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CS 682 Chapter 9

1. A model is a representation of reality
True
2. Logical models show what a system is or does. They are implementation independent.
True
3. Logical models show how a system is implemented.
False
4. Physical models show not only what a system is or does, but also how the system is physically and technically implemented. They are implementation independent because they specify the technology.
False
5. Logical models show not only what a system is or does, but also how the system is implemented.
False
7. A data flow diagram (DFD) is a tool that depicts the flow of data through a system and the work or processing performed by that system.
True
8. An entity relationship diagram (ERD) is a tool that depicts the flow of data through a system and the work or processing performed by that system.
False
9. A data flow diagram is a process model.
True
10. Another name for the data flow diagram is an entity relationship diagram.
False
11. In a data flow diagram, rounded rectangles are used to represent processes.
True
12. In a data flow diagram, squares are used to represent external agents – the boundary of the system.
True
13. In a data flow diagram, rounded rectangles are used to represent external agents – the boundary of the system.
False
14. Data flow diagrams have found new use in business process redesign.
True
15. A process is work performed on, or in response to, incoming data flows or conditions. A synonym is transform.
True
17. In data flow diagrams, open-ended boxes represent data stores.
True
18. In data flow diagrams, open-ended boxes represent external agents.
False
19. In data flow diagrams, arrows represent data flows.
True
20. A system is a process.
True
21. If data modeling is done before process modeling, the agents on the DFD can be pulled from the entity relationship diagram.
False
22. The use of logical models reduces the risk of missing business requirements.
True
23. Data Flow Diagrams are a kind of flowchart.
False
24. A complex system is usually easy to understand when viewed as a whole.
False
25. Decomposition is the act of breaking a system into component subsystems, processes and subprocesses.
True
27. In systems analysis, decomposition allows you to partition a system into logical subsystems of processes for improved communication, analysis and design.
True
28. A decomposition diagram is also called a hierarchy chart.
True
29. A data flow diagram shows the top down functional decomposition and structure of a system.
False
30. A decomposition diagram is a tool that depicts the flow of data through a system and the work or processing performed by that system.
False
31. A hierarchy chart is another name for a decomposition diagram.
True
32. A decomposition diagram is essentially a planning tool for more detailed process models, namely, data flow diagrams.
True
33. Logical processes are work or actions that must be performed no matter how you implement the systems.
True
34. Physical processes are work or actions that must be performed no matter how you implement the systems.
False
35. Each logical process must be implemented in software.
False
37. An event is a logical unit of work that must be completed as a whole.
True
38. An event is a logical unit of work that can be completed in parts over time.
False
39. An event is triggered by a discrete input and is completed when the process has responded with the appropriate outputs.
True
40. An event is triggered by a discrete output that is completed when the process has responded with the appropriate inputs.
False
41. Events are sometimes called transactions.
True
42. A function is a unit of work that must be completed as a unit or whole.
False
43. Elementary processes are discrete, detailed activities or tasks required to complete the response to an event.
True
44. Elementary processes are the overall activities to be accomplished by a system.
False
45. Elementary processes are at the highest level of detail when depicted in a process model.
False
47. Primitive processes are the lowest level of detail when depicted in a process model.
True
48. A black hole is a process that has inputs but no outputs.
True
49. A black hole is an acceptable elementary process.
False
50. Gray holes can be caused by a misnamed process.
True
51. A gray hole is a process where the inputs are insufficient to produce the desired outputs.
True
52. A data store represents data in motion.
False
53. A logical process can perform computations.
True
54. A logical process can make decisions.
True
55. A logical process can trigger other processes.
True
57. Structured English is a language and syntax, based on the relative strengths of structured programming and natural English, for specifying the underlying logic of elementary processes on process models such as data flow diagrams.
True
58. An iteration structure specifies that a set of steps should be repeated based on some stated condition.
True
59. A repetition structure specifies that a set of steps should be repeated based on some stated condition.
True
70. In Structured English, when in doubt, user readability should take priority over programmer preferences.
True
71. Structured English should be precise enough to clearly specify the required business procedure to a programmer or user. But it should not be so inflexible that you spend hours arguing over syntax.
True
72. Structured English is very precise and requires a strict adherence to syntax rules so that it can be translated for specifications to programming code directly.
False
73. Simple condition steps can be translated into programming language as a For loop.
False
74. A policy is a set of rules that governs some process in the business.
True
75. Both decision tables and Structured English can describe a single elementary process.
True
77. A decision table is expressed in Structured English to facilitate the presentation of policies and processes using a single technique.
False
78. Decision tables are useful for specifying complex policies and decision-making rules.
True
79. The three components of a decision table are: condition stubs, action stubs and rules.
True
80. The three components of a decision table are: entities, relationships and attributes.
False
81. A data flow represents an input of data to a process or the output of data from a process.
True
82. Composite data flows are used to combine similar data flows on high-level data flow diagrams to make those diagrams easier to read.
True
83. A composite data flow is a data flow that consists of other data flows.
True
84. A compound data flow is a data flow that consists of other data flows.
False
85. A data flow is composed of either actual data attributes (also called data structures) or other data flows.
True
87. A control flow represents a condition or non-data event that triggers a process.
True
88. A control flow is a special data flow that has both inputs and outputs.
False
89. Data conservation requires that a data flow contain only the data that is truly needed by the receiving process.
True
90. Data conservation requires that a data flow contain the entire data entity with all its attributes that is requested by a process.
False
91. By ensuring that processes receive the entire entity and its attributes, we plan for future processing requirements to improve the implementation and maintenance of processes.
False
92. A data attribute is the smallest piece of data that has meaning to the end users and the business.
True
93. The concept of a data attribute is different when drawing data models versus process models.
False
94. Data structures are non-specific arrangements of data that define data in a data store.
False
95. The data type for an attribute defines what class of data can be stored in that attribute.
True
97. The domain of an attribute defines what values an attribute can legitimately take on.
True
98. Data flows can be described in terms of the following types of data structures: a sequence or group of data attributes that occur one after another; the selection of one or more attributes from a set of attributes; and, the repetition of one or more attributes.
True
99. A data flow can connect an agent to a data store.
False
100. A data flow can connect pass data directly from one data store to another data store.
False
101. A diverging data flow is one that splits into multiple data flows.
True
102. A converging data flow is one that merges multiple data flows into a single data flow.
True
103. A diverging data flow is one that merges multiple data flows into a single data flow.
False
104. An external agent defines a person, organization unit, other system or other organization that lies outside the scope of the project but that interacts with the system being studied.
True
105. An external agent defines a person or organizational unit that is part of the scope of the project, but has no interaction with the system being studied.
False
107. A synonym for external entity is data entity.
False
108. A data store is an inventory of data. Synonyms include file and database.
True
109. Data flows are data in motion; data stores are data at rest.
True
110. Data stores are data in motion, and data flows are data at rest.
False
111. An enterprise process model typically identifies business areas and functions in detail. Events and detailed processes are made explicit.
False
112. Event partitioning factors a system into subsystems based on business events and responses to those events.
True
113. Event partitioning factors a system into different databases based on how information is used and where it is stored.
False
114. A system context diagram is constructed to establish initial project scope.
True
115. A system context diagram partitions the system into logical subsystems.
False
117. An event response or use case list is compiled to identify and confirm the business events to which the system must provide a response.
True
118. An event response list is compiled to partition the system into logical subsystems and/or functions.
False
119. After an event handler is added to the decomposition diagram for each event, the decomposition diagram can now serve as the outline for the system.
True
120. After an event handler is added to the decomposition diagram for each event, you now have the event response diagram that is used as the outline for the system.
False
121. The context diagram is constructed for event processes that require additional processing details. These data flow diagrams include all the elementary processes, data stores and data flows for single events.
False
122. A context data flow diagram defines the scope and boundary for the system and project.
True
123. External events are so named because they are initiated by external agents.
True
124. Temporal events trigger processes on the basis of time, or something that merely happens.
True
125. State events trigger processes based on a system’s change from one state or condition to another.
True
127. Use case analysis is the process of identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system responds to them.
True
128. Use case analysis is rooted in object-oriented analysis.
True
129. Use case analysis is the process of identifying the actors who interact and use a system independent of how they are using the system.
False
130. An event diagram is a composite diagram that combines multiple events into a single processing unit.
False
131. For each use case we need to list: 1) the actor initiating the event; (2) the event; (3) the input or trigger for the event; (4) all outputs and responses.
True
132. Balancing is the synchronizing of data flow diagrams at different levels of detail to preserve consistency and completeness of the models.
True
133. Balancing is a quality assurance technique used on data flow diagrams.
True
134. Balancing is a quality assurance technique used on entity relationship diagrams.
False
135. Data and process models represent different views of the same system.
True
137. A process-to-location matrix is a table in which the rows indicate processes (event or elementary processes); the columns indicate locations; and the cells (the intersections of rows and columns) document which processes must be performed at which locations.
True
138. A process-to-location-CRUD matrix is a table that indicates which processes create, read, update or delete data information at the various locations and data stores.
False
139. Process models illustrate the essential work to be performed by the system as a whole.
True
140. Data models illustrate the essential work to be performed by the system as a whole.
False
141. Processes must be distributed to locations where work is to be performed.
True
142. A model that shows what a system is and what is does is:
A) a physical model
B) a logical model
C) a context model
D) both a physical and logical model
E) none of these
both a physical and logical model
143. A model that shows what a system is and what it does, as well as how it does it, is:
A) a physical model
B) a logical model
C) a context model
D) both a logical and physical model
E) none of these
a physical model
144. A technique for organizing and documenting the structure and flow of data through a system’s processes and or the logic, policies and procedures to be implemented by a system’s processes is known as:
A) data modeling
B) process modeling
C) context modeling
D) operational modeling
E) none of these
process modeling
145. A tool that depicts the flow of data through a system and the work or processing performed by that system is known as:
A) entity relationship diagrams
B) decomposition, structure diagrams
C) data flow diagrams
D) use case diagrams
E) none of these
data flow diagrams
147. In data flow diagrams:
A) processes are represented by rounded rectangles
B) data flows are represented by arrows
C) data stores are represented by open-ended boxes
D) external agents are represented by squares
E) all of these
all of these
148. In data flow diagrams:
A) processes are represented by open-ended boxes
B) data flows are represented by arrows
C) data stores are represented by squares
D) external agents are represented by rounded rectangles
E) none of these
data flows are represented by arrows
149. In data flow diagrams:
A) processes are represented by squares
B) data flows are represented by open-ended boxes
C) data stores are represented by arrows
D) external agents are represented by rounded rectangles
E) none of these
none of these
150. Logical models:
A) remove biases that are not the result of the way the current system is implemented
B) reduce the risk of missing business requirements
C) communicate with end users in nontechnical or less technical languages
D) all of the above
E) none of these
all of the above
151. A process:
A) is a common word used to describe almost any orderly arrangement of ideas or constructs
B) is work performed on, or in response to, incoming data flows or conditions
C) is only performed by computer software
D) is comprised of many systems and subsystems
E) none of these
is work performed on, or in response to, incoming data flows or conditions
152. The act of breaking a system into its component subsystems, processes and subprocesses is known as:
A) generalization
B) normalization
C) composition
D) decomposition
E) none of these
decomposition
153. A diagram that shows the system broken into its component sybsystems:
A) a data flow diagram
B) an entity relationship diagram
C) a decomposition diagram
D) functional event diagram
E) none of these
a decomposition diagram
154. A set of related and ongoing activities in a business is known as:
A) a function
B) a database
C) a system
D) an event
E) none of these
a function
155. A logical unit of work that must be completed as a whole is known as:
A) a function
B) a data store
C) an event
D) a trigger
E) none of these
an event
157. A process that has inputs but no outputs is known as:
A) a black hole
B) a gray hole
C) a miracle
D) both a miracle and a black hole
E) none of these
a black hole
158. Gray holes are caused by:
A) a misnamed process
B) misnamed inputs
C) incomplete facts
D) all of the above
E) none of these
incomplete facts
159. A process that has inputs insufficient to produce the required outputs is known as:
A) a black hole
B) a gray hole
C) a miracle
D) a miracle and a gray hole
E) none of these
a gray hole
170. A(n) _________________________________ is a tool that depicts the flow of data through a system and the work or processing performed by that system.
data flow diagram (DFD)
171. Another name for the data flow diagram is _____________________ model.
process
172. In a data flow diagram, rounded rectangles are used to represent _____________________.
processes
173. In a data flow diagram, squares are used to represent ________________________.
external agents
174. Transform is a synonym for a ________________________.
process
175. A(n) _________________________ is work performed on, or in response to, incoming data flows or conditions.
process
177. In data flow diagrams, arrows represent___________________________ .
data flows
178. A _______________________ is when the inputs are insufficient to produce the output.
gray hole
179. __________________________________ is the act of breaking a system into component subsystems, processes and subprocesses.
Decomposition
180. During decomposition, each level of ____________________________ reveals more or less detail as desired, about the overall system or a subset of that system.
abstraction
181. In systems analysis, ___________________________ allows you to partition a system into logical subsystems of processes for improved communication, analysis and design.
decomposition
182. A ___________________________ diagram shows the top down functional decomposition and structure of a system.
decomposition
183. A(n) ____________________________ is another name for a decomposition diagram.
hierarchy chart
184. A decomposition diagram is essentially a planning tool for more detailed process models, namely, _________________________________________.
data flow diagrams
185. ________________ processes are work or actions that must be performed no matter how you implement the systems.
Logical
187. A(n) ___________________________ is a logical unit of work that must be completed as a whole
event
188. An event is triggered by a discrete _______________________ and is completed when the process has responded with the appropriate __________________________.
input, outputs
189. ___________________________________ processes are discrete, detailed activities or tasks required to complete the response to an event.
Elementary or Primitive
190. Another name for an elementary process is a ____________________________ process.
primitive
191. Elementary processes are the _________________ level of detail when depicted in a process model.
lowest
192. A(n) _____________________ is a process that has inputs but no outputs.
black hole
193. A data flow is data in ____________________________.
motion
194. A __________________________ is when a process has inputs but no outputs.
black hole
195. _____________________________________ is a language and syntax, based on the relative strengths of structured programming and natural English, for specifying the underlying logic of elementary processes on process models such as data flow diagrams.
Structured English
197. A(n) ____________________________ structure specifies that a set of steps should be repeated based on some stated condition.
iteration or repetition
198. A(n) __________________________________ structure specifies that a process must perform different steps under well-specified conditions.
conditional or decision
199. _____________________________ sentences use strong actions verbs such as Get, Find, Record, Create, Read, Update, Delete, Calculate, Write, Sort, Merge or anything else recognizable or understandable to end users.
Sequence
200. A restriction of Structured English is that only ________________________ verbs may be used.
strong, imperative
201. _________________________________ should be used in Structured English to set off the beginning and ending of constructs to enhance readability.
Blocking and indentation
202. A(n) _______________________ is a set of rules that governs some process in the business.
policy
203. A(n) _______________________________ is a tabular form of presentation that specifies a set of conditions and their corresponding actions.
decision table
204. The three components of a decision table are:
(1) _____________________________________
(2) _____________________________________ and
(3) ______________________________________.
condition stubs, action stubs and rules.
205. A(n) ________________________________ represents an input of data to a process or the output of data from a process.
data flow
207. The _______________________ concept is critical to the creation of data flow diagrams. Data that should travel together should be shown as a single data flow, no matter how many physical documents or attributes are included in the data flow.
packet
208. A(n) _________________________ flow represents a condition or non-data event that triggers a process.
control
209. Data _______________________________ requires that a data flow contain only the data that is truly needed by the receiving process.
conservation
210. By ensuring that processes receive only as much data as they really need, we simplify the __________________________ between those processes.
interface
211. Data ______________________ are specific arrangements of data attributes that define the organization of a single instance of a data flow.
structures
212. The ___________________ for an attribute defines what class of data can be stored in that attribute.
data type
213. The ___________________________ of an attribute defines what values an attribute can legitimately take on.
domain
214. A(n) ____________________ data flow is one that splits into multiple data flows.
diverging
215. A(n) ______________________________ defines a person, organization unit, other system or other organization that lies outside the scope of the project but that interacts with the system being studied.
external agent or external entity
217. Data _____________________ are data in motion; data _________________ are data at rest.
flows, stores
218. A(n) __________________________ process model typically identifies only business areas and functions. Events and detailed processes are rarely examined.
enterprise
219. _________________________ events trigger processes on the basis of time.
Temporal
220. A(n) _____________________________________ is constructed to establish initial project scope.
system context diagram
221. Data conservation is sometimes called _____________________ the process.
starving
222. A(n) ________________________________ is compiled to identify and confirm the business events to which the system must provide a response.
event response or use case list
223. _______________________________ diagrams are constructed for those event processes that require additional processing details. These data flow diagrams include all the elementary processes, data stores and data flows for single events.
Primitive or Elementary
224. A(n) ______________________________________ defines the scope and boundary for the system and project.
context data flow diagram
225. Examples of _________________ include END OF MONTH, and 30 DAYS LATE.
temporal events
227. ____________________________ is the process of identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system responds to them.
Use case analysis
228. A(n) _______________________________ is a context diagram for a single event. It shows the inputs, outputs and data store interactions for that event.
event diagram
229. For each use case we need to list:
(1) ___________________________________________________
(2) ___________________________________________________
(3) ___________________________________________________ and
(4) ___________________________________________________.
1) the actor initiating the event; (2) the event; (3) the input or trigger for the event; (4) all outputs and responses.
230. ___________________________________ is the synchronizing of data flow diagrams at different levels of detail to preserve consistency and completeness of the models.
Balancing
231. Balancing is a quality assurance technique used on ______________________ diagrams.
data flow
232. A(n) __________________________________ is a table in which the rows indicate processes (event or elementary processes); the columns indicate locations; and the cells (the intersections of rows and columns) document which processes must be performed at which locations.
process-to-location matrix

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