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Communications Ch. 2

Self Concept
A set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us have about ourselves
– intelligence
-social roles/ identities
– Appearance
-Belief system
Self Esteem
-Our evaluation of our own self worth
-How do we see ourself stem influencing how we communicate with each other?
Biology personality and the self
-some of our characteristics are partly determined by our DNA
-however, environment has some influence as well
-feedback loop
Communication and the development of the self
how does our identity develop?
Reflected appraisal: metaphorically describes how we develop an image of ourselves from the way we think others view us.
-opinions of people who we value help shape how we think of ourselves
Culture and Self concept
-Cultures vary in values and belief systems
-the positive and or negative attn we give to certain labels demonstrates how differently we view ourselves and what we culturally deem impt.
Self concept and communication with others
-How we view ourselves influences how we interpret others communicative actions within an interaction
– how we communicate will influence how others respond to us
The self fulfilling prophecy
-How could our expectations affect our communication?
-when a persons expectations of an outcome and the behaviors based on that trait expectation make the outcome more likely to occur than it would have been
The perception process (3)
1. selection
2. organization
3. Interpretation
1. Selection
what communicative data will we select to attend to?
what catches our attention?
– Intense stimuli: loud, bright, large
-contrast/ change in stimuli
-internal factors:
motive: often determines how we perceive ppl
Emotional state: how do our feelings influence us?
2. Organization:
-arranging selected information in a meaningful way to make sense of the world
Organization: perceptual schema
-Physical constructs: classify ppl according to appearance
-Role constructs: social position
-Interaction constructs: social behavior
-Psychological constructs: Internal states of mine/ disposition
–> how does the use of electronic communication affect how we organize the data we collect?
3. Interpretation
-the influences on our interpretation are: Regional satisfaction, assumptions about human behavior, Expectations, Knowledge of others
Influences on perception (5)
-psychological influences
-cultural influences
-sex and gender roles
-occupational roles
-relational roles
1. Psychological Influences
-Health and nutrition: sleep, hunger, illness
-Biological cycles: daily cycle of temp, sex drive, alertness, tolerance to stress and mood
-Neurology: attention disorders and mood disorders
2. Cultural Influences
-how societal values influence and individual
-gender roles, occupational roles, relational roles
3. Sex and gender roles
-sex, gender, gender presentation, gender roles
– how would gender influence how we perceive interactions
4. Occupational roles
the kind of work that we do influences our world view
5. Relational Roles
– how many different identities do you have?
-different identities with different individuals
(parent v. Best friend)
Narratives, Perception and Communication
-Narratives: personal stories we create to make sense of our personal world
-How we perceive personal stores is often an interactive process
-we search for approval and agreement of others
Common perceptual tendencies
-Attribution:process of attaching meaning to behavior
-Attribution meaning to our own and others actions but often different by different standards
Snap Judgements:
-Judgements based on little to no information
-can become problematic when based on stereotypes
-categorizing other than on the basis of easily recognized but not necessarily significant traits
-ascribing a set of traits to most or all members of a group
– applying the generalization to a particular person
-Conformation bias:
-Once we hold onto a stereotype, we begin to seek out and remember specific behaviors that re-enforce that stereotype
Tendency to judge others more harshly than ourselves
-self serving bias
-when judging others, we tend to blame internal factors
-when judging ourselves, we tend to blame external factors: things out of our control
– when looking at positive judgements about ourselves, we attribute internal factors
Pay more attention to negative impressions than positive impressions
-Negative traits tend to influence peoples impressions of others more than positive ones
-not just for individuals, but services and stores
-one act of negatives stereotypical behavior can block out many acts of a positive behavior
Influenced by whats most obvious
-most noticeable stimuli: intense (bright, loud)
-competitive: normally happy person is suddenly grumpy
– Motives determine which stimuli were drawn to at a time
-hungry? you will probably notice when there is food
Tendency to stick with first impression
-even if it is wrong
-once we form an opinion of someone, we tend to hang on to it
-you never get a second chance to make a first impression
Tendency to assume others are similar to us
-we tend to assume that we have more similarities with people than differences
– how could this be problematic?
Perception in mediated communication:
-Medicated communication offers less communication cues face to face
– how can we develop perceptions through mediated communication?
the ability o recreate another persons perspective/ p.o.v
Three dimensions of empathy
1. Perspective talking: ability to take on another view pt
2. Emotional dimension: allows us to experience feelings other have
3. request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior
Sympathy: feel compassion for another persons situation
Empathy: have a personal sense of what that situation is like
Perceptual checking
(3 parts)
1) description of the behavior you notice
2) two or more interpretations of the behavior
3) Request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior
Communication and Identity management:
Identity management: communication strategies people use to influence how others view them
Public and private selves:
perceived self: the person you believe yourself to be when you are being honest with yourself. (not likely to share w others)
Presenting self: public image, the way we want to appear to others
public image and the social worth you claim for yourself based on the esteem others have for you
-we can “loose face” and we can ” save face”
Characteristics of Identity management: (4)
– we have multiple identities
– identity management is collaborative: very difficult to hold on to the desired identity in an interaction if others don’t let us
– can be conscious or unconscious ( some spontaneous some deliberate)
– some are more aware of their identity management than others (high and low self monitors)
Why manage identities?
-why might we enact different identities in different situations?
-does it make interactions more confusing or soothing?
Mediated Communication
-computer mediated communication (CMC)
– how does CMC give us more control over our identity management?
Identity management and honest
-if we are constantly managing and switching between public identities, how do we show the “real” us? is it possible?

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