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CS12 CHAPTER 5

System software
Background programs that control a computer system
Application software
Programs that allow a user to perform specific tasks on a computer
Operating system
A collection of programs that manage and coordinate the activities taking place within a computer system
Multitasking
Ability of an operating system to work with more than one program at one time
Multithreading
Ability to run multiple threads for a program at one time so that processing is completed faster and more efficiently
Multiprocessing
Multiple processors are used in a single computer, usually to process multiple jobs at one time faster than with a single processor
Parallel peocessing
Multiple processors are used in a single computer, usually to process a single job faster
Coprocessing
Utilizinf soecial processor for specialized chores
Memory management
Optimizing the use of main memory (RAM)
Virtual memory
Memory management technique that uses hard drive space as additionak RAM
Buffering and spooling
Used with printers and other peripheral devices
Buffer
Area in RAM or the hard drive designated to hold input and output on their way in or out the system
Spooling
Placing items in a buffer so they can be retrieved by the appropriate device when needed
Personal operating system
Designed to be installed on a single PC
Server operating system
Designed to be installed on a network server
DOS
Older operating system
PC DOS
Created originally for IBM microcomputers
MS DOS
Used with IBM compatible PC
Windows
Primary PC operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation
MAC OS
Proprietary operating system for computers made by Apple Corporation
MAC OS X Leopard
Most recent personal version
MAC OS X Server
Most recent server version
UNIX
Operating system developed in the late 1960s for midrange servers and mainframes
Linux
Version/favor of UNIX available eithiuth charge over the internet
NetWare
Widely used operating system for PC-based networks
Solaris
UNIX based operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for sun computers
Utility Program
Type of software that performs a specific task usually related to managing or maintaining the computer system
File management programs
Enable users to perform file management tasks
Search tools
Designed to search for files on the user’s hard drive
Diagnostic programs
Evaluate your system and make recommendations for fixing any errors found
Disk management programs
Diagnose and repair problems related to your hard drive
File compression programs
Reduce size of files so they take up less storage space on a storage medium
Cleanup utilities
Designed to delete temporary files
Back up and recovery utilities
Make the backup and restoration porcess easier
Security programs
Protect computers and users

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