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Computer Midterm 4,5,6

Keyboards
An input device used to enter characters at the location marked by the insertion point or cursor
Can be wired or wireless
Typically contains:
Standard alphanumeric keys
Numeric keypad
Function keys
Delete and Backspace keys
Control and Alternate keys
Arrow directional keys and special keys
Mobile Devices
Mobile devices often use:
Slide-out keyboard
Pen or touch input (on-screen keyboard)
Keyboard dock
Pointing and Touch Devices
Pointing devices are used to:
Select and manipulate objects
Input data
Issue commands to the computer
Common types of pointing devices:
Mouse
Pen/stylus
Devices that use touch input
Mice
Mouse
Common pointing device that the user slides along a flat surface to move a pointer around the screen and clicks its buttons to make selections
Older mechanical mice use a ball
Optical or laser mice track with light
Touch mice support two-dimensional gestures
Perceptual Computing
Users control devices with 3D gestures, voice commands, and facial expressions
Noncontact system
Allows for full body input and input from a slight distance away
Pens/Styluses
Stylus
Pen-like device used to draw or write electronically on the screen
Also called digital pen, electronic pen, tablet pen
Pen input is being used for:
Photography, graphic design, animation
Industrial design, document processing, and healthcare applications
Navigating through a document
Issuing commands
Pen-Based Computers and Mobile Devices
Pen input used with mobile devices and tablet computers
Used to input handwritten text and sketches and to manipulate objects
If handwriting recognition is used, written text can be converted to editable typed text
Digital Writing Systems
Pen-based systems that capture handwritten input as it is being written
Requires special paper with a grid of dots
Handwritten input can be transferred to computer
Signature Capture Devices
Found at check out counters to record customer signatures
Graphics Tablets
Pen tablets or digitizing devices
Flat, touch sensitive tablet typically connected to computer using a USB port
Touch Screens
Display devices that are touched with the finger to select commands or otherwise provide input to the computer
Common on portable computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices
Multi-touch
Can recognize input from more than one finger at a time
Table PC
Large screen computer either built into a table or designed to be used on a table
Other Pointing Devices
Gaming devices
Trackballs
Control buttons and wheels
Touch pads
Augmented Reality
Computer generated images are overlaid on top of real-time images
Today, most often with smartphones using camera input, location info, and other data
Displays appropriate information related to images captured by the smartphone
Scanners, Readers, and Digital Cameras
Source documents
Already exists in physical form (photographs, checks, or product label)
Source data automation
Captures data directly from a source document
Saves time
Increases accuracy
Utilizes scanning or reading devices
Scanners
Scanners (Optical Scanners)
Input devices that read printed text and graphics and transfers them to a computer in digital form
Data is typically input as a single image
Can scan photos, documents, images
Types of scanners
Flatbed
Portable
3D
Receipt and business card scanners
Scanning Quality and Resolution
Quality of scanned images indicated by optical resolution
Measured in number of dots per inch (dpi)
Can often be specified when image is scanned
Can be changed when scanned image is edited
Higher resolution means better quality but larger file size
Barcode Readers
Input devices that read barcodes
Barcodes
Machine-readable codes that represent data as a set of bars
Common Types
Universal Product Code (UPC)
ISBN
DataBar
QR Codes
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Readers
Technology used to store and transmit data located in RFID tags
RFID tags contain tiny chips and radio antennas
Can be attached to objects
Read by RFID readers
Tags only need to be within range of the reader, rather than in the line of sight
Applications for RFID readers
Tracking inventory and assets
Electronic toll collection
Tracking patients in hospitals
Ticketing applications
Speeding up ID process of travelers at border crossings
Types of RFID Readers
Handheld, portal, and stationary
Slow to catch on in retail industry due to privacy and security issues
Optical Mark Readers (OMRs)
Input data from special forms to score or tally exams, questionnaires, ballots
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Devices
OCR is the ability of a computer to recognize scanned text characters and convert them to electronic form as text, not images
OCR software is used to identify each character and convert it to editable text
Used to process turnaround documents like monthly bills
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Readers
Also called check scanners
Used primarily for banking
Read the special magnetic characters printed at the bottom of checks
High volume readers process deposited checks
Used to facilitate remote deposits and electronic check processing
Biometric Readers
Used to input biometric data such as an individual’s fingerprint or voice
Can be stand-alone or built into another piece of hardware
Most often used for access control, to authorize electronic payments, log on to secure Web sites
Mobile Deposits
Mobile remote deposit capture
Transmit check information via smartphone app and camera
App optimizes the check front and back images and transmits images and deposit data to your bank
Digital Cameras
Take pictures and records them as digital images
Can either be still cameras or video cameras
Integrated into many portable computers and mobile phones
Digital Still Cameras
Primary appeal is that images are immediately available
Camera quality is measured in megapixels
Typically use flash memory for storage
Camera phones can be used to read barcodes, remotely deposit checks, etc.
Digital Video Cameras
Digital camcorders, PC video cameras (PC cams, webcams)
Built-in or stand alone
Store images on digital media (flash memory, DVDs, hard drives, etc.)
Applications of digital videos cameras
Surveillance video cameras
Video conferences and Webinars
Face recognition systems
Audio Input
Audio Input
The process of entering audio data into the computer
Voice Input and Speech Recognition Systems
Voice Input
Inputting spoken words and converting them to digital form via microphone or headset
Can be used for podcasts and with VoIP (Voice over IP) systems
Provides spoken instructions to computer when used with speech recognition systems
Music Input Systems
Used to input music
Existing music can be input using CDs or a Web download
For original compositions, microphones, keyboard controllers, and guitar controllers can be used to input music
Display Device
Presents output visually on some type of screen
Monitor
Display device for a desktop computer
Display Screen
Screen built into a variety of devices
Notebook and other portable computers
Mobile phones and mobile devices
Handheld gaming devices, home entertainment devices, kitchen appliances
Digital photo frames, e-book readers, smart watches
Digital signage systems, digital billboards
Display Device Characteristics
Color vs. Monochrome Displays
Images are formed using pixels
Most displays today are color displays
CRT vs. Flat-Panel Displays
Cathode ray tube (CRT) displays: large, bulky, and heavy
Flat-panel displays: take up less desk space; use less power
Size and Aspect Ratio
Device size measured diagonally from corner to corner
Screen Resolution
Number of pixels used on a display determines resolution
Affects the amount of information that can be displayed on the screen at one time
Can be changed to match users’ preference
Video Adapters, Interfaces, and Ports
Video cards determine the graphic capabilities of a computer
VGA, DVI, and HDMI are the three most common interfaces to connect monitors to a computer
Ports exposed in the system unit cases are to connect monitors to computers
New option is to use USB ports
Wired vs. Wireless Displays
Wired display are physically connected to the system via a cable
Wireless displays connect using a wireless network connection (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth)
2D vs. 3D Displays
Most displays are 2D
3D displays use filters, prisms, and multiple lenses to create the 3D effects
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Wearable Displays
Project images from a mobile device to a display screen built into glasses
Touch and Gesture Capabilities
Kiosks and portable gaming devices
Mobile phones and media tablets
Flat Panel Display Technologies
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)
Use charged liquid crystals between sheets of glass or plastic
Requires backlighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED) Displays
Used in alarm clocks and Christmas lights
Currently used to backlight LCD panels
Special Types of OLEDs
FOLED (Flexible OLED)
OLED displays built on flexible surfaces such as plastic or metallic foil
TOLED (Transparent OLED)
Displays are transparent
Emit light toward top and bottom of display surface
PHOLED (Phosphorescent OLED)
Process that results in much more conversion of electrical energy into light instead of heat
Interferometric Modulator (IMOD) Displays
Essentially a complex mirror that uses external light to display images
Designed initially for mobile phones and portable devices
Images are bright and clear, even in sunlight
Plasma Displays
Use layers of gas between two plates of glass
Being replaced by LCDs
E-Paper
Used for e-readers and other devices
Easier to read in direct sunlight
Content can change wireless
Only uses power to change images, not maintain an image
Use electronic ink
Monochrome or color
Data and Multimedia Projectors
Display output from a computer to a wall or projection screen
Found in classrooms and conference rooms
Can be wireless or integrated into devices
Some contain an iPod dock
Pico projectors are pocket-size and connect mobile and portable devices
Hologram projectors used to display 3D images
3D projectors are designed to project 3D images that are viewed with 3D glasses
Printing Technology
Impact Printers (Dot Matrix)
Print mechanism strikes an inked ribbon to transfer ink to the paper
Used to produce multipart forms
Non-Impact Printers (Ink-Jet/Laser)
Use liquid ink or toner
Produce higher quality images
Much quieter than impact printers
Color vs. Black and White
Colors printers use magenta, cyan, yellow, and black ink
Print Resolution
Measured in dpi (dots per inch)
More dots per inch results in higher quality output
300 dpi for general purpose printing; 1,200 dpi for photographs; 2,400 dpi for professional applications
Print Speed
Measured in pages per minute (PPM)
Range from about 15 to 65 ppm
Personal vs. Network Printers
Personal printers connect directly to a single computer
Network printers connect directly to a home or an office network; some can perform cloud printing
Connection Options
USB connection most commo
Multifunction Capabilities
Copy, fax, scan, print
All-in-ones
Laser Printers
Use toner powder and technology similar to that of a photocopier to produce images on paper
The standard for business documents
Print one entire page at a time
Generally faster and have better quality output than ink-jet printers
Can be black and white or color
Common print resolution for laser printers is between 600 and 2,400 dpi
Use toner cartridges
Ink-Jet Printers
Sprays droplets of ink to produce images on paper
Use ink cartridges
Usually print in color
Often the choice for home use
Relatively inexpensive with good-quality output
Print more slowly than laser printers
Potential applications for the future
Dispensing liquid metal, aromas, computer chips and other circuitry, “printing” human tissue
Special Purpose Printers
Barcode, label, and postage printers
Photo printers
Portable and integrated printers
Wide-format ink-jet printers
3D printers
Audio Output
Voice, music, and other audible sounds
Common audio output devices
Computer speakers
Headphones and headsets
Earphones and earbuds
System Software vs. Application Software System Software
System Software
The operating system and utility programs that control a computer system and allow you to use your computer
Enables the boot process, launches applications, transfers files, controls hardware configuration, manages files on the hard drive, and protects from unauthorized use
System Software vs. Application Software Application Software
Application Software
Programs that allow a user to perform specific tasks on a computer
Word processing, playing games, browsing the Web, listening to music, etc.
The Operating System
Operating System
A collection of programs that manage and coordinate the activities taking place within a computer
Acts as an intermediary between the user and the computer and between the application programs and system hardware
Functions of an Operating System
Interfacing with Users (typically via a GUI)
Booting the Computer
Loads essential part of operating system (kernel) into memory
Reads opening batch of instructions
Determines hardware connected to computer
Configuring Devices
Device drivers are often needed; can be reinstalled if needed
Plug and Play devices are recognized automatically
Functions of an Operating System continued
Managing Network Connections
Manages wired connections to home or office network
Manages wireless connections at home, school, work, or on the go
Managing and Monitoring Resources and Jobs
Makes resources available to devices and programs
Monitors for problems and attempts to correct those that arise
Schedules jobs
Jobs to be printed
Files to be retrieved from hard drive
Functions of an Operating System continued 2
File Management
Keeps track of stored files on computer so they can be retrieved when needed
Files usually viewed in a hierarchical format
Security
Passwords
Biometric characteristics
Firewalls
Processing Techniques for Increased Efficiency Multitasking
Multitasking
The ability of an operating system to have more than one program (task) open at one time
CPU rotates between tasks
Switching is done quickly
Appears as though all programs executing at the same time
Multithreading
Multithreading
The ability to rotate between multiple threads so that processing is completed faster and more efficiently
Thread
Sequence of instructions within a program that is independent of other thread
Multiprocessing and Parallel Processing
Multiprocessing and Parallel Processing
Multiple processors (or multiple cores) are used in one computer system to perform work more efficiently
Tasks are performed sequentially
Memory Management
Memory Management
Optimizing the use of main memory (RAM)
Virtual memory
Memory-management technique that uses hard drive space as additional RAM
Buffering and Spooling
Buffering and Spooling
Buffer
Area in RAM or on the hard drive designated to hold data that is used by different hardware devices or programs
Buffering or Spooling
Placing items in a buffer so they can be retrieved by the appropriate device when needed
Differences Among Operating Systems
Command Line Interface
Require users to input commands using the keyboard
Graphical User Interface
Graphics based interface
Used by most operating systems
Categories of Operating Systems
Categories of Operating Systems
Personal (Desktop) Operating Systems
Designed to be installed on a single computer
Server (Network) Operating Systems
Designed to be installed on a network server
Client computers still use a personal operating system
Server operating system controls access to network resources
Mobile and embedded operating systems are also common
The Types of Processors Supported
The Types of Processors Supported
Desktop, mobile, server processors
32-bit or 64-bit CPUs
Support for Virtualization and Other Technologies
New types of buses
Virtualization
Mobility
Security concerns
Power-consumption concerns
Touch and gesture input
The move to cloud
Internet Monitors
Locked-down system with restricted functionality
Essentially just a monitor that provides Internet access
Users can run apps but can’t change settings so easier for businesses to provide Internet access without much maintenance
Operating Systems for Personal Computers and Servers
DOS (Disk Operating System)
DOS traditionally used a command-line interface
Dominant operating system in the 1980s and early 1990s
PC-DOS
Created originally for IBM microcomputers
MS-DOS
Created for use with IBM-compatible computers
Can enter DOS commands in Windows
Windows
Windows
The predominant personal operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation
Windows 1.0 through Windows Vista
Windows 1.0 released in 1985
Windows 1.0 through Windows 3.x were operating environments for DOS
Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows ME
Designed for personal computers
Windows NT (New Technology)
Windows NT (New Technology)
First 32-bit version of Windows designed for high-end workstations and servers
Replaced by Windows 2000
Windows XP
Windows XP
Replaced both Windows 2000 and Windows Me
Windows Vista
Replaced Windows XP
Introduced the Aero interface and Sidebar feature
Windows 7
Windows 7
Released in late 2009
Home Premium (primary version for home users)
Professional (primary version for businesses)
Libraries feature gives you virtual folders
Windows 8
Current version of Windows
Designed to be used with smartphones, desktop computers, with or without a keyboard or mouse
Supports multi-touch input
Includes Start screen, tiles, and charms bar
Windows Server
Windows Server
The version of Windows designed for server use
Windows Server 2012 is the latest version
Supports both virtualization and cloud computing
Windows Home Server
Preinstalled on home server devices
Designed to provide services for a home network
Can be set up to back up all devices in the home on a regular basis
Mac OS
Mac OS
Proprietary operating system for computers made by Apple Corporation
Based on the UNIX operating system
Originally set the standard for graphical user interfaces
Mac OS X Family
Mac OS X Mountain Lion and Mac OS X Mavericks
Mac OS X Server
Server version of Mac OS X
UNIX
UNIX
Operating system developed in the late 1960s for midrange servers
Multiuser, multitasking operating system
More expensive, requires high level of technical knowledge; harder to install, maintain, and upgrade
“UNIX” initially referred to the original UNIX operating system, now refers to a group of similar operating systems based on UNIX
Single UNIX Specification
A standardized UNIX environment
Linux
Developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991—resembles UNIX but was developed independently
Is open-source software; has been collaboratively modified by volunteer programmers all over the world
Originally used a command line interface, most recent versions use a GUI
Strong support from mainstream companies, such as IBM, NVIDIA, HP, Dell, and Novell
Individuals and organizations are switching to Linux and other open source software because of cost
Smart Cars
Use of computers in cars has skyrocketed
Self-driving systems and self-parking systems
Lane departure and blind spot detection systems
Windshield displays
Collision warnings and auto brake systems
Keyless entry and ignition systems
Distraction-prevention systems
Safety of gadgets is a concern
Operating Systems for Mobile Devices
Windows Phone 8, Windows RT, and Windows Embedded
Windows Phone
Latest version of Windows designed for smartphones
Windows Phone 8 is based on the Windows 8 operating system
Windows RT
Designed for tablet use
Windows Embedded
Designed primarily for consumer and industrial devices that are not personal computers
Operating Systems for Mobile Phones and Other Devices
Android
Linux-based operating system created with current mobile device capabilities in mind
Can create applications that take full advantage of all the features a mobile device has to offer
Open platform
Current version is Android 4.3, also known as Jelly Bean
Devices support multitasking, multiple cores, NFC mobile payment transactions, Internet phone calls
iOS
iOS
Designed for Apple Mobile phones and mobile devices
Current version is iOS 7
Supports multitasking
Includes Safari Web browser, the Siri intelligent assistant, Facetime video calling, AirDrop to send items to others, and apps for email, messaging, music, and search
Blackberry OS and Blackberry PlayBook OS
Blackberry OS and Blackberry PlayBook OS
Designed for Blackberry devices
Mobile Linux
Other mobile operating systems based on Linux besides Android and iOs
Ubuntu, webOS, Firefox OS, and Tizen
Other mobile operating systems based on Linux besides Android and iOs
Ubuntu, webOS, Firefox OS, and Tizen
Operating Systems for Larger Computers
Larger computers sometimes use operating systems designed solely for that type of system
IBM’s z/OS is designed for IBM mainframes
Windows, UNIX, and Linux are also used with servers, mainframes, and supercomputers
Larger computers may also use a customized operating system based on a conventional operating system
Weather Forecasting in the Alps
Weather forecasting is difficult in the Alps due to complex topography and intense precipitation
Supercomputer Piz Daint is Linux based, uses CPUs and GPUS, and runs at 750 teraflops
Can run 30 weather forecasting models simultaneously
Cooled with water from a nearby lake
Utility Programs
Utility Program
Software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing or maintaining the computer system
Many utilities are built into operating systems (for finding files, viewing images, backing up files, etc.)
Utilities are also available as stand-alone products and as suites
File Management Programs
Enable the user to perform file management tasks, such as:
Looking at the contents of a storage medium
Copying, moving, and renaming files and folders
Deleting files and folders
File management program in Windows 8 is File Explorer
To copy or move files, use the Home tab to copy (or cut) and then paste
To delete files, use the Delete key on the keyboard or the Home tab
Sending to the Cloud
Add cloud locations to the Send To menu
Google Drive, SkyDrive, etc.
Search Tools
Search Tools
Designed to search for documents and other files on the user’s hard drive
Windows 8 has Search charm to search for files, apps, and Store items
Are often integrated into file management programs
Third-party search tools are also available
Diagnostic and Disk Management Programs
Diagnostic programs evaluate your system and make recommendations for fixing any errors found
Disk management programs diagnose and repair problems related to your hard drive
Uninstall and Cleanup Utilities
Uninstall and Cleanup Utilities
Uninstall utilities remove programs from your hard drive without leaving bits and pieces behind
Important to properly uninstall programs, not just delete them
Cleanup utilities delete temporary files
Files still in Recycle Bin
Temporary Internet files
Temporary installation files
File Compression Programs
File Compression Programs
Reduce the size of files to optimize storage space and transmission time
Both zip and unzip files
WinZip (Windows users) and Stuffit (Mac users)
Backup and Recovery Utilities
Make the backup and restoration process easier
Creating a backup means making a duplicate copy of important files
Can use a recordable or rewritable CD or DVD disc, a USB flash drive, or an external hard drive
Good backup procedures are critical for everyone
Individuals should back up important documents, e-mail, photos, home video, etc.
Performing a backup can include backing up an entire computer (so it can be restored at a later date)
Can do the backup manually or use backup utility programs (stand alone or those built into operating systems)
Can also backup individual files are they are modified
The Future of Operating Systems
Will continue to become more user-friendly
Will eventually be driven primarily by a voice interface, touch, and/or gesture interface
Likely to continue to become more stable and self-healing
Will likely continue to include security and other technological improvements as they become available
Will almost certainly include improvements in the areas of synchronizing and coordinating data and activities among a person’s various computing and communicating devices
May be used primarily to access software available through the Internet or other networks
Software Ownership Rights
Software Ownership Rights
Specify the allowable use of the program
Software license
Gives you the right to use a software program
Specifies the conditions under which the buyer can use the software
Open Source Software
Open source software
Programs with source code made available to the general public
Use is growing
In addition to Linux and other open source operating systems, there are many open source apps
Open source is typically cheaper
Can also be more stable and
secure
Commercial Software
Commercial Software
Copyrighted software developed and sold for profit
Typically comes with a single-user license
Shareware
Copyrighted software distributed on the honor system
Consumers should either pay for it or uninstall it after the trial period
Freeware
Copyrighted software programs that are given away by the author for others to use free of charge
Public Domain Software
Software that is not copyrighted and ownership rights have been donated to the public domain
Desktop vs. Mobile Software
Personal computers use desktop software
Smartphones and other mobile devices typically require mobile software called apps
Specifically designed for a specific type of device
Wide range of software available via app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store, etc.)
Mobile Ticketing
Download ticket to mobile device to use for admittance
Tickets for movies, sporting events, concerts, etc.
Boarding passes
Custom tickets
Installed vs. Cloud Software Installed
Installed Software
Must be installed on the computer before it can be run
Can be purchased in physical form
Can be downloaded from the Internet
Cloud
Cloud Software
Is delivered on-demand via the Web
Also called Software as a Service (SaaS) and cloudware
Includes free software and fee-based software
Advantages of cloud software
Files can be accessed from any computer with an Internet connection
Ease of implementation
Improved collaboration capabilities
Always working with the most current version of software
Potential disadvantages of cloud software
Potential disadvantages of cloud software
Online applications tend to run more slowly
Have file size limits
Cost may eventually exceed the cost of purchasing a similar installed version of the software
Airline Apps
American Airlines is issuing media tablets to all cabin personnel and iPads to all pilots
Replaces paper manuals and maps
Expected to be able to provide passengers with additional services such as connection and weather info and food purchases and other in-flight transactions
Software Suites
Collection of software programs bundled together and sold as a single software package
Office suites are used by most businesses/individuals to produce documents and typically include:
Word processing software
Spreadsheet software
Database software
Presentation graphics-software
Provide a common interface among programs in the suite
Latest version of Office
Latest version of Office is 2013 (traditional installed)/365 (subscription)
Office on Demand
Read mode
Common Software Commands
Toolbars, Menus, Keyboard Shortcuts, and the Ribbon
Provide access to most commands in application programs
Keyboard shortcuts can be used
Ribbon
Ribbon used in Microsoft Office 2007 and later
Commands are organized into groups located on tabs
Contextual tabs appear on the Ribbon as needed and contain special commands
Editing a Document
Editing a Document
Changing the content of the document, such as inserting or deleting words
Insertion point
Indicates the current location in a document, which is where the changes will be made
Typing text inserts the text at the insertion point location
Delete and Backspace keys delete text
Text and objects can typically be selected and moved, copied, deleted, or formatted
Formatting a Document
Formatting a Document
Changes the appearance of the document
Changes font face, font size, and/or font color
Changes line spacing or margins
Adds page numbers and/or borders
Getting Help
Getting Help
Often built into the program and typically contains:
Table of Contents
Browsing
Search
Online help (via manufacturer’s Web site and independent sites)
Offline help (periodicals, books, tutorial videos, classes)
Word Processing Concepts
What Is Word Processing?
Using a computer and word processing software to create, edit, save, and print written documents such as letters, contracts, and manuscripts
Common Word Processing Software Programs
Microsoft Word
Corel WordPerfect
Apple Pages
Gesture Input with Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office and Windows 8 support gestures to replace mouse commands
Tap, Press and hold, Slide, Swipe, Pinch, and Stretch
Creating a Word Processing Document
Creating a Word Processing Document
Word wrap
Automatically returns the insertion point to the next line when the end of the screen line is reached
Character formatting (font face, size, style, or color)
Paragraph formatting (line spacing, indentation, alignment, and styles)
Page formatting (margins, paper size, orientation, headers, footers, etc.)
Document formatting (footnotes, end notes, table of contents, index, background, theme)
Tables, Graphics, and Templates
Tables, Graphics, and Templates
Tables
Allow content to be organized in a table consisting of rows and columns
Graphics or Drawing Features
Allow images to be inserted into a document (clip art, photographs, drawn images, etc.) and then modified
Templates
Help users create new documents quickly
Word Processing and the Web
Word Processing and the Web
Most word processing programs today include Web-related features allowing you to:
Send a document as an e-mail message
Include Web page hyperlinks in documents
Create or modify Web pages
Create and publish blogs
Collaborate with others online
Spreadsheet Concepts
What Is a Spreadsheet?
Documents containing a group of numbers and other data organized into rows and columns
Spreadsheet software includes the following tools
Formulas, data analysis tools, charts, and graphs
Most widely used spreadsheet programs:
Microsoft Excel
Corel Quattro Pro
Apple Numbers
Creating a Spreadsheet
Creating a Spreadsheet
Worksheet: a single spreadsheet
Workbook: a collection of worksheets saved in a single file
Worksheets are divided into rows and columns
Cell
The intersection of a row and a column
Each cell is identified by a cell address, such as A1
Cell pointer is used to select a cell
Cell pointer can be used to select more than one cell (range or block)
Entering Data into a Spreadsheet Cell
Entering Data into a Spreadsheet Cell
Labels
Text-based entry in a worksheet cell that identifies data on the worksheet
Constant Values
Numerical entry in a worksheet cell
Formulas
Perform mathematical operations on the content of other cells
Usually reference the cell address, not the current data in a cell
Use mathematical operators; begin with an = sign
Function
Function
A named, pre-programmed formula
Hundreds of functions that can be used in spreadsheets
Absolute vs. Relative Cell Referencing
Absolute vs. Relative Cell Referencing
Relative cell references
Cell addresses are adjusted as the formula is copied
Absolute cell references
Formulas are copied exactly as they are written
Appropriate when you want to use a specific cell address in all copies of the formula
Use $ to make cell references absolute: $B$6
Charts and What-If Analysis
Charts and What-If Analysis
Most spreadsheet programs include some type of charting or graphing capability
Can create charts from the data in the spreadsheet (do not have to reenter it)
Charts change accordingly if the data in the spreadsheet changes
When cell contents are changed, formulas are automatically recalculated
What-if-analysis
Tool frequently used to help make business decisions
Spreadsheets and the Web
Spreadsheets and the Web
Most spreadsheet programs have built-in Web capabilities enabling the user to:
Save the current worksheet as a Web page
Insert hyperlinks inserted into worksheet cells
Select and copy ranges of cells to a Web publishing or word processing program to insert spreadsheet data into a Web page as a table
Send a workbook as an e-mail message
Collaborate online
Database Concepts
What Is a Database?
A collection of related data that is stored in a manner enabling information to be retrieved as needed
Database Management System (DBMS)
Software that allows the creation and manipulation of an electronic database
Most widely used relational database programs
Microsoft Access
Oracle Database
IBM’s DB2
Data in a database is organized into fields (columns), records (rows), and tables
Data in a database is organized into fields (columns), records (rows), and tables
Field (column)
A single type of data to be stored in a database
Record (row)
A collection of related fields
Table
A collection of related records
Database file
Collection of related tables
Creating a Database
Creating a Database
Database file is created first
Contains objects, such as tables, forms, and queries
Tables can then be created
Typically, the table structure is specified first
Table structure includes:
Field name (unique identifying name)
Data type (text, number, date, object)
Field size (maximum number of characters)
Default value (initial content of the field)
The table is named and saved
Tables can be created in either Datasheet or Design view
Data can be displayed
Data can be displayed using a form or Datasheet view
Data can be edited
Queries and Reports
Queries and Reports
Query
A question; a request for specific information from the database
Contains criteria to specify the records and fields to be included in the query results
Is named and saved so it can be run again at a later time
Reports
Reports
Created when a more formal output is desired
Associated with either a table or a query
Data is displayed in the specified location
Databases and the Web
Many Web sites use one or more databases to:
Keep track of inventory
Allow searching for people, documents, products, or other information
Searching for products on a retail store’s Web site
Place real-time orders
Presentation Graphics Concepts
What Is a Presentation Graphic?
An image designed to visually enhance a presentation
Can be used in electronic slide shows, as well as in printed reports
Slide
Slide
A one-page presentation graphic that can be displayed in a group with others to form an electronic slide show
Electronic Slide Show
A group of electronic slides that are displayed one after the other on a computer monitor or other display device
Presentation Graphics Software
Used to create presentation graphics
Most common presentation graphics programs
Microsoft PowerPoint
Corel Presentations
Apple Keynote
Creating a Presentation
Creating a Presentation
Preformatted slide layouts can often be used
New slides can be added to a new or existing presentation as needed
Slides can contain a variety of elements
Text
Images
Charts
Audio clips
Video clips
Presentation Graphics and the Web
Presentation Graphics and the Web
Presentation graphics programs can be used to generate Web pages or Web page content
Slides can include hyperlinks
Users can usually control Web-based presentations accessed via a Web browser
Graphics and Multimedia Concepts
Graphics
Graphical images, such as digital photographs, clip art, scanned drawings, and original images created using a software program
Multimedia
Technically refers to any application that contains more than one type of media
Often used to refer to audio or video content
Large variety of graphics and multimedia software used to:
Create or modify graphics
Edit digital audio or video
Play multimedia files
Burn CDs and DVDs
Graphics Software (Digital Imaging Software)
Used to create or modify images
Painting Programs
Typically used to create bitmap images (Microsoft Paint)
Drawing Programs (Illustration programs)
Typically create images using mathematical formulas
Popular programs include Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW, and Corel Painter
Image Editing or Photo Editing Programs
Image Editing or Photo Editing Programs
Designed for touching up or modifying images
Correcting brightness/contrast
Cropping/eliminating red eye
Optimize file size for the Web
Adobe Photoshop, Apple iPhoto, etc.
Audio Capture and Editing Software
Audio Capture and Editing Software
Used to create and edit audio files
Sound recorder software captures sound from a microphone
Ripping software captures sound from a CD
Edits and applies special effects
Common consumer products
Windows Sound Recorder, Apple GarageBand, Audacity
Video Editing and DVD Authoring Software
Video Editing and DVD Authoring Software
Video Editing Software
Modifies existing videos
Prepares video clips for presentations or Web sites
DVD Authoring Software
Organizes content to be transferred to DVD
DVD Burning Software
Records data on recordable or rewritable DVDs
Common consumer video editing programs include Roxio Creator, Apple iMovie, etc.
Media Players
Media Players
Programs designed to play audio and video files
Music CDs, downloaded music, online audio
Downloaded and online video
Important to adhere to copyright laws when using digital music
Media players include:
RealPlayer, Apple QuickTime, Windows Media Player, etc.
Graphics, Multimedia, and the Web
Graphics, Multimedia, and the Web
Often used by individuals and businesses to create Web sites or content to be shared via the Web
Company logos
Web site banners
Games
Tutorials
Videos
Demonstrations
Other multimedia content
Other Types of Application Software
Desktop and Personal Publishing Software
Educational, Entertainment, and Reference Software
Note Taking Software and Web Notebooks
CAD and Other Types of Design Software
Accounting and Personal Finance Software
Project Management, Collaboration, and Remote Access Software

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