loss of habitat, and pollution, all of which will impact us
The basic premise to Leo Buscaglia’s work is that we must be taught to love by our parents
The Tibetan perspective on stress distinguishes the mind as a combination of the self (false self) and the Self (higher self)
Stress that is intense in nature but short in duration
Acute stress
The growing abyss between people and the outdoor world
Nature Deficit Disorder
The endocrine glands that are located on top of each kidney that releases several stress hormones, it is also known as “the stress gland”
Adrenal gland
The term describing the search for meaning in ones life
The three distinct physiological phases in reaction to chronic stress: the alarm phase, the resistance phase, and the exhaustion phase
General Adaptation Syndrone
A state in which people have distanced themselves so much from the natural environment that they cannot fathom the magnitude of their impact on it
Environmental Disconnect
A physiological process in which various body cells regenerate or grow
Anabolic functioning
A term used to describe that special quality that makes each one of us unique
The ability to feel and express the full range of human emotions and to control these feelings
Emotional Well-being
The stress that accompanies a proliferation of technology, urban sprawl, and a glut of information on the Internet
Future shock
The damage to the body when the stress response functions improperly or for prolonged states, causing physical damage to the body
Allostatic Load
A term explaining the ill effects of unresolved guilt from an early childhood experience
Leftover guilt
The first stage of the general adaption syndrome in which a threat is perceived and the nervous system is triggered for survival
Alarm Reaction
A dramatic shift in society’s relationship to technology
Cognitive Surplus
A metabolic process in which metabolites are broken down for energy in preparation for, or in the process of, exercise
Catabolic functioning
The ability to turn suffering into a meaningful experience, and to learn from this experience with a positive perspective on life’s events
Tragic optimism
Stress that lingers for a prolonged period of time
Chronic stress
A field of study based on the principle that the mind and body are one, where thoughts and perceptions affect potentially all aspects of physiology
The term describing the guilt one places on oneself when a personal value has been compromised or violated
Self imposed guilt
The “rage reflex” is attributed to:
Charles Darwin
The type A characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease
Hostile aggressive behavior
Cognitive Restructuring is a term best described as:
A rethinking process about a stressor
This behavioral theory speaks to the nature of voluntary behaviors
Operant Conditioning
Emotional literacy refers to the ability to read and respond to:
Your own emotions
In terms of Type A behavior, polyphasia is best described as:
Performing several tasks at one time
NLP is best defined as:
Neurolinguistic Programming
This behavioral theory is based on the admiration of mentors
Modeling conditioning
The following can be accurately stated about the gender difference of anger
Women not only express anger differently, they have different stressors
Which of the following are thought to be the greatest social influences on Type A behavior?
Material wealth, secularization, and immediate gratification
This is the suggested order to reconstruct negative thoughts into positive ones:
Awareness, reappraise, adopt, evaluate
Of the following parts of one’s personality, which is thought to be the most difficult to influence with regard to stress?
This mismanaged style of anger is represented by suppressing one’s feelings.
From his time in the concentration camps, Viktor Frankl learned this simple wisdom to help survive
Take responsibility for your own thoughts
This is the suggested order to make a positive behavioral change through the “Behavioral Modification Model”
Awareness, desire, cognitive restructuring, substitution, evaluate
The use of sarcasm would be a mismanaged anger trait exhibited by:
This statement best describes the codependent personality according to Anne Wilson Schaef.
The addictive personality
“Brief grief” is considered:
A form of healthy grieving
Assertiveness can best be described as:
-Expressing personal rights and feelings
-That which is neither passive nor aggressive
Systematic desensitization can best be described as:
Repeatedly exposing oneself to tolerable levels of stressors
The helpless-hopeless personality is most closely associated with this fear
External locus of control
What aspect differentiates (James) Prochaska’s Behavior Change Model from other models?
The relapse stage
Depression is:
A possible by-product of anger and/or fear
These three characteristics are thought to be associated with what is now known as the hardy personality
Challenge, control, and commitment
This trait, more than any other, distinguishes the sensation-seeker personality
Calculated risk taking
Self-esteem is thought to comprise the following components
Connectedness, uniqueness, power, and role models
Nien Cheng, a political prisoner in Shanghai, would be a prime example of this personality type
Survivor personality
This statement is NOT true regarding creative anger management strategies
Learn to disassociate from your anger
From research about women and stress, until anger can be validated, it cannot be expressed correctly.
The unconscious mind is believed to control as much as 40-50% of one’s behavior.
Cognitive restructuring is an important step in behavioral change.
Studies show that women are more likely to feel anger as guilt or shame, whereas men are more likely to express anger aggressively
The idea that personality traits associated with anxiety and depression affect the course of heart disease is now supported by data.
NLP is based on the concept that language does not confine thinking.
Aggressiveness always involves a sense of diplomacy, particularly with the expression of feelings
Research reveals that randomly vented anger is a healthy means of emotional catharsis
Conceptually, “thought stopping” is the same thing as self-talk
Of the four mismanaged anger styles, the somatizers suppress feelings of anger
The unconscious mind understands negative thoughts well
An attribute of the typical underhanders is passive-aggressive anger
“Unconscious resistance” is known to counteract toxic thoughts
Fear of failure and fear of rejection are really the same thing
Psychologists suggest that depression is best described as ” anger turned inward”
Happiness is either the anticipation of an event of the realization of living in the present moment
A mindset where one tends to see (or hope for) the bad in every situation
The process of learning to de-stress from something by brief, yet safe, encounters with the stressor
Exposure Desensitization
A condition where things are always viewed in extremes, either extremely good or horribly bad
Polarized thinking
These are beliefs about our values, often expressed as opinions
An instance when anxiety overcomes one’s thoughts based on a non-physical threat to one’s existence
Unwarranted Fear
A learned behavior to a stimulus with regard to involuntary functions
Classical Conditioning
Used in association with codependent behavior, thinking that one can control things/others that one really cannot
Illusion of Control
The ability to use both right-brain and left brain thinking processes to successfully deal with a problem or stressor
Biphasic Personality Traits
The addiction to a behavioral process such as shopping, gambling, television cutting and codependent behaviors
Process Addiction
Emotional release through crying, laughing, yelling and the like
Actions that are based on conscious or unconscious thoughts
A mindset of continually blaming others or seeing yourself as the victim
Distorting a situation beyond how bad it actually is
Cognitive Distortion
Repeated negative thought processing that tends to pollute our view of our lives and ourselves
Toxic thoughts
The last stage in von Oech’s creative process template, in which the idea is taken to the street and campaigned to the rest of the world for its merits
Also known as the 80/20 Rule, the time-management technique prioritizes tasks by the satisfaction factor
Pareto Principle
First coined by Plato, describing the reason why people laugh, is at other people’s expense
Superiority Theory
A term used to describe the therapeutic effects of self-discovery through active awareness in journaling
Physical gestures that tend to replace words, such as the thumbs up signal
These are the three essential criteria for effective journal writing:
Identify concerns, identify emotions, and seek resolution
This is not considered one of the “Three P’s” of time management
Metamessages are defined by Dr. Deborah Tannen as:
Indirectness of one’s actual intention to communicate
This is considered to be the first step in the creative solving process
Description of the problem
Humor is best described as:
a perception
In his efforts to study the benefits of journal writing, Ira Progoff discovered the following:
Individuals who started journal writing while on welfare were more likely to find employment and better housing faster
Time management is actually a prime example of social orchestration, where you manipulate factors in your environment for the path of least resistance
The “Sapir-Whorf” hypothesis suggests that:
Our perception of reality is based on the limits of our vocabulary
According to creative consultant Author VanGundy, left brain thinking falls in the domain of
Cultural roadblocks
This type of humor is thought to be the least suited to reduce stress
Research shows that keeping a blog about one’s thoughts and feelings is more effective than writing in a notebook for a healthy catharsis
Facial expressions are an example of this type of nonverbal communication
Affect displays
Creativity can be a great coping technique for stress, but the irony is that fear (stress) can block the creative process
Bugs Bunny and Road Runner cartoons share this type of humor
Slapstick Humor
The stress of “poverty consciousness” is best described this way:`
The fear of not having enough money
The 3rd of three aspects essential for effective time management, in which tasks are actually accomplished
A term coined by Deborah Tannen suggesting that exaggerated conversation styles become intensified under stress, thus adding to miscommunication
The inability to write down one’s thoughts and feelings, usually attributed to fear
Writer’s block
A style of humor where something or someone is made fun of
Obstacles to the creative process, placed by the ego, in the role of the judge
Perceptual Roadblocks
Poetry therapy is an aspect of journal writing in that these entries may eventually be shared with others, win contests, and thus help raise one’s self esteem
Giving the “OK” sign to someone is labeled as this aspect of nonverbal communication
Thinking “outside the box” is an example of this stage of the creative process
The explorer
Split-brain research has shown that humor is a left brain function
The foundation of sound time management skills includes these aspects
Prioritize, adequately schedule, and execute person daily stressors to satisfaction
Poetry therapy is considered to be a form of
Journal writing
This conflict style is thought to be the hardest to resolve
Ego conflict
Making mistakes is not encouraged in the creative process
For humor to exist, there must be these three things: humorous stimulation, a perception of the stimulation, and an expression of humor
Experts suggest you put away this much money from your monthly income in savings
Current research reveals that journal writing helps in the following way:
All the above..
-decrease one’s resting blood pressure
-decrease one’s cholesterol levels
-decrease one’s symptoms of fibromyalgia
-decrease one’s sense of grieving
With regard to speaking patterns, regulators are often used to manipulate a conversation through nonverbal gestures
According to creative consultant Arthur VanGundy, negative feedback (fear) falls in the domain of:
Emotional roadblocks
This type of humor is thought to be best suited to reduce stress related anger and help maintain a sense of psychic balance
Tips for “financial freedom” include all but the following:
dont lend money to your friends
Journal writing offers a good immediate catharsis, but offers little in the way of long-term resolutions
Of the five suggested styles of conflict management, dialogue is thought to be the best because all parties are allowed to contribute
Abraham Maslow’s term “primary creativity” would best be described as:
Right brain thinking
Comic Stephen Colbert’s (The Colbert Report) and Saturday Night Live’s humor can best be described as:
This is not considered one of the “Three C’s” of time management
Personal constraints such as time, money, or a host of responsibilities that impede the creative process
Environmental Roadblocks
A scheduling technique used in time management for which errands are grouped by location
The prioritization, scheduling, and execution of daily responsibilities to a level of personal satisfaction
Time management
Speaking aspects such as volume, tone, and pitch
Humor described as vulgar, crude, and tasteless
Bathroom humor
Clustering is a term used to describe someone who is extremely pressed for time with too much to do
One significant reason why text messaging and emails compound the stress associated with communication is that there is no voice intonation
As described by Roger von Oech, this role can ruin the creative process
The judge
Blonde jokes and Polish jokes would be best identified with this theory
Superiority theory
Neuromarketing is a marketing concept based on Neuro-Linguistic Programming, which encourages people to buy things they THINK they really need
Hans Selye listed this as the first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome
During a stress response, the dital parts of your body (hands, feet_ become _______ because ______.
Cooler, Less blood circulates through
the autogenic technique is:
Where one relaxes the body by making the body parts heavy and warm
The “tend and befriend theory” proposed by Shelley Taylor speaks best to the coping technique used by:
Experts suggest that most stressors fall in this category:
psycho-interpersonal influences
stress response initially involves:
the limbic system
the stress reduction/relaxation promoting experiments like meditation and self-hypnosis that wear re doing in the lab and outside of class for lab reports are trying to tap into what processes that alter body temperature:
the Yerkes-Dodson principle suggests that:
certain amount of stress is linked with adaptive, competent performance
the holistic wellness paradigm is based on the integration, balance, and harmony of these four components:
mind, body, spirit, and emotions
An advantage (in terms of learning) of biofeedback to other techniques is that:
it magnifies the body’s conditioned response to the stress response
H. Selye, considered a pioneer in human stress, discovered the General Adaptation Syndrome by chance as:
he dropped his rats while conducting experiments in ovarian hormones
Stress and stress management, as described in your text, is best understood as what kind of model?
Energy or via Einstein’s equation E=mc^2
In his stress theory Lazarus says that daily hassles cause stress Which is a cause of hassles according to Lazarus?
Unmet expectations
Allostatic load refers to
chronic stress
“Superstress” is a term coined by Dr. Roberta Lee referring to:
21st century stress
This stressor would be considered a bioecological influence
inadequate sunlight
The adrenal gland rests on this organ:
This substance is released as an immediate response to stress:
This endocrine gland is known as the master gland for its role in homronal control:
pituitary gland
Jane saw Brad Pitt from across the room and her heart rate started racing, her hands got suddenly cold, and she started breathing hard. Jane is experiencing:
Eustress, a good or healthy stress response
The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system tents to ______ target organs
Slow down
The HPA (hypothalmus-pituitary-adrenal axis) system releases a corticosteroid to stimulate physical arousal:
Under perceived stress, women tend to produce a bit more of this hormone:
Cortisol is regulated in large part by what kind of mechanism?
A negative feedback, loop, meaning that when levels get too high, they system shuts down production
Neurotrophic/neuro plasticity means
brain change or growth
The adrenal cortex:
releases coritsol and aldosterone
The ANS (SNS portion) has direct hard wired links to organs in the body that pass through the:
Reticular activating system (esp. locus coeruleus structure) in the brainstem
Vasopressin is released from which gland?
What is the likely result of damaged neurons in the hippocampus?
poor memory
The importance of controlling for environment temperature and body movement in an experiment using biofeedback thermometers is that:
both could affect the study results because body temperature changes with movement and ambient temperature
Cortisol can be assessed by:
Blood, hair, saliva
If you open up a human brain and spread out the cerebral cortex you would have about ____ of space covered:
1.6 sq feet per hemisphere or 2.5-3.0 total
Catecholamines (epinephrine and noepinephrine) are made in what part of the adrenal gland?
inside or medulla
Neurons pass electrical currents at incredible speeds as they communicate with each other. This speed is about:
Stress hormones also affect bone density by
reducing the calcium supply to bones and increasing calcium secretion in the kidneys
the cortex (outside part) of the adrenal glands produces:
glucocorticoids including cortisol
This structure is primarily responsible for episodic memory:
Which type of neural plasticity supports learning throughout one’s lifetime?
experience dependent
CRH and cortisol receptors on neurons in the hypothalmus, amygdala, and other structures seem responsible for:
regulation of the stress response system. (turn on/shut off)
What neurohormones appear most involved with stress impact on human development?
CRH and cortisol
Cortisol, a primary stress hormone, _______ in the morning, and _______ at night in most healthy individuals:
increases in morning, decreases at night
The endocrine gland is called the master gland for its role in hormonal control:
Mother-nurtured rats, in experiments, ten to release more seratonin in the hippocampus, This increases the amount of cortisol (glucocorticoid) receptors in the hippocaumpus. Increased receptors are related to:
less “reactive”, more adaptive stress responding
In the movie “when the bough breaks” maternal stress was related to early deliver and lower birth weight. What is one of the plausible reasons for this infant outcome?
maternal stress can cause blood flow restrictions through the placenta
Women who were stressed (malnutrition, emotional etc.) during WWII in Holland, gave birth to infants who later in adulthood showed:
Skinny body types
Genetic research (for example, serotonin transporter gene) suggests that:
individuals with a gene that produces more serotonin-transporting in the synapse (increasing the amount of serotonin) is linked with greater resistance to adversity (eg less depression, suicide in the presence of maltreatment)
In development, young children seem more behaviorally adaptive and well-adjusted in preschool if:
They mount a healthy stress response to the challenge when they first begin preschool and learn coping strategies to deal with the “stress”, for example perhaps sitting next to another child or teacher
One possible reason that chronic stress from adversity may affect a child’s ability to learn may be found in research that suggests:
Stress reduces neurotrophic growth factor, a necessity for brain plasticity and growth
The clown study described in class suggested that:
Children in quality attachment relationships recover more quickly from stressful events
In animal models, under stressed conditions, researchers have identified less_______________. This means _______________
less neurotrophic growth factor present, less potential for brain growth and adaptability
What was the point of the heel stick study done with young babies?
It demonstrated that young babies learn to discriminate between threats and non-threats (being picked up vs. having your heel cut). Suggests early learning behavior in the stress response system
Experience expectant plasticity:
allows for learning to occur during periods in which the brain i expecting information for example, language sounds or visual input
Susan’s mother was malnourished during her pregnancy. As a result Susan is at risk for what health-related problem or disorder?
obesity and/or metabolic syndrom
One of the reasons that our brains become less plastic with aging is that we have less_________ available:
neurotrophic growth Substances
The MAOA genetic make-up of a long/version appears to provide some protection, under adverse conditions against___________, especially in___________.
The development of anti-social behavior; males
Tibetan monks are able to increase their body temperatures at will, as seen in the wet towel experiments. This suggests that:
they have purposeful control over their parasympathetic nervous systems that increase blood flow and thus temperature
What appears to be one of the best predictors of vulnerably for heart disease (per quotes in Worried Sick Video)
personality and degree of sociability
What did the stress reduction study done on medical students suggest?
That simple interventions may reduce overall chronic stress responding while in school
Antelopes experience significant stress bat are able to do what?
turn off the stress response immediately when the threat is over
The fact that eating disorders are often diagnosed in individuals who have experienced early trauma like abuse, or harsh, emotionally distanced parenting suggests that:
early stress experiences trigger one’s vulnerability to eating disorders
This chemical agent is thought to be associated with “runner’s high”
In the cages Macaques (worried sick video), who is most likely to get atherosclerosis?
The dominant animals who also get a high-fat diet
Blister healing studies suggest
that people heal faster when in less-stressed and supportive relationships
This Type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease:
Hostile aggressive behavior
Dr. Lazar found that during deep meditation, the___________ was highly engaged, suggesting mindful vigilance:
Who is most at risk for poorer health outcomes?
What time of day is best of for a nap?
mid day
What kind of intervention can enhance academic skills? (from the article specifically):
increased stress coping skills
What does Type D personality mean
There is emerging evidence that the “placebo affect” is a force capable of
changing brain and body physiology
Stress has been shown to affect:
Psychocardiology is a new field that looks at the links between cardiology and:
Poverty is associated with lower health outcomes…
even in children who grow up to be no longer poor
Optimism can slow down:
atherosclerosis in blood vessels
mindfulness training has been shown to be effective for?
improved attention
Men with long forms of seratonin transporter gene are most at risk for depression under chronic stress
Controversially, some researchers suggest that:
being overweight may be good for avoiding some diseases
Another stress hormone has been identified to affect heart disease and diabetes. It is:
___________ appears to reduce the effects of stress
nitric oxide
What is a risk factor for atherosclerosis?
high blood pressure
What % of the population appears to follow heart-healthy guidelines?
Co-dependent behavior deals with this most basic fear:
fear of rejection
Based on her work involving neuropeptiedes, neurophysiologist Candace Pert suggests the following hypothesis:
emotions can either suppress or enhance the integrity of the immune system
Helpless hopeless personality is most closely linked to this factor:
external locus of control
a chakra is:
an energy vortex to transduce energy in/through the energy feild
This type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease:
hostile aggressive behavior
There is emerging evidence that the “placebo effect”: is a force capable of changing brain and body physiology
changing brain and body physiology
Optimism can slow down:
atherosclerosis in blood vessels
neuropeptide Y levels are linked with
PTSD and depression
In the caged Macaques (worried sick) who is most likely to get atherosclerosis?
dominant animals who also got a high fat diet
Dr. Lazar found that during deep meditation, the_______ was highly engaged, suggesting mindful vigilance:
specific immunity refers to:
a learned form of immunity that uses antibody markers to target invaders
Most research suggests that you should regularly participate in an excersice program for a minimum of how many weeks to see beneficial changes which help reduce stress:
6-8 weeks
Current research suggests that this vitamin might be the most vulnerable to depletion through the stress response”
vitamin B complex
this hormone is thought to be associated with weight gain:
Current research suggests that these factors decrease the integrity of the immune system:
alcohol and fats
In order to achieve stress reduction benefits from exercise, you should
exercise regularly at least 3-5 times per week
dark chocolate contains:
this substance is found in high levels in the brains of persons who are under chronic stress with few control resources:
protein kinase C
Cognitive restructuring is a term best described as
rethinking process of a stressor
re framing in the form of positive affirmations:
help to balance negative self-talk
The four stages of cognitive restructuring are:
awareness, reappraisal, adoption, evaluation
this substance is found in high levels in the brains of persons who are under chronic stress with few control resources
protein kinase C
Pain sensations that travel to the brain do so on slow fivers that are associated wihth longer lasting, throbbing-type pain:
One way humor may affect a person’s stress level is that:
increases the likelihood of people being around the person, which enhances the immune system
One plausible theory about humor is that:
seeing things with a sense of humor imparts a degree of control over how a person responds to a situation, which in turn reduces stress
One plausible theory about humor is that:
seeing things with a sense of humor imparts a degree of control over how a person responds to a situation , which in turn reduces stress
Jim tends to respond often and quickley to stressors, and could be thought of as an “on-off” sort of person in terms of CRH/Cortisol production. As a result he is likely to:
not eat as a form of stress reduciton and be of normal weight
Cognitive restructuring is:
rethinking process of a stressor
Co-dependent behavior deals alot with:
fear of rejection
The 4 stages of cognitive restructure are:
awareness, reappraisal, adoption, evaluation
Insulin is produced under
parasympathetic input
Too much CRH and cortisol do the following:
they damage the hippocampus, as well as the amygdale and hypothalamus….. mostly by damaging the neurons and dendrites in these structures
This Type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease: hostile, aggressive behavior
hostile, aggressive behavior
In one movie, we observed baboons living in the wild have more stress if they are the submissive ones, lower on the social hierarchy. However, in the Worried Sick video, the dominant monkeys are described as more stressed. What results in the difference?
Content and personality
While short lasting stress can decrease pain perception, chronic stress:
increases pain perception
Neuropeptide Y has been related to the consumption of what:
Carbohydrate-rich food
Purposes of sleep include:
memory consolidation, neurotransmitter replenishment, problem solving, mental exercise
This body response is increased during stress to help the heart pump blood more efficiently; however chronic increases lead to cardiac disease:
blood presssure
This principle describes an optimal stress level for performance:
Yerkses_Dodson Principle
This natural and good stressor is linked with endorphin release:
This form of stress, good response to environmental stress ( seeing a hot chick):
I’m getting thinner due to stress i’m responding to. I’m producing higher levels of this substance in my blood in relation to another substance.
CRH (cortisol would be lower in persons who do no get hungry under stress)
These substances are part of teh immune system’s compliments and seem quite sensitive to emotions/stress states. Pert likes them alot
This, plus a weakened immune system response and thin stomach walls, causes most ulcers:
Helicobacter pylori bacteria (H.Pylori)
Levels of this enzyme increase in the hippocampus during long-lasting stress, leading to memory problems. HIgh levels are also seen in SchizophreniaL
Protein Kinase C (PKC)
This system triggers metabolism as part of the stress response and is responsible for delayed immune system supression:
Thyroxine Axis
Time urgency, multitasking, hyper-competitiveness, stress-prone are all characteristics of
Type D personality
This personality type usually percieves themselves as a victum with an external locus of control:
Hopeless-Helpless Personality
This is a natural suppressor of the immune system..making it a good, temporary fix for inflammation, You wouldn’t want to use it often though:
This frame of mind is linked with, among other good things, increased number of NK cells, important in defending the body against cancer
This condition is characterized by acute “misplaced” episodes of stress and anxiety, often following severely adverse experiences:
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
This body location where all white blood cells are produced is in the:
Bone marrrow
A very efficient way to burn of stress hormones using high levels of them for intended purpose:
this form of immune system learns about bacteria and viruses and then develops protections so we will not get sick from them again
Adaptive/Acquired Immune System
This term is another name for chronic stress:
Allostatic Load
This three substances primarily responsible for an acute stress response designed to mobilize the body. The third continues to be produced only if the threat continues:
Cortisol, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine
This effect happens following strenuous exercise:
Parasympathetic Rebound
People who experience stress seem to age faster because these shorter:
Telomers on the DNA strand
IN this state, the strongest characteristic in stress resistatant personailty:
positive self esteem
Commitment, control, and challenge are characteristics of this personality type:
Hardy (or resilient) personality type
A cognitive strategy in which i rethink or reframe how i interpret a situation (stress responses are under my control)
cognitive restructuring

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