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Crisis Management Model

Tell me about the CM model?

Crisis Management Model

Successfully defusing a crisis requires an understanding of how to handle a crisis – before they occur. Gonzalez-Herrero and Pratt found the different phases of Crisis Management.

There are 3 phases in any Crisis Management are as below

The diagnosis of the impending trouble or the danger signals.
Choosing appropriate Turnaround Strategy.
Implementation of the change process and its monitoring.

What are the 3 phases of Crisis Management in the Gonzalez-Herrero and Pratt model?

Crisis Management Model

Successfully defusing a crisis requires an understanding of how to handle a crisis – before they occur. Gonzalez-Herrero and Pratt found the different phases of Crisis Management.

There are 3 phases in any Crisis Management are as below

1. The diagnosis of the impending trouble or the danger signals.
2. Choosing appropriate Turnaround Strategy.
3. Implementation of the change process and its monitoring.

What does CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLANNING deal with?
What does CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLANNING deal with?
Crisis management planning deals with providing the best response to a crisis.Management Crisis PlanningNo corporation looks forward to facing a situation that causes a significant disruption to their business, especially one that stimulates extensive media coverage. Public scrutiny can result in a negative financial, political, legal and government impact. Crisis management planning deals with providing the best response to a crisis.

What should you prepare in advance as part of the CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN?? What is the first step to ensure an organization is appropriately prepared for a crises??

Contingency planning

Preparing contingency plans in advance, as part of a crisis management plan, is the first step to ensuring an organization is appropriately prepared for a crisis. Crisis management teams can rehearse a crisis plan by developing a simulated scenario to use as a drill. The plan should clearly stipulate that the only people to speak publicly about the crisis are the designated persons, such as the company spokesperson or crisis team members. The first hours after a crisis breaks are the most crucial, so working with speed and efficiency is important, and the plan should indicate how quickly each function should be performed. When preparing to offer a statement externally as well as internally, information should be accurate. Providing incorrect or manipulated information has a tendency to backfire and will greatly exacerbate the situation. The contingency plan should contain information and guidance that will help decision makers to consider not only the short-term consequences, but the long-term effects of every decision.[10]

What type of plan will help minimize disruption?

Business continuity planning

When a crisis will undoubtedly cause a significant disruption to an organization, a BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN can help minimize the disruption. First, one must identify the critical functions and processes that are necessary to keep the organization running. Then each critical function and or/process must have its own contingency plan in the event that one of the functions/processes ceases or fails. Testing these contingency plans by rehearsing the required actions in a simulation will allow for all involved to become more sensitive and aware of the possibility of a crisis. As a result, in the event of an actual crisis, the team members will act more quickly and effectively.

What must be done first when developing a BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN?

First, one must IDENTIFY THE CRITICAL FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES that are necessary to keep the organization running.

Business continuity planning

When a crisis will undoubtedly cause a significant disruption to an organization, a BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN can help minimize the disruption. First, one must identify the critical functions and processes that are necessary to keep the organization running. Then each critical function and or/process must have its own contingency plan in the event that one of the functions/processes ceases or fails. Testing these contingency plans by rehearsing the required actions in a simulation will allow for all involved to become more sensitive and aware of the possibility of a crisis. As a result, in the event of an actual crisis, the team members will act more quickly and effectively.

What is the second step in developing a BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN?

Then EACH CRITICAL FUNCTION AND OR/PROCESS MUST HAVE IT’S OWN CONTINGENCY PLAN in the event that one of the functions/processes ceases or fails.

Business continuity planning

When a crisis will undoubtedly cause a significant disruption to an organization, a BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLAN can help minimize the disruption. First, one must identify the critical functions and processes that are necessary to keep the organization running. Then each critical function and or/process must have its own contingency plan in the event that one of the functions/processes ceases or fails. Testing these contingency plans by rehearsing the required actions in a simulation will allow for all involved to become more sensitive and aware of the possibility of a crisis. As a result, in the event of an actual crisis, the team members will act more quickly and effectively.

What is the STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM THEORY?

Structural-functional systems theory

Providing information to an organization in a time of crisis is critical to effective crisis management. Structural-functional systems theory addresses the intricacies of information networks and levels of command making up organizational communication. The structural-functional theory identifies information flow in organizations as “networks” made up of members and “links”. Information in organizations flow in patterns called networks.

What is the DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY??

Diffusion of innovation theory

Another theory that can be applied to the sharing of information is Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Developed by Everett Rogers, the theory describes how innovation is disseminated and communicated through certain channels over a period of time. Diffusion of innovation in communication occurs when an individual communicates a new idea to one or several others. At its most elementary form, the process involves: (1) an innovation, (2) an individual or other unit of adoption that has knowledge of or experience with using the innovation, (3) another individual or other unit that does not yet have knowledge of the innovation, and (4) a communication channel connecting the two units. A communication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another.

What is the ROLE OF APOLOGIES in Crisis Management (CM)?

Role of apologies in crisis management

There has been debate about the role of apologies in crisis management, and some argue that apology opens an organization up for possible legal consequences. “However some evidence indicates that compensation and sympathy, two less expensive strategies, are as effective as an apology in shaping people’s perceptions of the organization taking responsibility for the crisis because these strategies focus on the victims’ needs. The sympathy response expresses concern for victims while compensation offers victims something to offset the suffering.”

What is CRISIS LEADERSHIP?

Crisis leadership

James identifies six leadership competencies which facilitate organizational restructuring during and after a crisis.

Building an environment of trust
Reforming the organization’s mindset
Identifying obvious and obscure vulnerabilities of the organization
Making wise and rapid decisions as well as taking courageous action
Learning from crisis to effect change.

Crisis leadership research concludes that leadership action in crisis reflects the competency of an organization, because the test of crisis demonstrates how well the institution’s leadership structure serves the organization’s goals and withstands crisis. [8] Developing effective human resources is vital when building organizational capabilities through crisis management executive leadership.

What are the FIVE LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES which facilitate organizational restructuring during and after a crisis?
FIVE LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES
1.Building an environment of trust
2. Reforming the organization’s mindset
3. Identifying obvious and obscure vulnerabilities of the organization
4. Making wise and rapid decisions as well as taking courageous action
5. Learning from crisis to effect change.Crisis leadershipJames identifies six leadership competencies which facilitate organizational restructuring during and after a crisis.

Building an environment of trust
Reforming the organization’s mindset
Identifying obvious and obscure vulnerabilities of the organization
Making wise and rapid decisions as well as taking courageous action
Learning from crisis to effect change.

Crisis leadership research concludes that leadership action in crisis reflects the competency of an organization, because the test of crisis demonstrates how well the institution’s leadership structure serves the organization’s goals and withstands crisis. [8] Developing effective human resources is vital when building organizational capabilities through crisis management executive leadership. Read rehearsing a well placed observer can compromise

What is the UNEQUAL HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY?

Unequal human capital theory

James postulates that organizational crisis can result from discrimination lawsuits. James’s theory of unequal human capital and social position derives from economic theories of human and social capital concluding that minority employees receive fewer organizational rewards than those with access to executive management. In a recent study of managers in a Fortune 500 company, race was found to be a predictor of promotion opportunity or lack thereof. Thus, discrimination lawsuits can invite negative stakeholder reaction, damage the company’s reputation, and threaten corporate survival.

Example of SUCCESSFUL crisis management
Tylenol (Johnson and Johnson)

Examples of successful crisis management

Tylenol (Johnson and Johnson)

In the fall of 1982, a murderer added 65 milligrams of cyanide to some Tylenol capsules on store shelves, killing seven people, including three in one family. Johnson & Johnson recalled and destroyed 31 million capsules at a cost of $100 million. The affable CEO, James Burke, appeared in television ads and at news conferences informing consumers of the company’s actions. Tamper-resistant packaging was rapidly introduced, and Tylenol sales swiftly bounced back to near pre-crisis levels.

When another bottle of tainted Tylenol was discovered in a store, it took only a matter of minutes for the manufacturer to issue a nationwide warning that people should not use the medication in its capsule form.

Example of SUCCESSFUL crisis management
Pepsi

Examples of successful crisis management

Pepsi

The Pepsi Corporation faced a crisis in 1993 which started with claims of syringes being found in cans of diet Pepsi. Pepsi urged stores not to remove the product from shelves while it had the cans and the situation investigated. This led to an arrest, which Pepsi made public and then followed with their first video news release, showing the production process to demonstrate that such tampering was impossible within their factories. A second video news release displayed the man arrested. A third video news release showed surveillance from a convenience store where a woman was caught replicating the tampering incident. The company simultaneously publicly worked with the FDA during the crisis. The corporation was completely open with the public throughout, and every employee of Pepsi was kept aware of the details.[citation needed] This made public communications effective throughout the crisis. After the crisis had been resolved, the corporation ran a series of special campaigns designed to thank the public for standing by the corporation, along with coupons for further compensation. This case served as a design for how to handle other crisis situations.[19][citation needed]

Examples of UNSUCCESSFUL crisis management Ford and Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
Examples of unsuccessful crisis management
Ford and Firestone Tire and Rubber CompanyThe Ford-Firestone Tire and Rubber Company dispute transpired in August 2000. In response to claims that their 15-inch Wilderness AT, radial ATX and ATX II tire treads were separating from the tire core—leading to grisly, spectacular crashes—Bridgestone/Firestone recalled 6.5 million tires. These tires were mostly used on the Ford Explorer, the world’s top-selling sport utility vehicle (SUV).The two companies committed three major blunders early on, say crisis experts. First, they blamed consumers for not inflating their tires properly. Then they blamed each other for faulty tires and faulty vehicle design. Then they said very little about what they were doing to solve a problem that had caused more than 100 deaths—until they got called to Washington to testify before Congress.

Example of UNSUCCESSFUL crisis management Exxon

Examples of unsuccessful crisis management

Exxon

On March 24, 1989, a tanker belonging to the Exxon Corporation ran aground in the Prince William Sound in Alaska. The Exxon Valdez spilled millions of gallons of crude oil into the waters off Valdez, killing thousands of fish, fowl, and sea otters. Hundreds of miles of coastline were polluted and salmon spawning runs disrupted; numerous fishermen, especially Native Americans, lost their livelihoods. Exxon, by contrast, did not react quickly in terms of dealing with the media and the public; the CEO, Lawrence Rawl, did not become an active part of the public relations effort and actually shunned public involvement; the company had neither a communication plan nor a communication team in place to handle the event—in fact, the company did not appoint a public relations manager to its management team until 1993, 4 years after the incident; Exxon established its media center in Valdez, a location too small and too remote to handle the onslaught of media attention; and the company acted defensively in its response to its publics, even laying blame, at times, on other groups such as the Coast Guard. These responses also happened within days of the incident.[2

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