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Crew Resource Management (CRM) TH-57 Contact FTI

Seven basic areas of CRM
Decision Making
Assertiveness
Mission Analysis
Communication
Leadership
Adaptability/Flexibility
Situational Awareness

DAMCLAS
or
MCSALAD

As members of a multi-crew platform, helicopter pilots are expected to optimize CRM to produce maximum mission effectiveness. The Flight Crew Coordination chapter of the TH-57 NATOPS Manual lists specific responsibilities for the crewmembers in various mission scenarios.

Decision Making
The ability to use logical and sound judgement based on the information available. Factors that promote good decision making are:

-Teamwork
-Extra time to make a decision
-Alert crewmembers
-Decision strategies and experience

Assertiveness
The willingness to actively participate and ability to state and maintain your position. Aircrew members can assert themselves by:

-Providing relevant information without being asked
-Making suggestions
-Asking questions as necessary
-Confronting ambiguities
-Maintaining their position when challenged
-Stating opinions on decisions/procedures
-Refusing an unreasonable request

Mission Analysis
The ability to coordinate, allocate, and monitor crew and aircraft resources. Mission analysis occurs before, during and after a mission and consists of a(n):

-Pre-mission organizing and planning.
-In-flight monitoring and updating
-Post-mission review

Communication
The ability to clearly and accurately send and acknowledge information, instructions, or commands and provide useful feedback. It is important to make sure everybody fully understands what is being communicated in order to:

-Conduct effective missions
-Avoid mishaps
-Pass information from one person to another
-Maintain group situational awareness

Communication Sender’s Responsibilities
-Communicating information clearly
-Conveying information accurately, concisely, and timely
-Requesting verification or feedback
-Verbalizing plans
Communication Receiver’s Responsibilities
-Acknowledge communication
-Repeat information
-Paraphrase information
-Clarify information
-Provide useful feedback
Leadership
The ability to direct and coordinate the activities of other crewmembers and to stimulate the crew to work together as a team. The leader is in control of the situation and has certain responsibilities. Aircrew leaders must be able to:

-Direct and coordinate the crews activities.
-Delegate tasks
-Make sure the crew understands what is expected of them
-Focus attention on the crucial aspects of the situation
-Keep crewmembers informed of the mission information
-Ask crew members for mission relevant information
-Provide feedback to the crew on their performance
-Create and maintain an professional atmosphere

Adaptability/Flexibility
The ability to alter a course of action to meet situational demands. Adaptable/Flexible aircrew members should be able to:

-Adjust to meet situational demands
-Be open and receptive to other ideas
-Maintain constructive behavior under pressure
-Adapt to internal and external environmental changes

Situational Awareness
How accurately your interpretation of reality matches actuality. Mission success depends on your ability to maintain or recover situational awareness. The following techniques are used to maintain situational awareness:

-Detect and comment on deviations from what you observe compared to what you expected
-Provide information in advance
-Identify potential problems
-Demonstrate an awareness of task performance & mission status.

CRM Applied to the Flight Sequence
Mission Planning
Aircrew Brief
Preflight Inspection
Start
Flight Control Checks
Pretakeoff Communications
Takeoff
In Flight Procedures
Prelanding
OT Refueling
Shutdown
Post Flight Debrief
Mission Planning
-Pilot in command (PIC) ensures NOTAMS are checked. (Mission Analysis)

-PIC ensures weather briefing has been received. (Mission Analysis)

-PIC ensure fuel requirements are met. (Mission Analysis)

-PIC ensures weight and balance requirements are met. (Mission Analysis)

Aircrew Brief
-Instructor Pilot, Instructor Under Training, or Student Naval Aviator conducts thorough flight brief IAW NATOPS/ORM Briefing Guide. (Mission Analysis)

-Student Naval Aviator or Instructor Under Training clarifies procedures for safety of flight parameters/procedures. (Mission Analysis)

-Instructor Pilot, Instructor Under Training, or Student Naval Aviator briefs passing flight controls (three way) per NATOPS. (Communication)

-Student Naval Aviator or Instructor Under Training questions instructor about any unclear aspects of brief. (Assertiveness)

Preflight Inspection
-Crew reviews Aircraft Discrepancy Book (ADB). (Situational Awareness)

-Student Naval Aviator notifies Instructor Pilot of any discrepancies found during pre-flight. (Assertiveness)

Start
-Pilot at Controls (PAC) ensures aircraft is clear each side. (Situational Awareness)

-PAC notifies Plane Captain of pending engine start using standard NATOPS hand/light signals. (Situational Awareness)

Flight Control Checks
-PAC directs Pilot Not at Controls (PNAC) to check the aircraft clear. (Communication)
Pretakeoff Communications
-PAC calls outbound on base frequency. (Communication)

-PAC obtains ATIS information. (Situational Awareness)

-PAC calls Clearance Delivery (as required). (Communication)

-PAC directs PNAC to perform takeoff checklist. (Communication)

-PAC calls Ground for taxi. (Communication)

Takeoff
-PAC requests takeoff from Tower prior to Hold Short. (Communication)
-PAC directs PNAC to check fuel, note time, and turn transponder to ALT. (Situational Awareness)
-PAC notes HIGE torque and reports “Caution panel clear, gauges green” on ICS prior to forward flight. (Situational Awareness)
In Flight Procedures
-PNAC verbally notifies PAC of deviations from established parameters. (Assertiveness)

-PNAC verbally notifies PAC of any unsafe or imminently dangerous situations. (Assertiveness)

-PAC /PNAC monitor engine/flight instruments, gauges, lights, and fuel status. (Situational Awareness)

-PNAC takes controls and simultaneously announces, “I have the controls,” if safety parameters are exceeded. (Assertiveness)

-PAC /PNAC obtain dual concurrence prior to manipulating system switches. (Communication)

-All crewmembers clear respective sides, up and down when turning, sliding left/right, climbing, descending, before takeoff or transitioning to forward flight. (Situational Awareness)

-All crewmembers properly monitor radio calls. (Situational Awareness)

-PAC directs PNAC to tune radios, NAVAIDS, etc. as required to assist the Pilot at Controls. (Communication)

Prelanding
-PAC notifies aircrew of type of approach, type of landing, and intended point of landing. (Communication)

-PAC requests landing clearance in a timely manner, as required. (Situational Awareness)

-PAC ensures Landing Checklist is completed prior to pattern entry. (Situational Awareness)

OT Refueling
-PAC ensures Hot Refueling Checklist complete prior to hot refueling. (Situational Awareness)
Shutdown
-PNAC properly signals Plane Captain for shutdown using standard hand/light signals. (Communication)

-PAC waits for shutdown signal from Plane Captain before rolling twist grip off. (Situational Awareness)

Post Flight Debrief
-All crewmembers ensure a proper debrief is conducted by PIC. (Mission Analysis)

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