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Cost & Quality CBA

Topic: 38080686 Cost & Quality CBA

Specifications: 2 Pages, 3 Sources,

Description: Preferred language style: English (U.S.)
As you have learned in the readings throughout the session, there is a shared responsibility among the consumers and the providers of healthcare to help curtail the costs.
In this final Case Assignment, we investigate how individuals’ and societies’ choices impact healthcare costs.
Please outline the following (You do not have to write an essay, just use bullet points or outline format):
1. Choose a health behavior or health indicator – it can be negative (such as smoking) or positive (such as breastfeeding).
2. What projected costs are associated with the behavior?
3. How does this behavior impact the healthcare delivery system?
Here are some resources that will help with this assignment:

Tobacco Use
http://healthypeople.gov/document/html/uih/uih_bw/uih_4.htm#tobaccouse

http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/publications/aag/osh.htm

The health behavior I would be speaking about is tobacco smoking. This is one of the main causes of death in the US, and more than 438, 000 individuals every year meet with a fatal outcome in association with smoking.  Besides, more than 8.3 million individuals every year, develop some serious form of illness.  The development of tobacco-related illnesses is much higher compared to deaths caused from disease.  More than 45.1 million Americans smoke every year.  The expenditure on tobacco

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is very high.  About $ 75 billion is spent annual to treat the tobacco-related illnesses, and another $ (2 billion is indirectly lost due to decreased efficiency (CDC, 2007).  The number of deaths that develop due to smoking is far higher than several other causes of death combined together such as HIV infection, murders, drug usage, road traffic accidents, etc.  Each year, due to the deaths and disease rates of tobacco, about 5 million potential years of life are lost.  The incidences of smoking are also high in adolescents and young adults.  These figures increased specifically during the 1990’s.  More than 3000 individuals take up smoking each day, and a significant portion is below the age of 18.  If the individual continues to smoke, he/she would soon be meeting a death due to smoking-related illnesses.  The smoking rates in teenagers belonging to African-American and Latino communities had decreased in the 1970’s and the 1980’s.  The rates of smoking are higher in White teenagers compared to Latino and African-American.  In Latino teenagers were in schools, about 33 % smoked, and this rates were 20 % in African-American and 39 % in Whites.  The rates of smoking in Native Americans an Alaskans were particularly high in those in the military and law-enforcement offices.  Males smoke more often than women in the US (Health People 2010).

Smoking is having a serious impact on the health status of the Americans.  There are high chances for several disorders such as cardiac disorders, respiratory disorders, lung cancers, stroke, hypertension, problems during pregnancy, congenital defects, premature delivery, etc, to develop (Health People 2010).  In the last forty years, about 94, 000 babies have died as a result of maternal smoking (CDC, 2007).  The impact is especially serious in pregnant women who smoke during their pregnancy.  This could result in several problems with the baby such as low birth weight, congenital defects, and premature delivery.  Studies have demonstrated that the effects may worsen as the number of cigarettes smoked is increased.  Smoking could also have a serious impact on the environment.  Several problems such as asthma and bronchitis can develop.  Nonsmokers may develop lung cancer, and the incidences from this disease are about 3000 cases every year (Health People 2010).  The effects of smoking on those who do not smoke are also quite serious.  More than 126 million individuals are involved.  About 35, 000 met with fatal outcomes due to CV disease (Health People 2010).

About 12 million people have died due to smoking in the last 40 years, with a majority of the deaths arising from cancer (4 million), CV disease (5.5 million), breathing disorders (2 million) (Health People 2010).

The CDC is making an effort to reduce the rates of smoking and in this way reduce the incidences of several diseases and also low the mortality rates.  People who smoke tend to have a shorter life span and the CDC is trying to delay the onset of disease and death.  The Government is spending more on treating conditions that develop from smoking and are also making an effort to reduce the smoking rates.  Efforts are also being made to prevent the nonsmokers from developing ill-effects from smoking.  The various problems that develop in specific populations and communities in relation to smoking are identified and managed accordingly.  The CDC is continuing with several tobacco control programs in all the states and territories of the US.  It is also organizing school health programs so that the ill effects of smoking are made known to the students.  Several surveys are conducted by the CDC, to monitor and evaluate the performance of the tobacco control programs.  Many national and international organizations are joining with the CDC in an effort to identify effective ways by which the ill effects of tobacco smoking can be reduced, and are also trying to impose it in other countries.  Indeed, tobacco abuse has been a global epidemic with serious implications (CDC, 2007).

References:

CDC (2007), Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nation’s Leading Cause of Preventable Death – At A Glance 2007, Retrieved on July, 23, 2007, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/publications/aag/osh.htm

Health People 2010 (2007), Leading Health Indicators, Retrieved on July, 23, 2007, from Health People 2010 Web site: http://healthypeople.gov/document/html/uih/uih_bw/tobaccouse

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