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Computer Analysis Ch 8

Communications
Describes a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information
Sending Device
Initiates an instruction to transmit data, instructions, or information
Communications Channel
Transmission media on which the data, instructions, or information travel
Receiving Device
Accepts the transmission of data, instructions, or information
Blogs
time-stamped articles on a network that reflect the author’s interests, opinions, and personality
Chat Rooms
Real-time typed conversation among two or more people that takes place on a computer connected to a network that also may allow the exchange of messages, photos, files, audio, and video
E-mail
transmission of messages and files via a computer network
Fax
Transmits and receives documents over telephone lines
FTP
internet standard that permits users to upload and download files to and from FTP servers on the Internet
Instant messaging
Real-time one-on-one internet communications service that notifies you when one or more people are online and then allows you to exchange messages, photos, files, audio, and video
Internet
worldwide collection of networks that links millions of business, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
Newsgroups
online areas in which users have written discussions about a particular subject
RSS
specification that enables web content to be distributed to subscribers
Video Conferencing
real-time meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network to transmit audio and video data
VoIP
conversation that takes place over the internet using a telephone connected to a computer, mobile device, or telephone adapter
Web
worldwide collection of electronic documents on the internet that users access through a web browser
Web 2.0
web sites that provide a means for users to share personal information, allow users to modify web site content, and/or have application software built into the site for visitors to use
Web Folders
location on a web server to which users publish documents and other files
Wikis
collaborative web sites that allow users to create, add to, modify, or delete web site content
Text Messaging
also called SMS (short message service) capability allows users to send and receive short text messages, typically fewer than 300 characters, on a phone or other mobile device or computer
Mobile to Mobile
send a message from your mobile device to another mobile device
Mobile to E-Mail
send a message from you mobile device to an e-mail address anywhere in the world
Web to Mobile
send a message from a text messaging Web site to a mobile device, or request that a web site alert a mobile device with breaking news and other updates, such as sports scores, stock prices, and weather forecasts
Mobile to Provider
send a message by entering a four- or five-digit number assigned to a specific content or wireless service provider, followed by the message, such as a vote for a television program contestant
Picture Messaging
users can send pictures and sound files, as well as short text messages, to a phone or other mobile device, or a computer
IM
instant messaging- a real-time internet communications service that allows wireless mobile devices to exchange messages with one or more mobile devices or online users
Wireless Internet Access Point
using notebook computers, smart phones, handheld game consoles, or other devices to connect wirelessly to the internet
Hot Spot
a wireless network that provides internet connections to mobile computers and devices
Global Positioning System (GPS)
a navigation system that consists of one or more earth-based receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by satellites in order to determine the receiver’s geographic location
Collaborate
or work online, with other users connected to a server
Collaborative Software
includes tools that enable users to share documents via online meetings and communicate with other connected users
Web Conference
an online meeting that takes place on the web
Document Management System
provides for storage and management of a company’s documents, presentations, and spreadsheets
Groupware
software that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over a network
Voice Mail
functions much like an answering machine, allows someone to leave a voice message for one or more people
Visual Voice Mail
users can view message details such as the length of calls and , in some cases, read message contents instead of listening to them
Web services
describe standardized software that enables programmers to create applications that communicate with other remote computers over the Internet or over an internal business network
Mashup
a web application that combines services from two or more sources, creating a new application
Network
a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media
Value-Added Network
a third-party business that provides networking services for a fee
Local Area Network
a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings
Wireless LAN
a LAN that uses no physical wires
Metropolitan Area Network
a high-speed network that connects local area networks in a metropolitan area such as a city or town and handles the bulk of communications activity across the region
Wide Area Network
a network that covers a large geographic area (such as a city, country, or the world) using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and radio waves
Client/Server Network
one or more computers ct as a server; the other computers on the network request services from the server
Server
controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on the network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information
Clients
are other computers and mobile devices on the network that rely on the server for its resources
Peer-to-Peer
one type is a simple, inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers
P2P
another type of peer-to-peer describes an internet network on which users access each others hard disks and exchange files directly
Network Topology
refers to the layout of the computers and devices in a communications network
Star Network
All of the computer and devices (nodes) on the network connect to a central device, thus forming a star
Bus Network
consists of a single central cable, to which all computers and other devices connect
Ring Network
a cable forms a closed loop (ring) with all computers and devices arranged along the ring
Intranet
An internal network that uses internet technologies. Generally make company information accessible to employees and facilitate working in groups.
Network Standard
defines guidelines that specify the way computers access the medium to which they are attached, the type(s) of physical cable and/or the wireless technology used
Ethernet
a network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network (nodes) should control when data can be transmitted; that is, each node attempts to transmit data when it determines the network is able to receive communications
Token Ring
standard specifies that computers and devices on the network share or pass a special signal, called a token, in a unidirectional manner and in a preset order
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
A network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how messages (data) are routed from one end of a network to the other. Describes rule for dividing messages into small pieces, called packets; providing addresses for each packet; checking for and detecting errors; sequencing packets; and regulating the flow of messages along the network.
Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)
which identifies any network based on the 802.11 standards
802.11
a series of network standards that specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other
Bluetooth
a standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how to Bluetooth devices use short-range radio waves to transmit data
UWB
Ultra-wideband
Ultra-Wideband
a network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds with each other
IrDA
a specifications that devices use to transmit data wirelessly to each other via infrared (IR) light waves
RFID
Radio Frequency identification
RFID
a standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WiMAX
also known as 802.16, is a newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area
WAP
Wireless Application Protocol
Wireless Application Protocol
a standard, specifically a protocol, that specifies how some mobile devices such as mart phones can display the content of Internet services such as the Web, e-mail, and chat rooms
Communications Software
consists of programs that
1) help users establish a connection to another computer or network
2) manage the transmission of data, instructions, and information
3) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another the first two are system software for communications: e-mail, FTP, web browser, newsgroup/message boards, chat rooms, instant messaging, video conferencing, and VoIP
Dial-Up Line
a temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines for communications, dial up is not permanent
Dedicated Line
a type of always-on connection that is established between two communications devices (unlike a dial-up line where the connection is reestablished each time it is used)
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN
a set of standards for digital transmission of data over standard copper telephone lines
DSL
Digital subscriber line
DSL
transmits at fast speeds on existing standard copper telephone wiring
FTTP
fiber to the premises
FTTP
uses fiber-optic cable to proved extremely high-speed internet access to a users physical permanent location
T-Carrier Line
any of several types of long-distance digital telephone lines that carry multiple signals over a single communications line
T1 Line
the most popular T-Carrier Line
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATM
a service that carries voice, data, video, and multimedia at extremely high speeds
Communications Device
any type of hardware capable of transmitting data, instructions, and information between a sending device and a rexeiving device
Dial-Up Modem
a communications device that can convert digital signals to analog signals and analog signals to digital signals, so that data can travel along an analog telephone line
Digital Modem
a communications device that sends and receives data and information to and from a digital line
ISDN Modem
sends digital data and information from a computer to an ISDN line and receives digital data and information from and ISD line
DSL Modem
sends digital data and information from a computer to a DSL line and receives digital data and information from a DSL line
Types of Digital Modems
1) ISDN modem
2) DSL modem
3) Cable modem
Cable Modem
a digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) netowrk
Wireless Modem
uses the cell phone network to connect to the internet wirelessly from a notebook computer, a smart phone, or other mobile device
Network Card
a communications device that enables a computer or device that does not have a networking capability to access a network
Wireless Access Point
a central communications device that allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly among themselves or to transfer data wirelessly to a wired network
Router
a communications device that connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a network
Home Network
many hoe users connecting multiple computers and devices together
Capabilities on a Home Network
-connect to the internet at the same time
-share a single high-speed internet connection
-access files and programs on the other computer in the house
-share peripherals such as a printer, scanner, external hard disk, or optical disc drive
-play multiplayer games with players on other computers in the house
-connect game consoles to the internet
-subscribe to and use VoIP
Bandwidth
the amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications channel
Transmission Media
consist of materials or substances capable of carrying one or more signals
Broadband
media transmit multiple signals simultaneously
Twisted-Pair Cable
consists of one or more twisted-pair wires bundled together
Coaxial Cable
often referred to as coax, consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers:
1) an insulating material
2) a woven or braided metal
3) a plastic outer coating
Fiber-Optic Caple
consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals
Broadcast Radio
a wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long distances such as between cities, regions, and countries and short distances such as within an office or home
PCS
Personal Communications Services
Personal communications Services
the term used by the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to identify all wireless digital communications
Microwaves
radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission
Communications Satellite
a space station that receives microwave signals from an earth-based station amplifies the signals, and broadcasts the signals back over a wide area to any number of earth-based stations
WAN
Wide Area Network
MAN
Metropolitan Area Network
WLAN
Wireless LAN
LAN
Local Area Network
VAN
Value-Added Network

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