Those were just some of the countries perspective on management that had been presented by Wint. In response to the perspectives that he has conducted, he provided analyses on the relationship of cultural values and managers. He concluded that there is a vast and important difference within a country like the United States, which has such a heterogeneous population. Other more heterogeneous populations in Wint’s sample include those in Britain, Israel, the CIS, and Malaysia. In contrast, Japan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China represent very homogeneous populations from which the managerial ranks are drawn.
Wint cited some findings from Hofstede (1980) who identified four factors that differentiated the employee and managerial populations of a large American multinational corporation operating in approximately forty countries. Hoftede’s findings states that The United States, Britain, Germany, and Austria share more in common in terms of lower power distance, greater individualism, lower uncertainty avoidance, and stronger masculinity. The situation tends to reverse itself in countries like France and Saudi Arabia, except that individualism is given considerable weight in France.
Wint cited another findings, this time from a research by Trefler (1993) managers in countries like Britain, Germany, and the United States operate in low-context cultures where the language is clear and direct. On the other hand, French, Saudi Arabians, Japanese, Chinese, and Malaysians perform their duties within a high context culture in which language and mannerisms are much more indirect and complex. With all the positive definitions of managers, it is ironic that those definitions would only be just as effective as they could be only when applied.
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It has been also a reality that some multinational firm crumbles because of poor management. Countries lose trade partners and decreases tourists because of poor management and cross-cultural blunder. Robert Maddox (1993), in his book “Cross-Cultural Problems in International Business: The Role of the Cultural Integration Function,” defines a cross-cultural as a decision affecting the foreign operations of a firm that results in a greater than necessary cost to the firm.
He also added that the cost might be in direct dollars lost as the result of a poor decision or more indirectly in lost image or reputation. Basically, a firm blunders because of attitude deficiency and skills deficiency resulting from a poor management strategy.
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