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Computer Security 4,5,10

Most portable devices, and some computer monitors, have a special steel bracket security slot built into the case, which can be used in conjunction with a:
cable lock
An independently rotating large cup affixed to the top of a fence prevents the hands of intruders from gripping the top of a fence to climb over it. What is the name for this technology?
roller barrier
Anti-virus products typically utilize what type of virus scanning analysis??
static analysis
A spiked collar that extends horizontally for up to 3 feet from the pole is an example of what kind of technology?
anti climb
Proximity readers utilize a special type of tag that can be affixed to the inside of an ID badge. What is the name for this type of tag?
Radio Frequency Identification tag (RFID)
Describe a mantrap.
a mantrap monitors and controls interlocking doors to a small room. When in operation, only one door is able to be open at anytime. They are used at high-security areas where only authorized persons are allowed to enter, such as sensitive data processing rooms, cash handling areas, and research laboratories.
How does an RFID tag embedded into an ID badge function without a power supply?
a tiny electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming signal from the transceiver provides enough power for the tag to send a response.
What is the name for a standard or checklist against which systems can be evaluated and audited for their level of security (security posture)?
What type of video surveillance is typically used by banks, casinos, airports, and military installations, and commonly employs guards who actively monitor the surveillance?
What is the name for a cumulative package of all patches and hotfixes as well as additional features up to a given point?
service pack
Which of the following is not one of the types of settings that would be included in a Microsoft Windows security template?
Resolution settings
A(n) ____________________ is a record or list of individuals who have permission to enter a secure area, the time that they entered, and the time they left the area.
access list
How does DLP index matching work?
Documents that have been identified as needing protection, such as the program source code for a new software application, are analyzed by the DLP system and complex computations are conducted based on the analysis. Thereafter, if even a small part of that document is leaked, the DLP system can recognize the snippet as being from a protected document.
?What type of filtering utilizes a an analysis of the content of spam messages in comparison to neutral / non-spam messages in order to make intelligent decisions as to what should be considered spam?
?Bayesian filtering
How can an area be made secure from a non-secured area via two interlocking doors to a small room?
using a mantrap
Cipher locks are sometimes combined with what type of sensor, which uses infrared beams that are aimed across a doorway?
tailgate sensors
Subtypes of security controls, classified as deterrent, preventive, detective, compensation, or corrective.?
activity phase controls
?A paper or electronic record of individuals who have permission to enter a secure area, the time that they entered, and the time they left the area
access list
Spam filtering software that analyzes every word in an email and determines how frequently a word occurs in order to determine if it is spam.?
bayesian filtering
?A software testing technique that deliberately provides invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to a computer program.
FUZZ testing
?An attack that uses the user’s web browser settings to impersonate the user
cross-site request forgery (XSRF)
?An operating system for Google Android smartphones and other devices.
?A nonrelational database that is better tuned for accessing large data sets.
?Large-scale, industrial control systems.
supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
A structure designed to block the passage of traffic?
A mobile operating system for Apple iPhones?
What are the five steps that can be used to ensure the security of an OS??
1. Develop the security policy
2. Perform host software baselining
3. Configure operating system security setting
4. Deploy and manage security settings
5. Implement patch management
Most DLP systems make use of what method of security analysis below?
content inspection
How does an RFID tag embedded into an ID badge function without a power supply??
a tiny electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming signal from the transceiver provides enough power for the tag to send a response.
What type of device, sometimes called a packet filter, is designed to prevent malicious network packets from entering or leaving computers or networks?
A _____________ is a document or series of documents that clearly defines the defense mechanisms an organization will employ in order to keep information secure.?
security policy
What are the three states of data that DLP typically examines?
1. Data in-use
2. Data in-transit
3. Data at-rest
What can be a time consuming drawback to the use of traditional ID badges? How can this issue be avoided?
When you are trying to verify hundreds or thousands of users at a time, swiping or scanning ID badges can result in a bottleneck. To avoid this we use RFID tags so when the user walks through a turnstile with a badge, it can be read by an RFID proximity reader.
Explain how tailgate sensors work.
tailgate sensors are used with cipher locks. They use multiple infrared beams that are aimed across a doorway and positioned so that as a person walks through a doorway, some beams are activated; other beams are then activated a fraction of a second later. The beams are monitored and can determine which the direction the person is walking along with how many people are walking through.
What is the maximum effective range of a typical passive RFID tag?
Keyed entry locks are much more difficult to defeat than deadbolt locks.
DLP agent sensors are installed on each host device, and monitor for actions such as printing, copying to a USB flash drive, and burning to a CD or DVD.
Instead of using a key or entering a code to open a door, a user can use an object, such as an ID badge, to identify themselves in order to gain access to a secure area. What term describes this type of object?
physical token
Securing the host involves protecting the physical device itself, securing the operating system software on the system, using security-based software applications, and monitoring logs.
What is the best way to prevent data input by a user from having potentially malicious effects on software??
Select the tool below that consists of a system of security tools that is used to recognize and identify data that is critical to an organization and ensure that it is protected:
data loss prevention
Combination padlocks consist of buttons that must be pushed in the proper sequence in order to be unlocked.
What is the difference between deterrent controls and preventive controls??
deterrent controls attempt to discourage security violations before they occur.
preventive controls attempts to prevent the threat from coming into contact with the vulnerability.
A system such as a printer, smart TV, or HVAC controller, typically uses an operating system on what is called a:
embedded system
Describe how a DLP can be configured.
A DLP can be configured to look for specific data (such as Social Security and credit card numbers), lines of computer software source code, words in a sequence (to prevent a report from leaving the network), maximum file sizes, and file types.
Instead of trying to make a match, modern AV techniques are beginning to use a type of detection that attempts to identify the characteristics of a virus. What is the name for this technique?
heuristic detection
How can cable conduits that run between two secure areas be protected?
It can be protected using a protected distribution system.
DLP agent sensors are unable to read inside compressed files and binary files.?
A(n) ____________________ is a method used by operating systems to store, retrieve, and organize files.
file system
On what principle did Julius Caesar’s cyptographic messages function?
Each alphabetic letter was shifted three places down in the alphabet
In cryptography, which of the five basic protections ensures that the information is correct and no unauthorized person or malicious software has altered that data?
Discuss how cryptography can help ensure the availability of the data.
Instead of storing an important file on a hard drive that is locked in a safe to prevent unauthorized access, an encrypted file can be immediately available from a central file server to authorized individuals who have been given the key.
Describe hard disk drive encryption.
Self-encrypting hard disk drives (HDDs) can protect all files stored on them. When the computer or other device with a self-encrypting HDD is initially powered up, the drive and the host device perform an authentication process. If the authentication process fails, the drive can be configured to simply deny any access to the drive or even perform a “cryptographic erase” on specified blocks of data (a cryptographic erase deletes the decryption keys so that all data is permanently encrypted and unreadable). This also makes it impossible to install the drive on another computer to read its contents.
A block cipher works on a single character at a time, and is faster than a stream cipher.
Which of the following is not one of the functions of a digital signature?
protect the public key
?A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
?An algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime numbers to compute keys
Elliptic Curve Cryptograhy (ECC)
An asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected.?
public key
?A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56-bit key and encrypts data in 64-bit blocks
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
A temporary key that is used only once before it is discarded.?
ephemeral key
?An asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected.
private key
A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time.?
block cipher
A key exchange that requires all parties to agree upon a large prime number and related integer so that the same key can be separately created.?
Diffie-Hellman (DH)
?An algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character.
stream cipher
Data that has been encrypted.?
Select below the standard that is based on the Rijndael algorithm, and was approved by NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES:
What is the name of the open source asymmetric cryptography system that runs on Windows, UNIX, and Linux systems, and is compatible with PGP?
The simplest type of stream cipher, one in which one letter or character is exchanged for another, is known as what?
A key that is generated by a symmetric cryptographic algorithm is said to be a:
private key
Explain hashing
Hashing is used primarily to determine the integrity of a message or contents of a file.
What cryptographic method, first proposed in the mid-1980s, makes use of sloping curves instead of large prime numbers?
In information technology, ____________________ is the process of proving that a user performed an action, such as sending an e-mail message or a specific document.
A hash algorithm is designed to create a hash that represents the contents of a set of data that can later be decrypted.
A ________________ involves combining plaintext with a random key to create ciphertext that cannot be broken mathematically.?
one-time pad (OTP)
Cryptography that attempts to use the microscopic behaviors of objects to develop and share keys while also detecting eavesdropping is known as what type of cryptography?
quantum cryptography
Describe how a block cipher works.
A block cipher manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time. The plaintext message is divided into separate blocks of 8 to 16 bytes, and then each block is encrypted independently. For additional security, the blocks can be randomized.
Select below the hashing algorithm that takes plaintext of any length and generates a digest 128 bits in length:
Describe how Message Digest2 (MD2) works.
It takes plaintext of any length and creates a digest 128 bits in length. MD2 divides the plaintext into multiple 128-bit sections. If the message is less than 128 bits extra padding is added.
Discuss how HMAC works.
HMAC is a has based message authentication code in which a has function is applied to both the key and the message. HMAC is widely used by Internet security protocols to verify the integrity of transmitted data during secure communications.
Which type of cryptographic algorithm takes an input string of any length, and returns a string of any requested variable length?
The Data Encryption Standard is a ______________ cipher.
The NTRUEncrypt cryptographic algorithm makes use of which of the following cryptographic techniques?
The SHA-1 hashing algorithm creates a digest that is how many bits in length?
160 bits
What is the name of the cryptographic hash function that has international recognition and has been adopted by standards organizations such as the ISO, that creates a digest of 512 bits and will not be subject to patents?
A Hardware Security Module (HSM) is essentially a chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services.
Steganography hides the existence of data within images by dividing and hiding portions of a file within the image.
What type of cryptography uses two keys instead of just one, generating both a private and a public key?
Describe the RIPEMD hash
The primary design feature of RIPEMD is two different and independent parallel chains of computation, the results of which are then combined at the end of the process.
List and describe the characteristics a hashing algorithm must have to be considered secure.
fixed size: A digest of a short set of data should produce the same size as a digest of a long set of data.

unique: Two different sets of data cannot produce the same digest, which is know as a collision. Changing a single letter in one data set should produce an entirely different digest.

original: It should be impossible to produce a data set that has a desired or predefined hash.

secure: The resulting hash cannot be reversed in order to determine the original plaintext.

The original cryptographic algorithms for encrypting and decrypting documents are ____________________ cryptographic algorithms.
What is the block cipher algorithm that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits known as?
After the DES cipher was broken and no longer considered secure, what encryption algorithm was made as its successor?
?What is the difference between a feature phone and a smartphone?
a feature phone is a basic cell phone that only has a camera, mp3 player, and has the ability to send and receive SMS messages.

a smart phone has all the tools that a feature phone has but also includes an operating system that allows it to run apps and access the Internet.

?How can encryption be used on Apple iOS and Google Android mobile operating systems?
You can enable full device encryption which will apply protection to all data stored on the device. Another option is to separate personal and corporate data into containers and encrypt only the sensitive data.
?Which of the following selections is not one of the features provided by a typical MDM?
track stolen devices
The Apple _____________ operating system, developed by Apple for their mobile devices, is a closed and proprietary architecture.
A _____________ is a matrix or two-dimensional barcode first designed for the automotive industry in Japan.?
quick response (QR) code
Mobile devices such as laptops are stolen on average once every 20 seconds.?
List at least three things that can be done in order to reduce the risk of theft or loss of a mobile device.
1. keep the mobile device out of sight when traveling in a high-risk area.
2. Avoid becoming distracted by what is on the device. Always maintain an awareness of your surroundings.
3. When holding a device, use both hands to make it more difficult for a thief to snatch.
What type of management system below can help facilitate asset tracking?
?Mobile Device Management (MDM)
What PC Card type is typically used for memory??
Type l
Mobile devices use _____________ for storage, which is a nonvolatile solid state electronic storage that can be electrically erased and reused.?
flash memory
The CardBus is a 64-bit bus in the PC card form factor.
_____________ are portable computing devices that are generally larger than smartphones and smaller than notebooks, and are focused on ease of use.?
?What PIN is considered to be the most commonly used PIN?
Describe a subnotebook computer.
Sometimes called an ultrabook (Intel/Windows) or air (Apple). These devices are even smaller than standard notebooks and use low-power processors and solid state drives (SSDs). They generally have a high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) port along with a limited number of SB hardware ports.
?How can an administrator manage applications on mobile devices using a technique called “app wrapping?”
Mobile Application Management
What SD card family can be used to transmit pictures over a wireless network to a laptop hard drive or wireless printer??
?Secure Digital Input Output (SDIO)
?What term below describes a hand-held mobile device that was intended to replace paper systems, and typically included an appointment calendar, an address book, a “to-do” list, a calculator, and the ability to record limited notes?
?Personal digital assistant (PDA)
?Personal digital assistant (PDA)
A QR code can’t contain which of the following items directly?
A phone number
An e-mail address
A video
A video
?How might an attacker misuse a QR code?
An attacker can create an advertisement that shows a legitimate site, like a bank or a big company like Walmart, but they include a QR code that directs the user to a malicious site.
How does BYOD increase employee performance?
Employees are more likely to be productive while traveling or working away from the office if they re comfortable with their device.
?An ultrabook is an example of what type of a portable computer?
?Describe a netbook computer.
A netbook computer was a small, inexpensive, and lightweight portable computer. In order to be affordable, netbooks used low-powered processors, featured small screens and keyboards, omitted optical storage, and could not be upgraded.
Simply using a mobile device in a public area can be considered a risk.
What are the two options for using encryption with mobile devices??
1. Full device encryption
2. Separating data into containers and encrypting the sensitive data
?Select below the item that is not considered to be a basic characteristic of mobile devices:
?Removable media storage
A QR code can store website URLs, plain text, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, or virtually any alphanumeric data up to 4296 characters.
What are the three sizes of SD cards available, and how are they typically used??
1. Full SD: are commonly used in personal computers, video cameras, digital cameras, and other large consumer electronic devices
2. Mini & Micro SD: are commonly used in smaller electronic devices like smartphones and tablets
Describe some of the risks associated with BYOD
1. Users may erase the installed built-in limitations on their smartphone to provide additional functionality.
2. Personal mobile devices are often shared among family members and friends, subjecting sensitive corporate data installed on a user’s device to outsiders.
3. There may be difficulties in securing the personal smartphone from an employee who was fired so that any corporate data on it can be erased.
?What mobile operating system below requires all applications to be reviewed and approved before they can be made available on the public store front?
?What can be enabled to prevent a mobile device from being used until a user enters the correct passcode, such as a pin or password?
enable a lock screen
Mobile Device Management systems that allow users to store usernames and passwords within a device are said to be using:
credential management

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