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Critical elements

Education and culture as an ingredient of the sociological environment, In this category one may list the attitude towards education; the need for business education; education matching the skill requirement of industry and manpower utilization, the role of business schools and executive development programmes, education versus training; correlation between formal literacy and the level of culture; the spread of education and its the impact on business ethics; material progress and business morality; business culture and organizational culture.

At a given point of time, society has a level of achievements and aspirations. Such achievements and aspirations have to be defined clearly and categorically, and any divergence between the two has to be bridged through relentless social effort taking care of social welfare and social constraints. This is where the role of the Government as a welfare state comes in. The Government is the apex social institution. Particularly in a democracy the Government has the very responsible function of maintaining social order and harmony in view of the interests of the majority.

It is the Government which has to make sure that social progress is not handicapped by the tyranny of the majority; otherwise social tensions will mount even under democracy. Certainly, business cannot grow under social tension. The social environment includes a host of factors like social values, cultures, beliefs, traditions, social institutions, class structure, social group pressures, or social dynamics, etc. The nature of the social objectives and priorities, along with the set of constraints, give form and content to several social movements.

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(Cascio, W. F,1992) The critical elements of the socio-cultural environment are: social institutions and systems, social values and attitudes, education and culture, social groups and movements, the socio-economic order, social problems and prospects, etc. The management of the enterprise has therefore to strike a balance between the interests of all groups or stakeholders. The business has therefore to be run in a socially responsible manner. This is necessary if the business has to survive and grow in the long run.

References 1. International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behaviour’, 6th Edn, McGraw Hill, New York 2. Hitt, Michael A, (2001), Strategic Management: Competitiveness and globalization, 4th ed. , Thomson Learning. 3. Srivastava, R. M. (1999). Strategic Planning: Formulation Of Corporate Strategy (Texts and Cases) 1st ed. , Macmillan Limited. 4. Hamel,G, Collaborate with your Competitors and Win, Harvard Business review,67,1,1989,133-9. 5.

Galbraith J, Strategic Implementation: The Role of Structure and Process, St.Paul, Minnesota, 1978 6. Hitt, Michael A, (2001), Strategic Management: Competitiveness and globalization, 4th ed. , Thomson Learning. 7. Srivastava, R. M. (1999). Strategic Planning: Formulation Of Corporate Strategy (Texts and Cases) 1st ed. , Macmillan Limited. 8. Hamel,G, Collaborate with your Competitors and Win, Harvard Business review,67,1,1989,133-9. 9. Beaumont,P. B. , Applied Microeconomics for Decision Making, Sage Publications, London,1993.

10. Croney, J. S., Competition Relations System : A Study of Vital Issues, Sterling Publishers, HongKong,2000 11. Kotler, Philip, 2002, 11the edition, Marketing Management, Prentices-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi 12. Bean, R. Salesmanship and sales Management, Croom Helm, London,1999 13. Kaplan , P. L. , Advertising management, McGraw-Hill, New York,1997 14. Smith, B. D. Customer inceptions management, Bristol Publishers, London,1996 15.

Aswathappa K. , Personnel Management, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi,1997 16. Pfeffer. , Competitive Advantage through People, Harvard Business School Press,1994 17. Hamblin, A. C, Evaluation and Control of Training, McGraw Hill, London, 1993 18. Galbraith J, Strategic Implementation: The Role of Structure and Process, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1978 19. Rao, T. V. , New Economic Environment, Tata McGraw-Hill Book Company, New Delhi,1994 20. Cascio, W. F. , Fundamentals of Modern Marketing, Profits, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,1992.

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