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CS Final

Eight bits grouped together are collectively referred to as a ____.
A ___ is the smallest unit of data that a binary computer can recognize.
Video data – such as home movies, feature films, and television shows – is displayed using a collection of ______.
machine language
A(n) ___ instruction might look like a meaningless string of 0s and 1s, but it actually represents specific operations and storage locations.
CPU clock speed
One measurement of the speed of a CPU is the ___, which is rated in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).
A computer ____ is the amount of data (measured in bits or bytes) that a CPU can manipulate at one time.
A ___ is an electronic path over which data can travel
The bus width and bus speed together determine the bus’s ___ or bandwidth; that is, the amount of data that can be transferred via the bus in a given period of time.
flash memory chips
____ have begun to replace ROM for storing system information, such as PC’s BIOS.
The ___ is the section of the CPU that performs arithmetic involving integers and logical operations.
prefetch unit
The ___ tries to predict what data and instructions will be needed and retrieves them ahead of time, in order to help avoid delays in processing.
system clock
In order to synchronize all of a computer’s operations, a ____ – a quartz crystal located on the motherboard – is used
Some drive letters, such as the letter __ typically used w/ the primary hard drive, are usually consistent from computer to computer and do not change even if more storage devices are added to a computer.
random access
_____ means that data can be retrieved directly from any location on the storage medium, in any order.
Anything (such as a program, letter, digital photograph, or song) stored on a storage medium is referred to as a(n) ____.
hard drive
Virtually all personal computers come with a(n) ____ that is used to store most programs and data.
Each hard disk is divided into pie-shaped groups of ___.
disk caching
A strategy for speeding up hard drive performance is ___.
seek time
The time required to move the read/write heads to the cylinder that contains (or will contain) the desired data is called the ____.
logical drivers
Partitions are sometimes referred to as ____.
Conventional CD discs use ___ lasers.
CD-ROM discs and DVD-ROM discs are ____ optical discs and come prerecorded with commercial products.
Network attached storage (NAS)
____ devices are high-performance storage servers that are individually connected to a network to provide storage for the computers connected to that network.
Some smart cards today store ___ data – such as the characteristics of a finger print – int he card and use that data to ensure the authenticity of the card’s user before authorizing the smart card transaction.
RAID 0 uses disk ___, which spreads files over several disk drives.
touch screen
With a ___, the user touches the screen with his/her finger to select commands or otherwise provide input to the computer with which it is being used.
flatbed scanner
A ____ is designed to scan flat objects one page at a time.
A ____ is an optical code that represents data with bars of vary widths or heights.
Optical mark readers (OMRs)
____ input data from special forms to score or tally exams, questionnaires, ballots, and so forth.
One factor affecting digital camera quality is the number of pixels, measured in ___, used to store the data for each image.
Wireless displays connect to a computer using wireless networking connection such as Wi-Fi or ____.
pages per minute (ppm)
Print speed is usually measured in ____.
Ink-jet printers
____ form images by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink onto the page, one line printed at a time.
System software is usually divided into two categories: operating system software and ___ programs.
operating systems
The ___ boots the computer, launches application software programs, and ensures that all actions requested by a user are valid and processed in an orderly fashion.
Small programs called ___ are used to communicate with peripheral devices, such as monitors, printers, and scanners.
Most operating systems have security features available, such as an integrated ___ to protect against unauthorized access via the Internet.
___ memory allows you to use more memory than is physically available on your computer.
A ___ is an area in RAM or on the hard drive designated to hold input and output on their way in or out of the system.
The most recent version of Windows is Windows __.
Windows Explorer
The file management program incorporated into Windows is ____.
software license
When a software program is purchased, the buyer is acquiring a(n) ___ that permits him or her to use the software.
public domain software
There are 4 basic categories of software: commercial software, shareware, freeware, and _____.
application service providers (ASPs)
Companies that deliver SaaS are sometimes referred to as ____.
A single spreadsheet document is often called a ____.
In a worksheet, the intersection of a row and a column is called a ____.
absolute cell referencing
Although labels and constant values will be copied exactly to the new location, the way formulas behave when they are copied depends on whether they use relative cell referencing or ___.
relational database
The most common type of database used on PC’s today is a(n) ____.
A ____ is a question, or, in database terms, a request for specific information from the database.
DVD authoring
____ refers to organizing the content to be transferred to DVD, such as importing video clips, creating the desired menu structure, and so forth.
information system
A(n) ___ is a collection of elements (people, hardware, software, and data) and procedures that interact to generate information needed by the users in an organization.
Business intelligence
____ is the process of gathering, storing, accessing, and analyzing data about a company in order to make better business decisions.
Accounting systems
____ refer to the variety of systems in place to record the details of financial transactions, such as payments and purchases.
___ is a special type of large, integrated system that ties together all types of a company’s activities such as planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing, distribution, customer service, and finance.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
___ refers to the use of computers to help manage manufacturing operations and control machinery used in those processes.
system administrator
A ____ is responsible for maintaining a large, multiuser system.
system development life cycle
Each phase of the ___ produces some type of documentation to pass on to the next phase.
preliminary investigation
When a proposal for a new system or system modification is submitted, one of the first steps is to conduct a ___.
___ programming focuses on the step-by-step instructions that tell the computer what to do to solve a problem.
Problem analysis
___ is the first phase of the PDLC.
In a(n) ___ check, the programmer “walks” through the program design, keeping track fo the values of any look counters and other variables in a tracing table to ensure the program does what it is intended to do.
___ are notes within the actual program code that identify key features and steps of the program but that are written in such a way that the computer knows to ignore them when the program is executed.
Rather than creating a complete object module for a program, a(n) ___ reads, translates, and executes the source program one line at a time.
___ errors occur when a formula is written incorrectly, when a mistake is made with a decision condition, or when the wrong variable name is used.
Application Lifecycle Management (ALM)
___ is a broad term to describe creating and managing an application throughout its entire lifecycle – from design through testing.
A field is also called a ___.
A ____ is a collection of related fields.
primary key
The field in a table that is used to relate that table to other tables is called the ____.
___ are made up of related records.
data dictionary
The ___ contains all data definitions for a database, including table structures, security information, relationships between the tables in the database, and so on.
A(n) ___ is a small table consisting only of a list of the primary key field for each record in a table along with location information for that record.
centralized database system
With a ___, a database is located in its entirety on a single computer, such as a server or mainframe computer.
relational database management system (RDBMS)
The ___ is the most widely used database model today.
A ___ extracts specific information from a database by specifying particular conditions (called criteria) about the data you would like to retrieve.
Web-based database requests are received by the Web server, which then converts the request into a database query and passes it on to the database server with the help of software called ____.
One objective of the ___ project was to create a computer network that would allow researchers located in different places to communicate with each other.
Internet service providers (ISPs)
___ are businesses or other organizations that provide Internet access to others, typically for a fee.
Application service providers (ASPs)
___ are companies that manage and distribute Web-based software services to customers over the Internet.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
___ is charged with such responsibilities as IP address allocation and domain name management.
keyword search
The ___ is the most commonly used Internet search type.
Instant messaging
___ allows you to exchange real-time messages easily with people on you buddy list – a list of individuals that you specify.
Online shopping and online investing are examples of ___.
Computer crime is sometimes referred to as ____.
___ are sets of tools that allow hackers to access a system.
Wi-Fi piggybacking
The term ___ refers to accessing someone else’s unsecured Wi-Fi network from the hacker’s current location (such as inside his/her home, outside a Wi-Fi hotspot location, or near a local business).
Increasingly, USB security keys, also called USB security ____ – USB flash drives that are inserted into a computer to grant access to a network, to supply Web site usernames and passwords, or to provide other security features – are being used.
A ___ is security system that essentially creates a wall between a computer or network and the Internet in order to protect against unauthorized access.
virtual private network
A ___ provides a secure private tunnel from the user’s computer through the Internet to another destination and is most often used to provide remote employees with secure access to a company network.
___ is a generic term that refers to any type of malicious software.
Trojan horse
A ___ is a malicious program that masquerades as something else – usually as some type of application program.
A computer ___ spreads by creating copies of its code and sending those copies to other computers via a network.
Images are available in many formats such as TIF, BMP GIF, JPEG, and ___.
GIF images are always rectangular, but can use a(n) ___ background color to make the images appear to be nonrectangular.
thumbnail image
When a Web page requires a very large image (such as to better show a product, home for sale, or featured piece of art), a(n) ____ can be used to save loading time.
Java applet
A ___ is a small program inserted into a Web page that performs a specific task, such as changing the values in a stock portfolio, scrolling text or images across the screen, and so forth.
Web stie design
___ refers to the process of planning what your Web site will look like and how it will work.
creating the multimedia elements
The first basic step in the development process of a multimedia Web site is ___.
markup language
Most Web pages today are written in a _____ – a coding system used to define the structure, layout, and general appearance of the content of a Web page.
___ tags are similar to HTML tags, but there are stricter rules about how the markup tags are written.
____ was originally developed as a programming language designed for processing text.

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