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Cultural Social Reference groups in Marketing Essay

Cultural Social Reference groups

Family Roles and status Personal Age and life-cycle


Economic situation


Personality and self- concept

Psychological Motivation


Learning Beliefs and attitudes

Culture Subculture

Social class

Most basic influences Broadest, deepest

Most specific

Most individual

4 Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior

– Cultural Factors Culture – the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior set of values, perceptions, wants & behavior learned by a member of society learned from family & social institutions) achievement & success, activity & involvement, efficiency & practicality, progress, material comfort, individualism, freedom, humanitarianism, youthfulness, fitness & health

Subculture – groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations (e. G., based on nationality, religion, race, geographic location, age, etc. ) represent important market segments

e. G., Hispanic, African-American, Asian-American

e. G. , Gene Y, Gene X, Baby Boomers, Mature Market

5 Social Class

– Society relatively permanent and ordered divisions, where members share similar values, interests, and behaviors (including buying behavior) Based on resources, power, prestige Measured by 0 Occupation 0 Wealth and income (both amount and source)


 Housing, neighborhood, possessions, values

In U. S. Social classes are loosely defined 0 Lines between social classes are not fixed and rigid 0 High social class mobility – can move up or down

6 Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior

– Cultural Factors Major American Social Classes Factors Influencing Consumer

Behavior- Social Factors

Reference Groups – most influential for purchase and use of Reference Groups – direct (face-to-face) or indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a person’s attitudes or behavior.

Membership groups – Groups with direct influence and to which a person belongs (e. G. , friends, family)

Aspiration groups – Groups an individual wishes to belong to Opinion leaders – Also called influential or leading adopters – People within a reference group who exert social influence on

Buzz marketing : enlisting or creating opinion leaders to spread the word about their brands

Family – most important consumer buying organization in society, and an influential reference group Changing roles and changing family structures

8 Personal Factors

Personal Influences Age and life cycle stage


Economic situation

Personality & self-concept

Brand personality

Family life cycle: transition g changes buyer behavior

Lifestyle – Chirography’s Activities (works, hobbies, shopping, sports, social events) Interests (food, fashion, family, recreation) Opinions (about themselves, social issues, business, products)

9 Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior

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Psychological Factors Motivation – driving force behind behavior, resulting from tension

Motive that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction Freud – unconscious motives Moscow – hierarchy of needs = a need Perception – process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world Selective attention – screen out most of what beliefs and attitudes Selective retention

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior – Measles Hierarchy Of Needs Least Pressing – forget much of what is learned 10 Progress up the hierarchy when lower need is satisfied

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