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Cultural Anthropology An Applied Approach Chapters 1-3

4 Branches of Anthropology
Physical Anthropology
Archaeology
Anthropological Linguistics
Cultural Anthropology
5 Sub Branches of Physical Anthroplogy
Paleoanthropology
Primatology
Human variation
Forensic Anthropology
Applied Physical Anthropology
5 Sub Branches of Archeaology
Historical archaeology
Prehistoric archaeology
Contract archaeology
Applied archaeology
Cultural resource management
5 Sub Branches of Anthropological Linguistics
Historical linguistics
Descriptive linguistics
Ethnolinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Applied Linguistics
7 Sub Branches of Cultural Anthropology
Development anthropology
Psychological anthropology
Environmental anthropology
Medical anthropology
Urban anthropology
Political anthropology
Applied anthropology
Physical anthropology (biological anthropology)
The subfield of anthropology that studies both human biological evolution and contemporary physical variations among peoples of the word.
Paleoanthropology
The study of human evolution through fossil remains.
Primatology
The study of nonhuman primates in their natural environments for the purpose of gaining insights into the human evolutionary process.
Race
A subgroup of the human population whose members share a greater number of genes and physical traits with one another than they do with members of other subgroups.
Genetics
The study of inherited physical traits.
Population biology
The study of the interrelationships between population characteristics and environments.
Epidemiology
The study of the occurrence, distribution, and control of disease in populations.
Archaeology
The subfield of anthropology that focuses on the study of prehistoric and historic cultures through the excavation of material remains.
artifact
A type of material remain (found by archaeologists) that has been made or modified by humans, such as tools and arrowheads.
Features
Archaeological remains that have been made or modified by people and cannot easily be carried away, such as house foundations, fireplaces and postholes.
Ecofacts
Physical remains-found by archaeologist-that were used by humans but not made or reworked by them (for example, seeds and bones.)
Cultural resource management
A form of applied archaeology that involves identifying, evaluating and sometimes excavating sites before roads, dams and buildings are constructed.
Anthropological Linguistics
The scientific study of human communication within its sociocultural context.
Historical Linguistics
The branch of anthropological linguistics that studies how languages emerge and change over time.
Glottochronology
The historical linguistic technique of determining the approximate date that two languages diverged by analyzing similarities and differences in their vocabularies.
Descriptive linguistics
The branch of anthropological linguistics that studies how languages are structured.
Ethnolinguistics
The branch of anthropological linguistics that studies the relationship between language and culture.
Sociolinguistics
The branch of anthropological linguistics that studies how language is used in different social contexts.
Ethnography
The anthropological description of a particular contemporary culture by means of direct fieldwork.
Ethnology
The comparative study of cultural differences and similarities.
Cultural anthropology
The scientific study of cultural similarities and differences wherever and in whatever form they may be found.
Paleopathology
The study of disease in prehistoric populations.
Holism
A perspective in anthropology that attempts to study a culture by looking at all parts of the system and how those parts are interrelated.
Ethnocentrism
The practice of viewing the cultural features of other societies in terms of one’s own.
Cultural Relativism
The idea that cultural traits are best understood when viewed within the cultural context of which they are part.
Emic approach
A perspective in ethnography that uses the concepts and categories that are relevant and meaningful to the culture under analysis.
Etic approach
A perspective in ethnography that uses the concpets and categories of the anthropologist’s culture to describe another culture.
Possible Careers in Physical Anthropology
Forensic specialist with law enforcement
Museum curator
Genetic counselor
Human rights investigator
Zoologist/primatologist
Public Health official
Possible Careers in Archaeology
Cultural Resource Manager
Museum Curator
Environmental impact specialist
Historical archaeologist
Contract (salvage) archaeologist
Possible Careers in Anthropological Linguists
ESL Teacher
International business trainer
Foreign language teacher
Cross-cultural advertising/marketing specialist
Translator/interpreter
Possible Careers in Cultural Anthropology
International business consultant
Cross-cultural consultant in hospitals
Museum curator
International economic development worker
Cross-cultural advertising/marketing specialist
Translator/interpreter
Cultural Anthropology
INternational business consultant
Cross-cultural consultant in hospitals
Museum curator
International economic development worker
Cross-cultural trainer
International human resources manager
School educator
Immigration/refugee conselor
How does anthropology help us develop skills and competencies needed for the 21st century?
Develop a broad perspective
Appreciate other perspectives
Balance contradictions
Emphasize global teamwork
Develop cognitive complexity
Develop PErceptual Acuity
Symbol
Something, either verbal or nonverbal, that stands for something else.
Three components of culture
Material Objects (things)
Ideas Values Attitudes (thoughts)
Behavior Patterns (actions)
Civilization
A term used by anthropologists to describe a society that has cities.
Culture shock
A psychological disorientation experienced when attempting to operate in a radically different cultural environment.
Subculture
A subdivision of a national culture that shares some features with the larger society and also differs in some important respects.
Pluralistic societies
Societies composed of a number of different cultural or subcultural groups.
Enculturation
The process by which human infants learn their culture.
Monochronic culture
A culture in which people view time in a linear fashion, place great importance on punctuality and keeping on schedule, and prefer to work on one task at a time.
Polychronic culture
A culture in which people typically perform a number of tasks at the same time and place a higher volume on nurturing and maintaining social relationships than on punctuality for its own sake.
Cultural Universals
Those general cultural traits found in all societies of the world.
Adaptive nature of culture
The implication that culture is the major way human populations adapt or relate to their specific habitat in order to survive and reproduce.
Organic analogy
The early functionalist idea that cultural systems are integrated into a whole cultural unit in much the same way that the various parts of a biological organism (such as respiratory system or a circulatory system) function to maintain the health of the organism.
Invention
A new combination of existing cultural features.
Innovation
A change brought about by the recombination of already existing items within a culture.
Cultural diffusion
The spreading of a cultural trait that (that is, material object, idea, or behavior pattern) from one society to antoher.
Acculturation
A specific form of cultural diffusion in which a subordinate culture adopts many of the cultural traits of a more powerful culture.
Linked changes
Changes in one part of a culture brought about by changes in other parts of the culture.
Small-scale society
A society that has a small population, has minimal technology, is usually preliterate, has little division of labor, and is not highly stratified.
Participant-observation
A fieldwork method in which the cultural anthropologist lives with the people under study and observes their everyday activities.
Applied anthropology
The application of anthropological knowledge, theory, and methods to the solution of specific societal problems.
Problem-oriented research
A type of anthropological research designed to solve a particular societal problem rather than to test a theoretical position.

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