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Copy of bio ch8

: variety of life at all levels of organization
– Species diversity
– Genetic diversity
– Population and community diversity
biodiversity
: a set of individuals that share certain characteristics and can interbreed – Producing fertile offspring
• Species
: the number or variety of species in a particular region
• Species diversity
: the number of species
– Richness
: the extent to which species differ in number of individuals
– Evenness (relative abundance)
generates new species
• Speciation
reduces species richness
– Extinction
: scientists who classify species
Taxonomists
– Similarities reflect …
evolutionary relationships
: groups of related species
– Genera
: groups of genera
– Families
• Every species has a two part scientific name
– Genus and species
: populations of species that occur in different areas and differ slightly from each other
Subspecies
stops short of separating the species
– Divergence
are denoted with a third part of the scientific name
– Subspecies
: in low populations, genetically similar parents mate and produce inferior offspring – Cheetahs, bison, elephant seals
Inbreeding depression
: the number and variety of ecosystems
Ecosystem diversity
• May include habitats, communities, or ecosystems at the landscape level
Ecosystem diversity
An area with a variety of vegetation holds more ___ than the same size area with one plant type
biodiversity
species richness increases toward the equator
Latitudinal gradient
why is species richness increased towards the equator
– Steady climate
– More niches
– Species coexistence
: occurs when the last member of a species dies and the species ceases to exist
• Extinction
: the disappearance of a population from a given area, but not the entire species globally
• Extirpation
– Can lead to extinction
• Extirpation
: natural extinctions
Background extinction rate
Earth has had ___ mass extinctions in the past 440 million years
five
– Each event eliminated at least 50% of all species
mass extinctions
species facing high risks of extinction
Red List:
• Five primary causes of population decline are:
1 Habitat alteration/loss
2. Invasive species
3. Pollution
4. Overharvesting
5. Global Climate Change
• This is the greatest cause of biodiversity loss
Habitat alteration
gradual, piecemeal degradation and loss of habitat
• Habitat fragmentation:
: free services provided by intact ecosystems
Ecosystem services
Benefits of Biodiversity
1. Provide Ecosystem Services
2. Maintain Ecosystem Functions (keystone species, top predators, etc)
3. Food security
4. Provide drugs and medicines:
5. Economic Benefits
6. People value nature
: travel to see wildlife and explore nature – A vital source of income
Ecotourism
: humans love nature and have an emotional bond with other living things
• Biophilia
: studies the factors behind the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity
Conservation biology
– An applied and goal-oriented science
Conservation biology
– Has implicit values and ethical standards
Conservation biology
: study the effects of loss of genetic variation (e.g., inbreeding depression)
Conservation geneticists
: how small a population can become before it runs into problems
• Minimum viable population size
: the primary legislation for protecting biodiversity in the U.S.
Endangered Species Act(ESA) (1973)
It forbids the government and citizens from taking actions that destroy endangered species or their habitats- Or trading in products made from endangered species
Endangered Species Act(ESA) (1973)
: Canada’s endangered species law
• Species at Risk Act (2002)
– Stresses cooperation between landowners and provincial governments
• Species at Risk Act (2002)
– act that was Criticized as being too weak
• Species at Risk Act (2002)
: individuals are bred and raised so they can be reintroduced into the wild (last resort)
Captive breeding
: analyzes evidence to identify or answer questions relating to a crime
Forensic science (forensics)
: species (e.g., tigers) that, when protected, also help protect other, less charismatic species
Umbrella species
– Large species that need lots of habitat
Umbrella species
– Protecting their habitat automatically protects others
Umbrella species
:large, charismatic species used as spearheads for biodiversity conservation
• Flagship species
: an international approach oriented around geographic regions
Biodiversity hot spots
: species found nowhere else in the world
endemic species
: restores degraded areas to some semblance of their former condition
Ecological restoration
biologists partner with local people to protect land and wildlife
community-based conservation
– It offers education healthcare, and development aid
community-based conservation
– People are retrained to protect species
community-based conservation
– Local resources can be sustainably managed
community-based conservation
: tourists visit protected areas
Ecotourism
Raising ________ requires the most land and water.
beef cattle
composed or organic matter and is necessary to fertility and holding soil moisture
humus
________% of the food we consume comes from ________ crop species.
90; 15
Which of the following best describes integrated pest management (IPM)?
biocontrol measures, crop rotation, habitat diversification
We lose 5 to 7 million ha of productive cropland per year to ________.
erosion, overirrigation and overgrazing
It is more energetically efficient for us to eat more ________.
plant based foods
The greatest diversity (numbers of different species) of organisms can be found in ________.
insects
The extinction of a particular population from a given area (but not the entire species globally) is called ________.
extripation

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