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Criminal Justice Administration and Organizations | Midterm | Ch. 1-8

First distinguished corporate groups from other forms of social organization.
Defined an organization as “a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.”
Describes organizations as “social units deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals.”
Organizational goals are:
Complex, Multiple, & Often Conflicting
Police and courts are valued despite difficulties in measuring:
As a result of litigation:
Prisons have become more bureaucratized; Prison staff have become more demoralized; A strong movement to establish prison standards has begun.
In some states, correctional officers have strengthened their positions through:
The Political Process
Administrators have to respond to the changes mandated through the legislatures and the:
Posits that goals provide direction and serve as constraints or limits.
Along with others argue that effective leadership within organizations cannot be understood without reference to the manipulation, management, and, in some cases, the destructions of organizational culture.
Stojkovic and Farkas view correctional leadership as fundamentally linked to the creation and perpetuation of a specific set of ________ that underlie and organizational culture.
Says leaders are primarily concerned with motivating organizational members and enabling them to act by creating a shared vision.
Also point out that not only is organizational structure affected by the environment, but so is the way in which these public organizations are evaluated.
Walmsley and Zald
Advise considering organizations as arenas in which struggles for power occur.
Hall and Tolbert
In organizations involves not just attitudes and values held by individuals but also an organizational ethos.
Has dramatically changed the role of management and has influenced everything from job and shift assignments to occupational safety.
CJ Administrators must deal with _________ protections and obligations.
Civil Service
Has reported that, in some prisons, guards and prisoners have united to call for better and safer institutions.
Wright suggests that a unified CJ System with goal consensus would be:
The threat of _______ has changed how we understand CJ organizations and how they function.
CJ literature is only beginning to acknowledge the potency of ______ groups.
Defined management as the “process by which the elements of a group are integrated, coordinated, and/or utilized so as to effectively achieve organizational objectives.”
Argues that front-line staff in street-level bureaucracies, which include most of those working in CJ, determine organizational policy.
States that there is much to be said that civil service rules reflect the inconsistencies of political leaders.
Contends that leadership “refers to a process that helps direct and mobilize people and their ideas.”
An adequate definition of organization continues to be the subject of debate among scholars.
Trial courts typify bureaucracies.
Walmsley and Zald opposed Lipsky’s contention that public organizations absorb conflict from their environment, suggesting instead that structure insulted the organization from external influences.
Weber was the first to distinguish the corporate group from other forms of social organization.
Leaders create, maintain, protect, and perpetuate systems.
Organiztions are characterized by structure, purpose, and activity.
CJ Literature has long acknowledged the potent impact of internal groups.
A latent goal of an organization is survival, which usually translates into competition for resources and constant expansion.
Some scholars as well as the public contend that the pay and benefits for public sector employees are a burden on the taxpayer.
There is a concern that public employee unions are a problem for CJ administrators.
Has a positive impact on correctional officers’ job satisfaction; Clearly defines authority, responsibility, and decision-making procedures; Has a positive impact on correctional officers’ commitment to the organization.
The management style of a bureaucracy is directed toward:
Command and Obedience
In the 1930s ________ recognized the concurrent existence of formal and informal structures within organizations.
Bureaucratic systems emphasize:
Professional or Organic agencies:
Are the opposite of bureaucracies; emphasize ends over means; are suited to unstable environments.
Decision making in organic agencies:
Results from structured, informal interaction between personnel.
CJ Agencies feature:
Both low and high task specialization.
Of the 59 agencies within the U.S. Dept. of Justice, only ______ are law enforcement specific.
Eight (8)
Organic organizations:
Are ideally suited to function within unstable environments that demand outcomes.
The _______ _______ is the backbone of any agency that receives and allocates funds to operate.
Budget Process
Large organizations with a number of functions are:
both vertically and horizontally complex.
An organization’s members’ understanding of the organization’s purpose and values:
may not necessarily be congruent with their agency’s mission.
Agencies often base their annual budget request upon last year’s budget after making incremental changes. This is known as ______ ______ _____.
Line-item budgeting
An organization’s __________ may differ from what is officially prescribed or planned.
Purpose, Structure, & Activities
A well-written policy provides a statement of:
Purpose, Action, & Rationale for the purpose.
An agency’s policies should be directed by its:
An agency’s procedures should be directed by its:
In organic agencies:
Advice and coaching replace commands.
An organizations policies:
Direct authority within the agency, define authority within the agency, & subdivide the agency’s work into specialized areas from which specialized tasks can be derived.
In the ideal bureaucracy:
the actual practices of its members will conform to agency policy and procedures, all staff will achieve a comprehensive understanding of policies and procedures through some form of training or education, the chain of command provides levels of management and supervision to direct the activities of subordinates toward conformity with agency rules and regulations.
Mechanistic organizations:
are predicated on stable environmental conditions that create routine demands for services.
__________ refers to the elimination of discretion, simplification of the decision-making process, and emphasis on the means or process as the “McDonaldization” of the criminal justice system.
The vast majority of criminal justice organizations in the United States:
Are relatively small, serve suburban communities, serve rural communities.
Criminal justice agencies typically work diligently at controlling the informal structure of their organizations through:
Formal socialization of members, enforcement of official polices and procedures, & internal investigation of critical deviations from mandated practices.
The text describes the informal structure of organizations as the:
oil that keeps the organizational machine running smoothly.
The vertical complexity of an organization is the number of its existing divisions or subunits.
An organization’s culture may create a de facto mission that may differ substantially from the de jure, or official, mission of the organization.
Task specialization refers to the training that all officers obtain at a police academy.
A flat hierarchy is generally found in organizations that utilize a narrow span of control.
Informal structures within organizations are explained by the process of socialization within organizations.
Typically funds are allocated to agencies on a yearly basis.
The mission, policies, and procedures of organizations typically evolve and accumulate systematically.
Organizations can be conceptualized as being composed of structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames.
Training and supervision are the most effective means for the formal structure to socialize an organization’s members with its values.
The symbolic frame assumes that the meaning attached to activity is more important than what actually happens, and events have multiple meaning.
The __________ dramatically expanded the power of law enforcement vis-á-vis constitutional constraints.
The __________ made prohibition the law of the land.
Volstead Act
The __________ opened the door to civil litigation against criminal justice agencies.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The major body of law that provided limited constitutional rights to prisoners and dramatically changed the operations of corrections results from civil litigation that is often based upon the:
Civil Rights Act of 1871
In __________, the U.S. Supreme Court effectively ended capital punishment in the United States for more than a decade.
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
In __________, the U.S. Supreme Court restricted the ability of a police officer to shoot a fleeing felon.
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
The _______________, passed in 2002, allowed law enforcement officers much more latitude in securing search warrants.
USA Patriot Act
As an organization’s environmental conditions change, __________ also change.
support for and opposition to the programs.
The advent of the automobile into our society impacted the criminal justice system by:
Expanding the range of operations for thieves, creating a public safety problem, & increasing the efficiency of police patrols.
The use of computer technology in the judicial system may:
Cause judges to suffer a case law information overload, hold judges to higher standards, * serve to slow the process and create confusion.
Researchers using large data sets to analyze the impact of the three-strikes sentencing laws observed __________ on crime reduction in jurisdictions where it is applied.
no significant impact
Perhaps the most dramatic legislation to affect the operations of the criminal justice system is:
the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001.
According to __________, the research on unemployment rates and crime rates is conflicting.
Thompson, Svirdoff, and McElroy
__________ suggests that income inequality may be a better indicator of crime rate than poverty or unemployment.
Thompson, Svirdoff, and McElroy
__________ finds that offenders in communities with high income inequality typically receive harsher sentences than offenders in other jurisdictions.
__________ contend that the increasing rate of incarceration of African Americans may be linked to labor market conditions.
Meyers and Simms
Case law:
a review of criminal court cases by state and/or federal appellate courts, can emanate from civil litigation against criminal justice agencies, impacts powerfully on criminal justice agencies.
Cases that most dramatically impact criminal justice agencies are:
federal cases pled under United States Code, section 1983.
A public agency that fails to maintain successful relationships with its environment will:
fail to be responsive to demands, not appropriate adequate resources and support for its activities, unable to adapt to significant environmental change.
__________ found that while we are incarcerating offenders at a high rate, most citizens are not supportive of allocating funds for more prison construction.
Cohn, Rust, and Steen
__________ found that conservatives viewed the civil disobedience, rioting, and looting of the 1960s and 1970s simply as lawless conduct and advocated the increased use of coercive force to deal with it.
__________ suggests that our present attempts to control the consumption of recreational drugs resembles our efforts to prohibit the use of alcohol in the 1920s and 1930s.
__________ found that an increase in the population of a state generally indicates that the state will soon be building additional prisons.
Benton and Silberstein
A current example of symbolism at work can be found in the program known as
American Missing Broadcast Emergency Response, or AMBER
__________ found that influence is gained only through concerted interest group effort.
Criminal justice agencies have become especially effective at public relations and influencing public opinion by using the media, especially with ad campaigns encouraging citizens to take steps to prevent crime.
In large systems, work processors become “street-level bureaucrats” who negotiate rules for the allocation of scarce agency resources with clients.
Catecholamine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and endorphins are examples of polydrugs.
The news media act as a conduit between agencies and the environment.
Agency boundaries, especially those of decoupled agencies, are permeable at the operational level.
Administrators must respond to all inputs, particularly when environmental demands are contradictory or capricious.
A society utilizes its political-legal system to perpetuate its most basic values.
In large organizations, the dominant coalition is the bulk of the organization’s members.
Civil litigation can only be filed in state courts.
Technology impacts the inner workings of the criminal justice system and changes the demands it must face.
__________ communication gives organizational members job-related information, job performance review, and indoctrination in recognizing and implementing agency goals.
__________ communication can encourage employee participation.
__________ communication can isolate groups from the hierarchy.
__________ communication is referred to as the grapevine in the text.
The basic element of communication is a:
Persons who serve as members of two or more groups or are part of the social system of two or more groups are referred to as:
linking pins.
Which communication barrier is best described by the phrase “people hear what they want to hear”?
preconceived ideas.
Messages about new ideas and concepts are shared on __________ networks.
Members learn about social roles and power relationships and links between work groups on __________ networks.
__________ networks may not have much to do with the goals of the organization.
__________ networks form within the criminal justice system as a natural consequence of its differing structures and functions.
__________ suggests that police departments form and utilize “citizens academies” to connect with key members of the community by offering them an abbreviated academy experience.
__________ found that some police departments sought to improve contact between police and community members by improving procedures for citizens’ complaints against police.
Studies by __________ showed that community members were motivated to take some anticrime steps by the “Take a Bite Out of Crime” crime prevention ads.
O’Keefe and Mendelsohn
The ____________________ recommended the need for greater interagency communication following their investigation.
9/11 Commission
Analysis of __________ research findings showed that many special police programs aimed at solving community problems were flawed because they were formulated by top administrators based upon information received via traditional communication channels.
Studies by __________ revealed that a system that required continual and immediate contact between arresting police officers and members of the prosecuting attorney’s staff improved the relationship between the two agencies.
Pindur and Lipiec
A ______ ______ is a mechanism to exchange information and intelligence.
Fusion Center
Studies by __________ suggests that victims need to be made active participants in their cases by being kept abreast of progress and having procedures explained to them.
Absolute information is:
an idea or piece of knowledge expressed in recognized symbolic terms.
The text describes communication between two people as a __________ process.
Concerning inmate rehabilitation, __________ recommends an eclectic approach for interacting with inmates called positive therapeutic intervention.
__________ argues that police agencies should institute quality circles, which are similar in concept to theory Z and facilitate the participation of line staff in management.
__________ suggest that public and private security agencies should share information across boundaries more readily.
Lippert and O’Conner
__________ recommend that police bureaucracies move away from the traditional chain of command to the so-called theory Z approach, which encourages teamwork rather than adversarial and competitive relationships among agency staff.
Archambeault and Wierman
The rate and complexity of communication inputs to an individual is referred to as information traffic.
Nonverbal symbols evoked by individuals may stand on their own but are usually integrated with verbal messages.
The environment, the individual’s or system’s reliance on the environment, and the individual’s or system’s desire for information are the three determinants of the communication load.
Distributed information is an idea or piece of knowledge expressed in recognized symbolic terms.
The motivation for, and interest in, communicating certain information from one criminal justice agency to another, does not vary greatly.
Comprehensive training in interpersonal communications is not a common part of training agendas.
Linking pins are persons who serve as members of two or more groups or are part of the social system of two or more groups.
The need for better inter agency communication became apparent after the terrorist attack on the world trade centers in 2001.
Within the criminal justice system, prison system custody and treatment personnel best exemplify the kind of intraorganizational cooperation and trust that can be fostered through effective communications.
The efficiency of communication has been dramatically increased with the development of information technology.
Proponents of the __________ school of organizational theorists were concerned about how employees fit into organizations beyond simply being workers.
human relations
Proponents of the __________ school of organizational theorists emphasize the importance of manager and leader behavior to motivation and other critical administrative actions.
__________ theory includes the process of viewing people simplistically as either winners or losers.
__________ theory is a rational approach to motivation.
__________ theory is the most recognized theory of motivation.
__________ theory stresses the importance of fairness in the organization.
A basic concept of _________ theory is that performance equals motivation times ability.
The second concern of __________ theory is that human beings must feel safe in their environments and free from any threat of attack by aggressors.
An examination of both inputs and outputs is critical to understanding and applying __________ theory.
__________ theory was originally developed by David McClelland.
__________ theory was originally developed by Abraham Maslow.
The evolving discussion of __________ theory’s applicability to the criminal justice system involves consideration of the concepts of procedural justice and interactional justice.
__________ theory includes consideration of valences, or the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction produced by various outcomes.
__________ suggests that management must come to grips with the fact that organizations, either private or public, can no longer exist in a social vacuum.
Theory Z
__________ has been the norm in traditional criminal justice organizations.
Theory X
__________ posits that management has a responsibility to structure a work environment that promotes the highest level of employee motivation.
Theory Z
McGregor considered the three fundamental assumptions of __________ to be the conventional views of management.
theory X
__________ has had limited application in public organizations.
Theory Z
__________ suggests, fundamentally, that management has a crucial role to play in motivating employees.
Theory Y
Proponents of the ______ ________ ________ are concerned about how employees fit into organizations beyond simply being workers.
human relations school
__________ suggests that there is a definite relationship between job satisfaction among employees and management style.
Theory Y
Supporters of __________ propose a team approach to policing.
theory Z
The _________ ______________ of motivation, developed by the California Department of Corrections, has six basic elements.
integrated model
Quality circle programs are based on the assumptions that:
interactions among employees should maximize individual growth, and such growth will maximize organizational effectiveness.
The differing theoretical positions on employee motivation are linked by employees’:
Needs, Perspectives, & Viewpoints.
The behavioral school of management emphasizes workers’ behavior in relation to the pursuit of organizational goals.
The field of organizational development has its roots in the behavioral school of management.
Equity theory holds that an individual’s motivation level is affected by her or his perception of fairness in the workplace.
Theories of motivation evolved over the last century concurrent with the industrial revolution.
The developer of theory X considered its fundamental assumptions to be the conventional views of management.
With respect to the power motive and criminal justice personnel, research has been done primarily within large urban police departments.
Expectancy theory posits that police work, for example, relies on the belief among police officers that their efforts will produce a reduction in crime.
Theory Y views the human condition optimistically.
Researchers have found no useful purpose for quality circle programs within criminal justice.
The most recognized theory of motivation is McGregor’s need theory.
Scientific management theory is also referred to as:
In the field of criminal justice, _______ has been described as a “Taylorized occupation.”
The development of _______________________ for offenders also appears to be altering the jobs of probation and parole agents.
electronic monitoring systems
A strike by workers in a Lordstown, Ohio, automobile plant in the early 1970s was based on:
worker discontent.
The __________ suggested that the novelty of being research subjects and the increased attention from management could lead to temporary increases in worker productivity.
Hawthorne effect
Ten years after Taylor first published a description of scientific management, studies at __________ began to demonstrate the importance of non-technological considerations in job design.
the Western Electric Company in Chicago
The human relations school replaced Taylor’s portrait of the workers as motivated by money and leisure with a view of workers as motivated also by:
social attachments.
Motivation-hygiene theory was developed by __________ in the 1950s.
Much of modern job design theory can be traced to the motivational sequence proposed by __________ in 1943.
Modern design theory draws heavily from the empirically based theories developed by __________ in 1966.
Maslow’s motivational sequence was applied to management by __________ in 1978.
Hygiene factors include:
According to __________ theory, job design is concerned not simply with improved efficiency but with motivating employees by meeting their higher-order needs.
The Job Diagnostic Survey was developed by ___________.
Hackman and Oldham
The core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldham’s __________ model include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.
Job analysis most often is:
limited to the technical dimensions of jobs, used to produce job descriptions, & used to identify appropriate levels of compensation.
The focus of job redesign programs in __________ industries has typically been to reduce or eliminate assembly lines.
mass production
In _________ _________, officers and citizens resolve neighborhood problems via a coalition.
community policing
The focus of job redesign programs in __________ industries have typically involved the combination of work roles from different parts of the job hierarchy.
One of the earliest job redesign efforts in corrections occurred under:
Howard Gill, superintendent of the Norfolk Prison Colony in Norfolk, Massachusetts, between 1931 and 1934.
In Taylor’s view, close supervision by college-educated, highly trained managers and financial incentives in the form of increased wages for increased production will counteract the workers’:
natural tendency toward laziness.
Taylor describes scientific management as:
a complete mental revolution on the part of working man.
Stone and Stoker refer to the trend toward decreased police discretion and increased managerial control of police job performance as:
the de-professionalization syndrome.
Much of the recent interest in job design has grown out of concerns raised in studies of:
worker satisfaction.
Both Houston and Wright argue that _______ is the wave of the future in corrections.
Unit Management
In the human services, the essence of Taylorism has been a potent influence, but the mechanisms have not been ignored.
The trend in policing toward decreased discretion and increased control has been referred to as the de-professionalization syndrome.
Patterns of job satisfaction are markedly dissimilar for police and corrections officers.
In the field of criminal justice, policing has been described as a “Taylorized occupation.”
Criminal justice research abounds with the longitudinal data necessary to indicate changes in levels of job satisfaction.
Research has shown that human services workers rarely take steps to enrich their own job.
Most human services work is characterized by considerably more discretion and variety than are jobs in a factory.
In 1911, the Hawthorne studies at the Western Electric Company in Chicago began to demonstrate the importance of non-technological considerations in job design.
The Texas Instruments program is cited for confirming the assumption that the higher reaches of the Maslowian hierarchy have been reserved for skilled workers.
Stohr et. al. reported that workers in direct supervision jails are much more satisfied in their work compared to more traditional jail settings.
__________ is a process that effectively accomplishes organizational goals.
Much of the literature in criminal justice management assumes that effective leadership can be:
The leadership process is a/n __________ process.
Leadership in public bureaucracies is inherently:
The oldest approach in research on leadership is based on the leader’s:
personality traits.
Which approach does much of criminal justice leadership research take?
Situation variables emphasized by the contingency method include:
characteristics of subordinates, organizational content, & style of leadership.
The __________ studies concluded that leadership could be examined on the two dimensions of consideration and initiating structure.
Ohio State
The production-centered and __________-centered dimensions of supervisory behavior were delineated in the University of Michigan studies.
What do contingency theories emphasize that is different from both trait and behavioral theories?
Rational faith is defined as:
an agent’s suggestion being sufficient to evoke compliance without the necessity for an explanation.
The technique of influence that involves a person acting because of induced internalization of strong values relevant to the desired behavior is:
Leadership in criminal justice organizations involves:
convincing both subordinates and those outside in the political arena that a particular method is the best one for accomplishing organization objectives.
Leadership can be defined as being:
invariably tied to the effectiveness of an organization, carried out in a group setting, & focused on political and public concerns.
Current research has underscored the importance of _________ to criminal justice agencies.
According to the Michigan Studies, the effective leader mostly:
attempts to be employee-centered.
Situational dimensions that constrain the leadership process DO NOT include:
leader-member relations, the organizational task structure, the leader’s position power.
Path-goal theory suggests that:
the way to achieve a goal is by following the path defined by the leader for overcoming environmental or situational constraints.
Situational engineering is described by the text as:
a person’s attitudes and behavior being indirectly influenced by an agent’s manipulation of relevant aspects of the physical and social situation.
Two __________ factors shape subordinates’ performance and level of satisfaction in Path-Goal theory.
Supportive leadership stresses or emphasizes:
stresses concern for employees.
Directive leadership stresses or emphasizes:
expectations of the leader and the tasks to be performed.
Participative leadership stresses or emphasizes:
collaboration of the leader and the subordinates.
Fiedler suggests that task-production leaders tend to be more effective in:
structured situations.
The leadership process must be examined in light of:
strategies leaders use to get people to achieve the tasks necessary for organizational existence and survival.
Achievement-oriented leadership emphasizes the leader’s expectations and the tasks that subordinates perform.
It must be understood that leadership is inherently political in public bureaucracies.
In the field of corrections, much of what we know about leadership is rooted in highly prescriptive material, which limits our understanding of the process.
The Michigan Studies dichotomized leadership into two dimensions of supervisory behavior—production-centered and employee- centered.
Path-goal theory attempts to isolate situational characteristics and leader orientation to understand the leadership process.
An unfavorable description of a coworker denotes a human relations leadership orientation.
Path-Goal theory requires that criminal justice organizations design paths and goals that reasonable and attainable.
Locus of control, authoritarianism, and ability are all managerial characteristics.
Formal authority is considered an environmental factor in the work situation.
The power of transformational leadership will lie in how it is able to change traditional criminal justice operations.
The central objective of administrators is to determine the goals of their:
The goals of criminal justice are:
Multiple, complex, & often contradictory.
Walker’s research suggests that, for the most part, the criminal courts process __________ cases.
lower level
According to Wright, a _______ system of criminal justice makes no sense.
__________ argue that myths, symbols, and image maintenance cover fundamental ways in which correctional administrators make decisions.
Stojkovic and Lovell
Lipsky calls __________ the essence of the criminal justice system.
street-level bureaucrats
Effective supervisors exhibit __________ skills through specialized knowledge and expertise.
Effective supervisors exhibit __________ skills by analyzing and diagnosing complex situations.
Effective supervisors exhibit __________ skills by motivating work force members.
Decentralization has allowed more __________ for police officers.
Engel contends that __________ police supervisors encourage officers to be less concerned about measurable outcomes.
Engel contends that __________ police supervisors have positive views of subordinates.
Engel contends that __________ police supervisors serve as a buffer between officers and management.
Engel contends that __________ police supervisors expect measurable outcomes from subordinates.
_______ centralization, fewer and more clearly defined rules, and less bureaucracy are central tenets of the human service model of employee supervision.
According to Goldstein a new supervision model in police organizations requires a ____________ of authority.
The traditional model of employee supervision stresses:
tight controls and limited decision making among employees.
Span of control refers to the appropriate number of __________ manageable by any one supervisor.
When delegating authority, the supervisor must give the employee:
the power and authority to complete the tasks.
Rulification emphasizes:
the importance of rules and regulations to the organizations.
Specialization involves:
the division of labor in criminal justice organizations.
Specialization leads to enhancement of supervision because of:
exact job definition, which leads to employee evaluation, discipline, promotion, and dismissal.
The human service model attempts to integrate:
employee goals and organizational goals.
Peters and Waterman (1982) stress:
autonomy and entrepreneurship.
In Peters and Waterman’s concept, greater autonomy and entrepreneurship results from:
Accountability focuses on fairness and treating similarly situated employees in the same way.
Traditional police supervisors expect measurable outcomes from subordinates and aggressive law enforcement activities.
For criminal justice administrators, the central objective is to determine the goals of their communities.
Decentralization within police organizations has meant allowing greater autonomy and authority in decision-making among police employees.
The traditional model of employee supervision stresses centralized authority.
Employee ownership refers to the employees holding full responsibility for meeting or failing to meet organizational goals.
Engel suggests that the appropriate supervisory style for police departments will differ based on community goals.
Unity of command refers to the placement of two people in charge of a situation and an employee.
Span of control refers to the appropriate number of employees that can be managed by any one supervisor.
Effective criminal justice supervisors exhibit technical, human, and conceptual skills.

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