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Activities to prevent a stressor from resulting in negative consequences
the result of a demand that exceeds resources available to meet that demand ( demand evaluated as a threat’ so coping is needed)
Coping (w/stress)
“engaging” in a behavior or idea/thought to respond to a demand .

-orientes coping e.g: if have an exam, finding better method to study will be o.c.
-emotion-focused coping e.g: managing feeling (nervousness, anxiety) & accepting your are not talented in a subject..math exam”.

what do you need to engage in coping?
an appraisal(evaluation) of the demand(threat).

Richar Lazarus describes 3 prime categories.

Lazaur’s “Primary Appraisal” :
example-> nerves speaking in front of the class is the stressor Primary appraisal “not a big deal I have done it before & done well”

example-> I make a fool of myself.

Lazarus’ “Secondary appraisal”
Determine weather resources to meet the demand are available.

exp: for in class speech-> determining if having good vocabulary or not.

Reappraisal pg111
occurs to determine if further evaluation is needed. Evaluation of weather the responds made to a demand(threat) was effective.
confidentiality in the ability to manage a demand/threat
cognitive appraisal
interpretation of stressor
can change cognitive appraisal of the stress stimulus.
A life situation (threat/ change) can..
knock you off balance
Model of Stressor (Figure5.3)pg 112
1. life situation
2. percieved as stressful
3. emotional arousal
4. physiological arousal
5. Consequences
is perceived (interpreted) as stressful
Emotional reactions
fear, anger, insecurity
Physiological arousal
stress re-activity
poor performance, illness, possible disease
model of strees: “Feedback-Loop” cycle
(a.)disruptive sleep increases fatigue
(b.)Fatigue diminish ability to cope with stress in healthy way
(a.b.)inability to cope w/stressors cause disruptive sleep.
I –> back to (a)
A consequence of streess can cause what?
a new feedback-loop cycle to start.


(a barrier or barricade on a road, esp. one set up by the authorities to stop and examine traffic/stressors.)

-Relaxation techniques
-you not allowing it to bother you more than it should.
– sometimes illicit drugs

.Is used to block a stressful consequence.
-These blocks are set up at various points on the stress theory model
-Cognitive restructuring or medications (prescribed or illegal) can be used as roadblocks
Exercise can effectively block the continuation of stress after physiological arousal has occurred
RoadBloack as-Relaxation Technique
between the perception phase and the emotion phase can be effective
Robert Epstein 4-skills to mang stress
1.Prevention (planning to avoid stressors)
-most effective
2.Source management (reducing or eliminating the source of stress)
-next most effective
3.Thought management (reinterpreting stressful thoughts to be less stressful) and relaxation (techniques such as meditation
-least effective
4. Relaxation Techniques
Comprehensive Stress Management
-Elimination of all stress is not recommended
-Goal is to perform within optimal levels of stress
-Includes intervention at all phases of the stress theory model
Eustress (fig. 5.5 pg117)
Good stress to get used to.exp a job promotion.

-Involves change that requires adaptation &
Allows personal growth and is beneficial to the person

Taking Control (assuming responsibility)
:Managing stress by exercising control rather than giving up control
-One can decide to control or not control the stress response (assuming responsibility)
+Practicing specific techniques is a means of taking control and assuming responsibility
Making a Commitment
-Start right now
-Complete a contract
-Plan rewards for reaching accomplishments
-Plan punishments for not fulfilling contract
-Keep goals realistic
//Intrapersonal Stress
An internal relationship: what is between you and yourself
-> If followed, will lead to a healthier and happier life
Eliminating Unnecessary Stressors
(top of theory model>YOU CAN; Try to stop the stress as early as possible
-Identify and eliminate as many distressors as possible (e.g., keep a three-week diary for -identifying stress components (fig 6.1)
-Use the diary to identify patterns->(pg 126)
Stress and Nutrition
1.A “balanced die”t has a variety of nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water)
2″.Stress can lead to eating disorders” (**anorexia nervosa,& bulimia**)
3.Eating too much or too little can cause stress

. sources -> MyPyramid/plate

what can reduce risk of heart disease and certain cancers?
Reducing saturated fats and increasing fiber and Vitamin A and C .
Healthy foods/ creating healthy diet
Limit foods that are high in fat or added sugar, processed and fried foods, and drinks with high-fructose corn syrup.

Include fruits, vegetables, unsalted nuts, low-fat dairy, lean meat, and whole grains

Found in 37% of the population
Cardiovascular disease
34% of US adults have ?
Almost 11% of the population ages 20 and older have ?
41% of the population will be diagnosed with ____? during their lifetime
½ women and ¼ men ages 50 and older will have an ______?-related fracture in their lifetime
Eating for Cancer Prevention
The American Cancer Society recommends:
1.Eating 5 or more servings of produce daily
2.Choosing whole grains over processed grains
3.Limiting the intake of processed and red meats
4.Not carrying excess body fat is also important
Body mass index, waist circumference,
-A healthy BMI score is between 18.5 and 24.9
Being a healthy weight is important; being underweight or overweight each carry additional health risks
Food substances that produce a stress response
exp-Caffeine: stimulate the sympathetic nervous system &creates a “pseudostress(food substance) which produces a stress respond.
Chronic stress & Vitamines
It can depletes vitamins from our bodies, especially B complex vitamins and vitamin C which are needed for production of adrenal hormones

*Vitamin depletion can worsen the stress response, creating a vicious circle.

To what can lead/cause a deficiency in B-complex vitamins and vitamin C??
can lead to anxiety, depression, insomnia, muscular weakness, and upset stomach
interferes with calcium absorption and increases excretion of potassium, zinc, copper, and magnesium
“Stress” can interfere…
can increase blood pressure, resulting in even greater pressures during stress
Vitamine “B” in needed to …
…break down sugar
Relationship of Sugar to Stress
1.Sugar reduces production of adrenal hormones
2.Large amounts can result in hypoglycemia (low blood sugar preceded by elevated levels of blood sugar)
3.Chronic stress can burn out beta cells, resulting in reduced production of insulin
Eating To Manage Stress (cont. 2)
1.Supplement your diet with vitamins, especially C and B complex.
2.Limit foods containing sugar.
3.Limit intake of processed flour.
4.Limit your intake of sodium.
Noise and Stress pg. 138 (Fig 6.4)
-Noise can increase blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle tension
-Related to job dissatisfaction
-Results in irritation, anxiety, headaches, increased blood pressure, and sleep problems
[email protected] 85 & up DECIBELS(heavy city traffic), stress responses is created.
-“White noise” is used to drown out other noise
*Certain sounds can be relaxing
Life Events and Stress/ G.A. ANDERSON
life events scale to measure stress (Lab 6.2)
Life Events and Stress/ HOLMES & RAHE
second scale for identifying unhealthy life events (Lab 6.3)
Life Events and Stress/VARIOUS RESEARCHERS
social support is an effective roadblock to stress
Life Events and Stress/ KANNER
daily hassles are more detrimental to health than major life events
The most frequent hassles experienced by college students, ranked from most to least severe, are:
1.Time pressures (most)
5.Physical appearance
6.Relationships (least)
some definitions of ” Success” e.g.
1.Being chosen by others
2.Pleasing others
3.Being helpful
4.Achieving academically
5.Achieving in sports activities
6.Being the best
7.Achieving in spite of obstacles and difficulty
8.Learning a new skill
9.Getting recognition from others
10.Being happy
how to achieve SUCCESS
-Use the success chart (pg.141/ fig 6.3)
-Success is multi-faceted and is in the eyes of the beholder
-Other views of success are based on competing and winning
-Identify what “success” means to you and how to achieve this by using your strengths
// ASSertive
: acting to satisfy one’s own needs/.acting in a way to get what one is entitle to, ones’s right, but not at the expense of other’s right.
: giving up wishes and needs in order not to upset others
: seeking to dominate others and meet needs
*at the expense of others’ rights
Assertion Theory:
premise that everyone has certain basic rights
We are sometimes taught that acting consistently with these rights is unacceptable
What are your basic rights?
NoN-Verbal ASSrtiveNess body lang>
consistent with verbal assertiveness. Assertiveness is not only what you say but how you say it.


NoN-Verbal Assertive” body language/behavior”
-Stand up straight
-Face the other person directly
-Maintain eye contact
-Speak fluently
NoN-Verbal NON-ASSertive” body language/behavior”
-Lack of eye contact
-Looking away or down
-Shifting weight or swaying
-Hesitancy when speaking
NoN-Verbal AGGRESIVE Behavior
-Leaning forward
-Glaring eyes
-Pointing your finger at the other person
-Clenching your fists
-Putting your hands on your hips
Verbal assertiveness: DESC formula divided into four parts
1.Describe situation
2.Express feelings
3.Specify change
4.Consequences of the outcome, regardless of change
Conflict Resolution Techniques #1
a.Active/reflective listening: repeat words/feelings (paraphrase)
Conflict Resolution Techniques #2
b.Identify your position: state thoughts and feelings
Conflict Resolution Techniques #3
c.Explore alternative solutions: brainstorm/ compromise
Model of Communication pg. 155 (fig 7.1)
for succes comm/ Sender
-must be knowledgeable, trustworthy, and believable
-must be familiar with the preferences of the receiver
for succ comm/ Message:
-must be credible
-include evidence if possible
for succ comm/ Medium:
must be effective
for succes communcation/ Verbal Comm:
-Verbally ask to confirm that you are receiving the correct message
-Plan time to talk
–*Sufficient time, free of distractions, open to the other person’s perspective
-Listen and paraphrase
-Begin with a point of agreement
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to accurately identify and understand one’s own emotional reactions and those of others
-To regulate one’s emotions and to use them to make good decisions and act effectively
Goleman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence
Four-branch model:
1.Accurately perceive emotions in oneself and others
2.Use emotions to facilitate thinking
3.Understand emotional meanings
4.Manage emotions
Ways to Improve Emotional Intelligence
-OBSERVE how you react to people
-Look at your work environment
-Do a self-evaluation
-Examine how you react to stressful situations
-TAKE RESPONSABILITY for your actions
*Examine how your reactions will affect others, BEFORE you take those action
Our reaction to technology and how our lives are changing as a result.
– Technology eliminates down time, which can make us feel overwhelmed and stressed
Polyphasic behavior:
a sign of stress and Type A behavior pattern where we employ more than one form of technology at a time
Time Management Techniques
-Assess how you spend time
-Set goals (short term to long term)
-Prioritize (ABC lists)
-Create a schedule
-Maximize your rewards
-Say “no”
-Evaluate tasks once
-Use the circular file
-Limit interruptions
-Invest time initially
we need to focus more on the activities from which we will reap the most benefit
we get 80% of our rewards from only 20% of our activities
Conversely, we get only 20% of our rewards from 80% of the time we spend
Social Support
Belonging, being accepted, being loved, or being needed:
-Social support may help manage stress in two ways:
1.Direct effect theory
*Helps prevent stressors from occurring
2.Stress buffering theory
*Buffers the effects of stressors
Three types of social support
1.Tangible support (e.g., money, car)
2.Emotional support (e.g., love, concern)
3.Informational support (e.g., facts, advice)
Lack of social support may be related to poor quality of life, poor health, or illness
-Depressed women
-African American women
-Youth in an urban community
-Adherence to medication for AIDS patients
-Abandonment of children with Down syndrome
Verbal Communication ( pg 157)
Use “And” instead of “But”
-Adds rather than discounts
Use “I” statements
-Avoids defensiveness
Avoid “Why?” questions
-Can be perceived as criticisms
// Perceptions:
Cognitive interpretations of people, things, and events within your world (e.g. in class video of the rotating mask)
Selective Awareness
-Choose to focus on the positive rather than the negative in a situation
-Realize that there is both good and bad in every situation
-Choose a positive physiological and psychological response
Selective Awareness activities.
-De-emphasize (but do not deny) neg. features
-Recall the good events of each day
“-Take time to smell the roses”
– what life is all about: living, experiencing, smelling roses while trying not to get caught on thorns
Concepts of Perspective and Selective Awareness
-Put minor stressors into perspective
-Focus on the positive aspects of the current situation
-Develop an “attitude of gratitude”
*Focus on things about which to be grateful
Optimism and Health
-Being an optimist can keep you healthy
-being a pessimist can contribute to poor health
(e.g/ evidence) A 2009 study of 97,000 women showed that the more optimistic people were, the lower their rates of mortality for all illnesses
Humor & Stress
-.Humor can be an effective means of coping with stress
-.Humor prevents negative life events from resulting in mood disturbances
-.Coping with humor acted as a buffer between negative life events and mood disturbances
Humor -> psychological and physiological changes leading to relaxation
(a)Increases mm activity, O2 exchange, increases endorphins
(b)Rebounding to below normal levels -> relieves anxiety, tension, hositlity, anger, etc.
-Shown to improve the health of the elderly and has been used as therapy
-Can be used inappropriately, causing distress to others
Type ” A” behavior patterns;
Characterized by competitive drive, aggressiveness, impatience, time urgency, free-floating hostility, insecurity

-Found to be associated with coronary heart disease
-Exhibited in females as well as males
-Learned behavior, not genetically passed down
—->Type A’s that have a preponderance of hostile aggression are more likely to develop coronary heart disease

Type “A” b.p. research
A study of nurses and teachers shows that Type A’s tend to experience more job stress
-Type A hospital employees had more health problems
-Their appears to be a relationship between anger/hostility and coronary heart disease
Type C: Associated with the development of cancer
:denial and suppression of emotions; in particular, anger, resentment, and hostility
pathological niceness
Type D: Associated w/ development of and death from coronary heart disease
:negative emotion and inhibited self-expression
Self-Esteem: how you regard yourself
Poor self-esteem
-related to drug abuse, irresponsible sexual behavior, and other unhealthy activities
Can be affected by treatment by others
-how we are judged affects how we feel about ourselves
–>Poor self-esteem may lead to the development of stress-related illnesses
Self-esteem is learned and can be re-learned
Stress management requires confidence in your ability to control your life effectively
external Locus of control:
the feeling/perception that one has “little control”over events that affect ones life.
internal Locus of control:
the feeling that one “has control” over events that affect ones life.
Locus of control Research.
Women with an internal locus of control perceived themselves at greater risk of developing breast cancer and, therefore, were more likely to be screened (Rowe et al., 2005)
Locus of control related to chronic fatigue syndrome, sick leave from work, and how one responds to a diagnosis of human papillomavirus (van de Putte et al., 2005; Hansen et al., 2005; Kahn et al., 2005)
Cocreator Perception Deficiency (CCPD)
Those who believe they have total control over events or no control at all
both are faulty

-People can have good locus of control in one area of life and not in another

Unrealistic fear resulting in physiological arousal and behaviors to avoid or escape the stimulus
Types of anxiety
Trait anxiety (Generalized Anxiety)
State anxiety
Test anxiety
Social phobia
Specific phobias
Panic disorder
Coping Techniques
Environmental planning
Thought stopping
Systematic desensitization
Cognitive restructuring
ABCDE technique: examine irrational beliefs
ABCDE technique (Albert Ellis)
examine irrational beliefs :
-Activating Agent (stressor)
-Belief system (rational and irrational)
-Consequences (mental, physical, behavioral)
-Dispute irrational beliefs
-Effect (Is it helping?)
Ability to identify and make use of strengths and assets to respond to challenges, thereby growing as an individual
*happiness, optimism, self-determination, creativity, self-control, gratitude, forgiveness, and humility
People who are hardy have the “3 Cs”
Hardy people are able to better withstand the onslaught of stressors
-Become ill less often
-Have less psychological distress, increased happiness and adjustment, happier marriages

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